THE SILENT WAYLíbia LopesNelson Carlos dos SantosProf. Dra. Barbra Sabota
Tell me and I forgetteach me and I rememberinvolve me and I learn
BACKGROUND Caleb Gattegno “The Silent Way it is based on the premise that the teacher should be silent as much as possible in the classroom and the learner should be encouraged to produce as much language as possible.” (Richards; ROGERS, 2007, p.81).
BACKGROUND Learning hypotheses:1) Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned. According Richard; Rogers (2009), Jerome Bruner distinguishes two traditions of teaching:
BACKGROUND Expository mode: “The student is the listener” Hypothetical mode: Views learning as a problem-solving, creative, discovering activity, in which the learner is principal actor rather than a bench-bound listener.
BACKGROUND2) Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. The rods and the color-coded charts (Fidel charts), provide physical foci for student learning and also create memorable images to facilitated student recall.3) Learning is facilitated involving the material by problem solving to be learned. The learner’s grappling with the problem of forming an appropriate and meaningful utterance in a new language, leads the learner to realization of the language.
Theory of language The “spirit” of the language “Semi-luxury vocabulary”: commom expressions in the daily life “Luxury vocabulary”: used in communicating more specialized ideas “Functional vocabulary”: learners deals with the most functional and versatile words of the language that almost don’t have direct equivalents in the learner’s native tongue.
Theory of learning A successful learning involves commitment of the self to language acquisition through the use of silent awareness and then active trial. Silence as avoidance repetition is an aid to alertness, concentration and mental organization. Silent Way learners acquire “inner criteria”. Gattegno sees language learning through the Silent Way as a recovery of innocence – “a return to our powers and potentials.”
Objectives General objective: to give beginning level students oral and aural facility in basic elements of the target language The general goal set for language learning is near-native fluency in the target language, correct pronunciation and mastery of the prosodic elements of the target language. Immediate objective: provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar of the target language.
The syllabus Structural syllabus: lesson planned around grammatical items and related vocabulary. Language items: introduced according to their grammatical complexity and their relationship to what has been taught previously. The imperative: is normally the first structure introduced, because of the ease with action verbs may be demonstrated using Silent Way materials. Numeration and prepositions of location Vocabulary
Types of learning and teaching activities Learners go on to create their own utterances by putting together old and new informations. The teacher models a word, phrase, or sentence and then elicits learner responses. Charts, rods, and other aids may be used to elicit learner responses. Teacher modeling is minimal, although much of the activity may be teacher directed.
Learner role Learners are expected to develop independence, autonomy and responsibility. Independent learners are aware that they must depend on their own resources and realize that they can use the knowledge of their own language to open up some things in a new language.
Learner role Autonomous learners choose proper expressions in a given set of circumstances and situations. Responsible learners know that they have free will to choose among any set of linguistic choices, the ability to choose intelligently and carefully is said to be evidence of responsibility.
Teacher role Teacher silence is, perhaps, the most demanding aspect of the Silent Way. Teacher silently monitors learners’ interactions. “Teaching” meant to present an item once, using typically nonverbal clues to get across meaning. So, he uses gestures, charts and manipulates in order to elicit and shape student responses.
Teacher role The teachers’ role is one of neutral observer, neither elated by correct performance nor discouraged by error. According Stevick (1980, p.56), Silent Way teacher’s tasks are:(a) to teach(b) to test(c) to get out of the way
The role of the students The role of the students is to make use of what they know, to free themselves of any obstacles that would interfere with giving their utmost to the learning task, and to actively engage in exploring the language.
ADVANTAGES This method fosters cooperative learning between individuals. It embodies a new approach to education in general, a respect for the individual and an awareness of the individual‟s extraordinary cognitive powers. If it is succeeded to teach the language the by using the rods without repeating too much, it will really save time and energy for both teachers students. […]. The self-esteem of the students will be increased and this will enhance learning. By this way students will say „I learned instead of I was taught well.‟ (Demircan1990).
DISADVANTAGES For some teachers the rigidity of the system (no repetitions by the teacher, no answers by the teacher etc.) may be meaningless. How such a method would in the average classroom situation, or how successfully it might be used at more advanced levels is a question mark left in our minds. Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations usually by rods.
Instructional materials Sound-color chart Word chart Fidelcharts (color-coded pronunciation charts) Pointer / Rod
Experience Video class with the method the silent Way - LARSEN-FREEMAN, Diane. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching.
Conclusion ( feedback ofthe Silent Way) Activities 1- There are many reasons for the teacher‟s silence in the Silent Way. Some of these have been stated explicitly in this chapter; others have been implied. Can you state the reasons? 2- What does the phrase, “Teaching is subordinated to learning”, mean? 3- One of the mottos of the Silent Way is “The teacher works with the students; the students work on the language”. What do you think this means?
REFERÊNCIAS CALEB GATTEGNO - THE SILENT WAY. Disponível em:http://www.saudicaves.com/silentway/ Acesso em 30 de Setembro de 2009. FREITAS, Lúcia G. de Freitas. Metodologias de Ensino de Língua Estrangeira. Disponível em: <http://www.geocities.com/luciafreitasbr/Textos/metdeensdling.ht m>. Acesso em: 28 set. 2009. LARSEN-FREEMAN, Diane. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. 2 ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 53-72 p. RICHARDS, Jack C.; RODGERS, Theodore S. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. 2 ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 81-89 p. Disponível em: <http://books.google.com.br/books?id=9mQ9l3K73BoC&printsec =frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=true>. Acesso em: 28 set. 2009.
REFERÊNCIAS The Silent Way. Disponível em: <http://www.englishraven.com/method_silent.html>. Acesso em: 28 set. 2009. The Silent Way. Disponível em: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Silent_Way>. Acesso em: 28 set.2009. VILAÇA, Márcio Luiz Corrêa. Métodos de Ensino de Línguas Estrangeiras: fundamentos, críticas e ecletismo: The Silent Way (Early 1960. Rio de Janeiro: Revista Eletronica do Instituto de Humanidades, 2005. Disponível em: <http://publicacoes.unigranrio.edu.br/index.php/reihm/arti cle/viewFile/43/78>. Acesso em: 28 set. 2009.