The mechanism of breathing

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The mechanism of breathing

  1. 1. In your BodyCreated by D.T NyalungaUniversity of JohannesburgCopyrights (2012)
  2. 2. Why do we have to breathe?You have to breathe because allthe cells in your body requireoxygen. Without oxygen, your bodywouldn’t move. It would be like aparked car without a battery.
  3. 3. The cycle of breathing Air Co2 from Exhaled out lungs Nose air Trachea Co2 lungs O2 O2 O2
  4. 4.  The must be a large surface area, in man this is created by the presence of the alveoli. (We focus on it later.) The must a thin moist layer for the diffusion of gases, The surface must be adequately ventilated. For effective mechanism of inhalation and exhalation Camphell & Reece (2010). The gaseous exchange must be richly supplied with blood vessels, for transport The organ must be properly protected , in man the lungs are situated in an airtight chest cavity and are well protected by the ribs and sternum Mader s.s (2008).
  5. 5. Organ Function1.Nasal passage For Inhalation (Oxygen) and exhalation (carbon dioxide).2.pharynx Contain epiglottis which closes the food passage when breathing3.Trachea C-shaped cartilage rings, for moistening the air and trapping dust.4.Bronchi and bronchioli Convey air to the lungs5. Lungs Its moist to facilitated the diffusion of gases, between lungs and the blood capillaries.
  6. 6. The breathing system
  7. 7. The lungs are two grey, spongy, elastic organs situated in the chestcavity. They are protected by the ribs and sternum. The lowersection consist of diaphragm, surrounded by a double membranecalled pleura membrane. The right lung is divided into three whilethe left is divided into two.
  8. 8. The lungs and the alveolus
  9. 9. Transportation of oxygen andcarbon dioxide in the alveolus.We, and all respiring organisms, need oxygen to live. When we breathe in air, alveoli in ourlungs exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen, as shown here in this diagram
  10. 10. Oxygen can only be transported in two ways.1. A small percentage is conveyed in solution in the blood plasma.2. Most of the oxygen transported in a form of oxyhaemoglobin.Carbon dioxide can be transported in three ways.1. Small percentage is transported in a solution in the blood plasma.2. Some transported as carbamino haemoglobin.3. Most carbon dioxide is transported as Bicarbonate Ions in the erythrocytes.
  11. 11. Pulmonary Diseases1Bronchitis cigarette smoke and other pathogens irritants the movement ofcilia. Which lines the bronchial tubes. Thus mucus blocks the bronchial tubesand then infections develops.
  12. 12. 2.Emphysema repeated coughing due to aveola bust. when a lot of alveoladestroyed the heart does not get enough oxygen, therefore it could result tocardiac arrest.
  13. 13. 3. Asthma causes by irritants such as smoke, pollen, dust and allergies. The airways become narrow which make breathing difficult.
  14. 14. 4. Cancer is the most known respiratory diseases which affects our lifedaily. Hence there many types of cancer but it is known that smoking isthe most cause of cancer.
  15. 15. PNEUMONIA

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