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  1. 1. SECTION FOUR 4. Recruitment and Selection Objectives  Define recruitment of human resource  State sources of recruitment  Identify steps involved in selection process  Describe selection and its methods  Explain human resource placement 1 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  2. 2. 4.1Meaning of Recruitment  Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualification, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization.  The objective of this recruitment process is to provide a sufficiently large group of qualified candidates so that suitable employees can be selected out of them. 2 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  3. 3. Cont’d  The need for recruitment arises out of the following situations: ◦ Vacancies due to transfer, promotion, retirement, termination, permanent disability or death. ◦ Vacancies due to expansion, diversification, growth or job re- specification. 3 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  4. 4. Cont’d • Factors Influencing HR Recruitment: A. External Influences ◦ Government and union restrictions ◦ Labour market conditions ◦ Location of the organization B. Internal Influences ◦ Organization policies and practices ◦ Organizational image 4 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  5. 5. 4.2 The Recruitment Process Recruitment process is a process of identifying the jobs vacancy, analyzing the job requirements, reviewing applications, screening, short-listing and selecting the right candidate. 5 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  6. 6. Cont’d  It is recommended that the HR team of an organization follows the five best practices:  increase the efficiency of hiring,  ensure successful recruitment without any interruptions  ensure consistency and compliance in the recruitment process 6 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  7. 7. Cont’d 7 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  8. 8. Cont’d I. Recruitment Planning  It is the first step of the recruitment process, where the vacant positions are analyzed and described.  It includes job specifications and its nature, experience, qualifications and skills required for the job, etc.  A structured recruitment plan is mandatory to attract potential candidates from a pool of candidates. 8 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  9. 9. Cont’d II. Recruitment Strategy  It is the second step of the recruitment process, where a strategy is prepared for hiring the resources.  The next step is to decide which strategy to adopt for recruiting the potential candidates for the organization. 9 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  10. 10. Cont’d III. Searching the Right Candidates  Searching is the process of recruitment where the resources are sourced depending upon the requirement of the job.  Searching involves attracting the job seekers to the vacancies. The sources are broadly divided into two categories: internal sources and external sources. 10 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  11. 11. Cont’d  Searching process consists of two steps: ◦ Source activation: Once the line manager verifies and permits the existence of the vacancy, the search for candidates starts. ◦ Selling: Here, the organization selects the media through which the communication of vacancies reaches the prospective candidates. 11 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  12. 12. Cont’d IV. Screening /Short-listing  It is the process of filtering the applications of the candidates for further selection process.  It is an integral part of recruitment process that helps in removing unqualified or irrelevant candidates, which were received through sourcing. 12 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  13. 13. Cont’d V. Evaluation and Control  In this process, the effectiveness and the validity of the process and methods are assessed.  Recruitment is a costly process, hence it is important that the performance of the recruitment process is thoroughly evaluated.  The costs incurred in the recruitment process are to be evaluated and controlled effectively. 13 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  14. 14. Cont’d  Finally, the question that is to be asked is, whether the recruitment methods used are valid or not?  And whether the recruitment process itself is effective or not?  Statistical information on the costs incurred for the process of recruitment should be effective. 14 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  15. 15. 4.3 Sources of Recruitment 1. Internal Recruitment Sources a. Internal Recruitment Sources. These include personnel already on the pay-roll of an organization, i.e., its present working force.  Whenever any vacancy occurs, somebody from within the organization ID upgraded, transferred, promoted or sometimes demoted. 15 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  16. 16. Cont’d  What are the major advantages and disadvantages of internal recruitment? 16 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  17. 17. Advantages:  Improves the probability of a good selection since all the necessary information on employ’s performance and behaviour is readily available.  It tends to increase the moral of employees who perceive possibilities of promotion and growth.  It motivates present employees to work toward and prepare themselves for promotion.  Internal candidates do not need the extensive familiarization with organizational policies and politics; 17 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  18. 18. Disadvantages:  It may not bring the new ideas or innovation that external recruits bring. The employee tends to demonstrate on the job only what he has learned in the organization and has few new ideas.  Inadequacy of supply would also arise since fewer people would be available to choose from as opposite to external recruitment;  Recruiting friends/relatives of present employees may often create unnecessary tensions and charges of favouritism, 18 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  19. 19. 2. External Recruitment Sources and Methods a. Sources of External Recruitment  External recruitment is attracting applicants from various sources outside the organization.  The vacancy is usually announced on Television, Radio, Internet, Newspaper, Magazines, etc.  At times, an organization must look for beyond itself to find employees, particularly 19 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  20. 20. Cont’d  The following circumstances require external recruitment: ◦ to fill entry level jobs. ◦ to acquire skills not possessed by current employees. ◦ to obtain employees with different backgrounds to provide new ideas. 20 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  21. 21. Cont’d  Organizations may attract employees from a variety of external sources: ◦ high schools and vocational schools, ◦ colleges and universities, ◦ competitors and other firms, and ◦ the unemployed. 21 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  22. 22. Advantages:  Outside people can often bring new and innovative ideas to the workplace.  New employees are less likely to be involved in company politics.  It may be less expensive to hire a well trained specialist or professional from outside the organization than to train and develop existing personnel. 22 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  23. 23. Disadvantages:  If existing employees reject the new comers, then the newcomer may learn not to contribute or learn that his/her expectation will not be met.  An externally recruited employee requires a great deal of time to become initiated into the way things are in the organization.  When newcomers are selected over popular “insiders,” the work group may resent their presence and attempt directly or indirectly to force them to leave. 23 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  24. 24. b. Internal Recruitment Methods Skills Inventory: is information maintained on non-managerial employees in a company regarding their availability and preparedness to move them laterally or into higher-level positions.  It includes information about a worker such as: ◦ Background and biographical data ◦ Work experience ◦ Specific skills and knowledge ◦ Licenses or certifications held ◦ Training programs completed ◦ Previous performance appraisal24 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  25. 25. Cont’d  A properly designed and updated skills inventory system permits management to readily identify employees with particular skills and match them as well as possible to the changing needs of the company. Job posting: Job posting is a procedure for informing employees that job opening exist. 25 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  26. 26. Cont’d  If care has not been taken to ensure that the most qualified applicant is not chosen, the system will lack credibility.  Even successful implementation of such a system cannot completely eliminate complaints. 26 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  27. 27. b. Methods of External Recruitment  Advertisement: It communicates the firm’s employment needs to the public through media such as radio, newspapers, television, magazines, journals and other publications. However, these advertisements generally attract a large number of unqualified applicants, and increase the cost and time involved in processing them. The advertisement should therefore, be specific and include sufficient detail. 27 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  28. 28. Cont’d  Employment Agencies: It is an organization that helps firms recruit employees and, at the same time, aids individuals in their attempts to locate jobs. These agencies perform many recruitment and selection functions that have proven quite beneficial to many organizations. Employment agencies are of two types- public and private. 28 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  29. 29. Cont’d  Internship: It is a special form of recruiting in which a student is placed in a temporary job. In this arrangement, there is no obligation by the company to hire the student permanently or by the student to accept a permanent position with the firm following graduation. It typically involves a temporary job for the summer months or a part-time job during the school year. 29 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  30. 30. Cont’d Employee Referrals Programs (ERP): It is basically a word-of-mouth technique in which present employees refer candidates from outside the organization. This technique is relatively inexpensive and can be quite effective in quickly finding candidates in particular skill areas that may be needed within the organization. 30 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  31. 31. Cont’d  In addition, employees who are hired through such referrals tend to stay with the organization longer and display greater loyalty and job satisfaction than employees who are recruited by other means.  However, a disadvantage of this source is that current employees tend to refer people who are demographically similar to themselves, which can create equal employment opportunity (EEO) problem. 31 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  32. 32. Cont’d  Internet Recruiting: Finding well- qualified applicants quickly at the lowest possible cost is a primary goal for recruiters. Recent trends indicate that, if you're looking for a job in the technical field or to fill a technical job, you need to consider using the Internet. The same may will be true for non- technical jobs in the near future. 32 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  33. 33. Alternatives to Recruitment  Overtime: It is the most frequently used method to deal with temporary increases in demands for goods and services. The employer may benefit by avoiding recruitment, selection, and training costs. The employee may benefit from a higher rate of pay.  Subcontracting: The firm may choose to subcontract the work to someone else. This arrangement often has considerable benefits for both parties. 33 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  34. 34. Cont’d  Temporary Employees: This method is a way of getting temporary help through other organizations that specialized in finding employees. This worker pool can be a relatively inexpensive means to meet sudden demands for organizational products.  Employee Leasing: An alternative to recruitment that has grown in popularity in recent years. In employee leasing, a company obtains certain workers by contracting for the services of another 34 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  35. 35. 4.4 Selection Methods 5.4.1The Meaning of Selection  Define human resources selection and explain its implications in HRM. 35 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  36. 36. Cont’d  Employee selection is the process of determining which individuals, either inside the organization or outside, are to staff the organization.  The purpose of employee selection is to select the candidates that are most likely to aid the organization in furthering its objectives. 36 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  37. 37. Cont’d  Selecting qualified and competent employees improves the benefits an organization reaps/gathers.  Selection decision is a long lasting decision. Once the decision is made reversing it is very difficult.  If an organization hires poor performers, it cannot be successful long, even if it has a perfect plans and good control systems. 37 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  38. 38. Cont’d  In today’s business what makes the real difference is the kind of human resource you have, not technology or financial resource.  Selection affects other HR functions. If less qualified people are selected, then it will be necessary to budget funds for training them. 38 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  39. 39. Cont’d Environmental factors affecting the selection process:  Legal Considerations: HRM is influenced by legislation, executive orders, and court decisions.  Speed of Decision Making: The time available to make the selection decision can have a major effect on selection process.  Organizational Hierarchy: Different methods of selection are taken for filling positions at varying levels in the organization. 39 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  40. 40. Cont’d  Applicant Pool (Labour Market): The number of qualified applicants for a particular job can also affect the selection process. When the applicants are very few, the selection process becomes a matter of choosing whoever is at hand.  Probationary Period: Many firms use a probationary period that permits them to evaluate an employee’s ability based on established performance. 40 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  41. 41. Cont’d  Probationary period is required for either of the following two reasons. 1. A substitute for certain phases of the selection process (if the an individual can successfully perform the job during the probationary period, other selection tools may not be needed)...OR... 2. A check on the validity of the selection process (to determine whether the hiring decision was a good one). 41 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  42. 42. Cont’d The Selection Process  In selection process, the sequence of steps may vary from one organization to another, the following is a popular procedure though it may be modified to suit individual situations. Step 1: Preliminary selection: It is often done by setting minimum standards for the job, and communicating these standards to your employees, and agencies who help you recruit. 42 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  43. 43. Cont’d  The fact that some potential applicants may not apply because of their inability to meet the minimum requirements serves as an initial screening device.  Then, when reviewing resumes and application forms, firms are further able to screen out unacceptable job candidates. 43 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  44. 44. Cont’d Step 2: Employment Tests: Are often used to assist in assessing an applicant’s qualification and potential for success.  These selection tests for applicants measure only employee characteristics.  The test must ensure that the individual employee has a meaningful impact on work outcomes. 44 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  45. 45. Cont’d Step 3: Employee Interview: The employment interview is conducted to learn more about the suitability of people under consideration for a particular job and is one further obstacle for the applicant to overcome. 45 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  46. 46. Cont’d  The interview is one further means of reducing the number of people who might be eligible for the job.  The specific content of employment interview can vary from organization to organization and from one job to another. 46 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  47. 47. Cont’d Step 4: Verification of References: Questions like what kind of person is the applicant and is the applicant a good and/or reliable worker need answers to know more about the applicant. Step 5: Medical Evaluation: It is health and accident information of the selected employee supplemented by a physical examination. 47 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  48. 48. Cont’d Step 6: Supervisory Interview: Since the immediate supervisor is ultimately responsible for new workers, he or she should have input into the hiring decision.  The supervisor is better able to evaluate the applicant’s technical capabilities and is in a better position to answer the interviewee’s job-related questions. 48 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  49. 49. Cont’d Step 7: Realistic Job Preview: The realistic job preview involves showing the applicant(s) the job site in order to acquaint them with the work setting, commonly used equipment, and prospective co-workers. Step 8: Hiring Decision: The actual hiring of an applicant constitutes the end of the selection process. At this stage, successful (as well as unsuccessful) applicants must be notified of the firm’s decision. 49 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)
  50. 50. 4.5 Placement  Placement refers to the assignment or reassignment of an employee to a new job.  Employee placement is mainly decided jointly by both the employee's immediate supervisor and the top management.  In this case, the human resource department should provide advice and counselling services regarding employee assignment or reassignment. 50 11/30/2022 Solomon A. (Asst. Prof.)