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Long Arm of the Segregated Suburb

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Professor of Sociology Ryszard Szulkin (University of Stockholm) spoke on segregated housing and future careers as a keynote speaker on Demos Helsinki´s and e2´s future course for decision makers on migration.

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Long Arm of the Segregated Suburb

  1. 1. The ’long arm’ of immigrant-dense suburb? Educational and labor market careers of young immigrants educated in Sweden Martin Hällsten Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI) Department of Sociology, Stockholm University Ryszard Szulkin Department of Sociology, Stockholm University Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies (SULCIS)
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Sweden a country of immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid increase in the number of immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion polls more favorable towards immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No major anti-immigration political party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow labor market integration/large numbers outside the labor market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A anti-immigration political party may enter Parliament in 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No restrictions to enter labor market for citizens from new EU-countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New very liberal rules from December 15, 2008. Get a job offer and you get a residence permit. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Percentage immigrants in different countries
  4. 4. Immigrants in Sweden <ul><li>Political refugees, labor immigrants, marriage migration or family reunion </li></ul><ul><li>Major countries of origin: </li></ul><ul><li>Finland, former Yugoslavia, Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Chile </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey, Iran, Iraq </li></ul>
  5. 5. Population in Sweden by country of birth in thousands. Selected years
  6. 6. Research Problem <ul><li>Differences in educational attainment and labor market careers between young people who have grown up in immigrant and native families. Why ? </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><li>Families </li></ul><ul><li>Other aspect of social environment: neighborhoods and schools. Ethnic and social segregation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mechanisms that (re)produce social inequality between generations Family: Education Economy Ethnic background Social Context: Neighborhood School Children: Grades Children : Level of education L A B O R M A R K E T
  8. 8. Research Question <ul><li>What explains inequality in outcomes between immigrant children and children with Swedish background? - Family vs. neighbourhood explanations - Education vs. labour market outcomes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Data <ul><li>STAR-register database </li></ul><ul><li>Population data! (n=543111) </li></ul><ul><li>All individuals who finished compulsory school 1990-1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes measured 2007. Individuals’ studied 29-33 years old </li></ul>
  10. 10. Data (cont’d) <ul><li>Independents: measured 1990-95 </li></ul><ul><li>Family characteristics: - Parents highest education - Single father/mother </li></ul><ul><li>- Employment status - Family’s disposable income </li></ul><ul><li>GPA from 9th grade </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood characteristics </li></ul>
  11. 11. Data (cont’d) <ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>- Probability of taking university degree </li></ul><ul><li>- Probability of employment </li></ul><ul><li>- Earnings from labor </li></ul>
  12. 12. University degree 2007 0.0 1.8** -0.5 -7.1** Second generation -0.7* -0.8* -1.5** -7.5** Finns 0.237 0.119 0.110 0.026 R2 X GPA 9th grade X X Neighbourhood characteristics X X X Family ’s situation: education, employ- ment, income etc. -0.7* -3.6** -3.9** -9.5** First generation Diff. % Diff. % Diff. % Diff. % Swedish background
  13. 13. Employment 2007 -1.0 -0.8 -3.4** -4.9** Finns 0.070 0.063 0.054 0.011 R2 X Neighbourhood characteristics X X Family ’s situation: education, employ- ment, income etc. X X X Own education -2.9** -4.4** -7.5** -8.7** Second generation -4.8** -5.7** -10.2** -12.4** First generation Diff. % Diff. % Diff. % Diff. % Swedish background
  14. 14. Earnings 2007 -0.1 0.6 -0.1 -3.0** Finns 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.13 R2 X Neighbourhood characteristics X X Family ’s situation: education, employ- ment, income etc. X X X Own education 1.7* 1.5 -0.3 -1.5 Second generation -3.6** -3.8** -5.1** -9.4** First generation Diff. % Diff. % Diff. % Diff. % Swedish background
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>Inequality between children of Swedish background and of immigrant background due to differences in family resources rather than segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Inequality larger in employment than in education (employer is agent – discrimination?) </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation does quite well in terms of earnings </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conclusions (cont’d) <ul><li>Inequality arises on early levels of educational system </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation: Families’ social position rather than ‘ethnicity’ </li></ul><ul><li>In sum: long arm of the family of origin and rather short arm of the socially impoverished neighborhood </li></ul>
  17. 17. What to do on the side of social policy? <ul><li>Education in focus: Equality of educational opportunity! </li></ul><ul><li>To influence children or to change parents’ situation? </li></ul><ul><li>On the parents’ side: programmes against long term unemployment </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>On the children’s side: </li></ul><ul><li>Early interventions to improve cognitive ability: various kinds of pre-school, early learning programmes. Day-care centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Late interventions to increase the probability of continuation to academic studies among high ability children from families with limited resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, there may be good reasons to counteract extreme forms of ethnic residential segregation. However, one should not expect these policies to have rapid in terms of immigrant children’s achievements in the educational system and on the labor market. </li></ul>

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