o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  b e h a v i o r e l e v e n t h  e d i t i o n
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT “ An Organization is more stable if members have the right to express their differences and solve thei...
<ul><li>“  Conflict may be understood as collision or  disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict may be within an indivi...
<ul><li>CHUNG & MEGGINSON definition of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>“ The struggle between incompatible or opposing needs, ...
<ul><li>Cognitive conflicts refer to differences in perspective or judgments about issues. Cognitive conflict can air legi...
<ul><li>Conflicts arises from many sources, including organizational structure, unavoidable differences in goals, differen...
Potential benefits of conflict are the following <ul><li>Conflict motivates organizational members to consider problems. T...
A B C LOW HIGH LOW HIGH Organizational  performance Level of conflict RELATION BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE & CONFLICT
There is a close relationship between conflict & organizational performance as shown in the figure Organizational performa...
<ul><li>In th </li></ul><ul><li>We may call these the FOUR CLASSES OF CONFLICT. </li></ul><ul><li>e management literature,...
<ul><li>NATURE OF CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>In an organizational context, the board features of conflict are as under: </...
<ul><li>Intra-psychic conflict  i.e. conflict with an individual. There could be conflict within an individual himself suc...
<ul><li>3)  Conflict between individual & group </li></ul><ul><li>This type of intra-group conflict arises due to an indiv...
Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional Conflict Con...
<ul><li>The   inter-group conflict arises when: </li></ul><ul><li>There is an existence of a positive felt need for joint ...
Conflict and Negotiation
<ul><li>Define conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist view...
<ul><li>Identify the five steps in the negotiating process. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe cultural differences in negotiation...
<ul><li>Conflict Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has ne...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication </li></ul><ul><li>...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Human Relations View of Conflict The belief that conflict is a natural ...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and i...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Task Conflict Conflicts over content and goals of the work. Relationshi...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T  14 –1
<ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Conflict Definition Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– <ul><li>Cooperativeness: </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to satisfy the ot...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T  14 –2 Source:  K. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Proc...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Accommodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the o...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Conflict Management The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T  14 –3 Source:  Based on S.P. Robbins,  Managing Organiza...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– <ul><li>Conflict Resolution Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solvin...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– <ul><li>Conflict Resolution Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Communication ...
<ul><li>Functional Outcomes from Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased group performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imp...
<ul><li>Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of discontent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Negotiation A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or se...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amo...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T  14 –5 Bargaining  Distributive  Integrative Characterist...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T  14 –6
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T  14 –7
<ul><li>The Role of Personality Traits in Negotiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits do not appear to have a significantly d...
<ul><li>Italians, Germans, and French don’t soften up executives with praise before they criticize. Americans do, and to m...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Mediator A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Consultant An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, wh...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T  14 –9
<ul><li>When quick, decisive action is vital (in emergencies); on important issues.  </li></ul><ul><li>Where unpopular act...
<ul><li>To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing. </li></ul><ul><li>When you perceive no chance of ...
<ul><li>When you find you’re wrong and to allow a better position to be heard. </li></ul><ul><li>To learn, and to show you...
<ul><li>When goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Modern organization are full of stressors .stress is a contagion , a black plaque , spreading like wildfire and sp...
<ul><li>Stress is one’s reaction to stressors and consequence of such reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of stress varies ...
<ul><li>Stress is an individual’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment , and the consequence of such reactio...
<ul><li>The physical or psychological demands from the environment that cause stress are called stressors. </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Stress is said to be positive when situation offers an opportunity for one to gain something.  </li></ul><ul><li>E...
<ul><li>Stress is not simply anxiety or nervous tension – these symptoms do not constitute stress . People exhibiting thes...
<ul><li>Stress is not always due to overwork – stress out individuals are not those who are overworked . Stress may also r...
<ul><li>Body has limited capacity to respond – stress is body’s biological response mechanisms. But the body has only limi...
<ul><li>Not all individuals experience stress with same intensity. Some people overact to stressors and get highly stresse...
 
<ul><li>Perception refers to a psychological process whereby a person selects and organizes stimuli into a concept reality...
<ul><li>Whether a person experiences stress depends on his or her past experience with a similar stressor . </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>The relationship between experience and stress is also based on reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforc...
<ul><li>The presence or absence of other people influences how individuals in work place experience stress and respond to ...
<ul><li>Individual differences in motivation , attitudes, personality and abilities also influence whether employees exper...
As illustrated in coming diagram , stressors lead to stress , which in turn , lead to a variety of consequences.
 
<ul><li>Stressors originate at individual , group , organizational and extra – organizational levels. </li></ul><ul><li>IN...
<ul><li>Always moves, walks and eats rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Feels impatient with the pace of things, hurries others, d...
<ul><li>Is not concerned about time. </li></ul><ul><li>Is patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not brag </li></ul><ul><li>Play ...
<ul><li>ROLE OVERLOAD – too much of work causes stress to an employee . </li></ul><ul><li>Excess work load has become the ...
<ul><li>ROLE CONFLICT-  two types of role conflict  </li></ul><ul><li>Inter – role conflict  - occurs when an employee has...
<ul><li>ROLE AMBIQUITY – exists when employees are uncertain about their responsibilities , functions , performance expect...
<ul><li>Group level stressors are caused by group dynamics and managerial behaviors. Managers create stress for employees ...
<ul><li>Sexual harassment is yet another group level stressor .  </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment refers to unwelcome c...
<ul><li>Another serious interpersonal stressor is the rising wave of physical violence and aggression in the work place . ...
<ul><li>Organizational stressors affect large number of employees . Organizational climate is a prime  EX: A high pressure...
<ul><li>Organizational structure – defines the level of differentiation , the degree of rules and regulations , and where ...
<ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP – represents the managerial style of the organization’s senior executives .  </li></ul><...
<ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE-CYCLE – organizations like human beings , pass through a life cycle . </li></ul><ul><li>The li...
<ul><li>Extra- organizational stressors are caused by factors outside the organization . For instance conflicts associated...
BURNOUT IS TROUBLESOME OUTCOME OF STRESS. IT IS A STATE OF MIND RESULTING FROM PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO INTENSE EMOTIONAL STR...
<ul><li>Attitude Description </li></ul><ul><li>Fatalism A feeling that you lack control over your work. </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
<ul><li>Stress Burnout </li></ul><ul><li>The person feels fatigued The individual encounters chronic exhaustion. </li></ul...
<ul><li>Physical  Emotional  Mental  Relational  Spiritual  Behavioural  </li></ul><ul><li>Signs Signs Signs Signs Signs S...
<ul><li>Individual strategies to cope with stress include  </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCLE RELAXATION </li></ul><ul><li>BIOFEEDBA...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements in the physical work environment; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><...
 
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress is one’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment and the consequences of such re...
Presented by: Avantika Gupta
<ul><ul><li>Conflict begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively ...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Individual level– intra individual conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal level – inte...
<ul><ul><li>Within every individual there are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of competing needs and roles  </li></ul...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Conflict due to frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Role-conflict </li></ul>
<ul><li>Intra-sender role conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different messages from a single member of the role set are incom...
<ul><li>Inter-role conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role pressures associated with membership in one group are incompatible ...
<ul><li>Approach-Approach Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-Avoidance Con...
<ul><li>Approach–approach conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual must choose among alternatives, each of which is ex...
<ul><li>Approach–avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual must decide whether to do something that has both ...
<ul><ul><li>Sources of Interpersonal Conflicts  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal differences  </li></ul></ul></ul><...
OPEN BLIND HIDDEN UNKNOWN KNOWN TO OTHERS NOT-KNOWN TO OTHERS NOT-KNOWN TO SELF KNOWN TO SELF JOHRI WINDOW- JOSEPH LUFT AN...
<ul><li>Accommodation – surrender one's own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance –...
<ul><li>Collaboration – work together to find a mutually beneficial solution. While some views suggest that collaboration ...
<ul><ul><li>Competition – assert one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. It can be useful when achieving one'...
<ul><ul><li>Model the attitudes and behaviours you want your employees to emulate  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the...
<ul><ul><li>Address the conflict in a timely way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from conflict  </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/shidan99/conflict-management-365254 </li></ul><ul><li>http://markbiz.files.wordpress.com...
 
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Session 8 conflicts and negotiations n stress mgt

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Session 8 conflicts and negotiations n stress mgt

  1. 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r e l e v e n t h e d i t i o n
  2. 2. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT “ An Organization is more stable if members have the right to express their differences and solve their conflicts within it”
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Conflict may be understood as collision or disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict may be within an individual when there is incompatibility between his/her own goals or events; may be between two individuals, when one does not see eye to eye with one another, and in the process tries to block or frustrate the attempt of another; or between two groups in an organization </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>CHUNG & MEGGINSON definition of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>“ The struggle between incompatible or opposing needs, wishes, ideas, interest or people. Conflict arises when individual or groups encounter goals that both parties cannot obtain satisfactorily” </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cognitive conflicts refer to differences in perspective or judgments about issues. Cognitive conflict can air legitimate differences of opinion & develop better ideas & solution to problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Affective conflicts is emotional & directed at other people. Affective conflict is likely to be destructive because it can leads to anger, bitterness, goal displacement & poor decisions </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Conflicts arises from many sources, including organizational structure, unavoidable differences in goals, differences in perception and values of specialization personnel and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts contributes & detracts from organizational performance in varying degrees. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Potential benefits of conflict are the following <ul><li>Conflict motivates organizational members to consider problems. They are energized & psychologically focused on the problems& motivated to put plans into action </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict promotes change, people are more aware of injustice, inefficiencies & frustrations and see the need to correct them </li></ul><ul><li>High quality decisions results when person express their opposing views & perspective. They share their information & check each other’s reasoning to develop new decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts stimulate interest & creativity. Being in conflict often sparks curiosity & stimulates viewing problems from several perspective & combining the best of these positions to form a creative solution </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is exciting as people learn about what makes them & others angry, frustrated and willing to fight </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict provides forum for all members of the organization to be self-critical & to be critical of the organization as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts increases awareness what problems exists, who is involved & how to solve the problem </li></ul>
  8. 8. A B C LOW HIGH LOW HIGH Organizational performance Level of conflict RELATION BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE & CONFLICT
  9. 9. There is a close relationship between conflict & organizational performance as shown in the figure Organizational performance is low when conflict is extremely high or extremely low, while moderate or optimum level of conflict contributes to high organizational performance When the level of conflict is low, such as in the point “A” on the curve, performance suffers because of a lack of arousal & stimulation. Employees find the environment too comfortable & they become complacent. When they are not challenged and confronted, they fail to search for environment changes When the conflict is high (point C), performance suffers because of inadequate coordination & cooperation. The organization is in a state of chaos because of disruption and interference productive work Maximum organizational performance occurs somewhere between these two extremes, where there is an optimal level of conflict. In this situation, at Point B on the curve, there is sufficient conflict to stimulate new ideas & a creative search for solution to problems
  10. 10. <ul><li>In th </li></ul><ul><li>We may call these the FOUR CLASSES OF CONFLICT. </li></ul><ul><li>e management literature, the term “conflict” has been used to describe </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent condition, e.g.: scarcity of resources, policy differences among individuals, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective states of the individuals involved e.g. stress, tension, hostility (unfriendly), anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive states of individuals i.e. their perception of awareness of conflict situations, and </li></ul><ul><li>Changed behavior ranging form passive (inactive) resistance to overt (shown openly) aggression </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>NATURE OF CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>In an organizational context, the board features of conflict are as under: </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between two individuals implies that they have conflicting perception values and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict owns when individuals are least able to choose the alternative course of action </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is a dynamic process & is episode in nature & is made up of a senses of interlocking conflict episodes; and </li></ul><ul><li>The awareness of conflict by the parties is essential prerequisite for conflict to arise </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Intra-psychic conflict i.e. conflict with an individual. There could be conflict within an individual himself such a conflict is often called as intra-psychic conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Inter-personal conflict i.e. conflict between individuals </li></ul><ul><li>The interpersonal conflict takes places owing to several factors, most common are personal dislikes or personal differences, where as differences of opinion between individuals about task related matters, constructed as technical conflict rather than interpersonal conflict. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>3) Conflict between individual & group </li></ul><ul><li>This type of intra-group conflict arises due to an individual inability to conform or adhere to the group’s norm </li></ul><ul><li>4) Inter-group Conflict i.e. conflict between groups within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-group conflicts are the conflicts between different groups or task-group or structures in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the usual & chronic conflicts is most of the organization are found at this level </li></ul>
  14. 14. Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group performance.
  15. 15. <ul><li>The inter-group conflict arises when: </li></ul><ul><li>There is an existence of a positive felt need for joint decision making </li></ul><ul><li>There is differentiation of goals </li></ul><ul><li>There is differences in perception of reality </li></ul><ul><li>5) Conflict between Organization </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict between different organization is considered desirable for the growth of economy </li></ul><ul><li>It is assumed that conflict between organization leads to innovative & new products, technological advancement & better services at lower prices </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conflict and Negotiation
  17. 17. <ul><li>Define conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast task, relationship, and process conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the conflict process. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the five conflict-handling intentions. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
  18. 18. <ul><li>Identify the five steps in the negotiating process. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe cultural differences in negotiations. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d)
  19. 19. <ul><li>Conflict Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is that point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatibility of goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences over interpretations of facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disagreements based on behavioral expectations </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  20. 20. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of openness </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to respond to employee needs </li></ul>Traditional View of Conflict The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided.
  21. 21. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Human Relations View of Conflict The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Interactionist View of Conflict The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.
  22. 22. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group performance.
  23. 23. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Task Conflict Conflicts over content and goals of the work. Relationship Conflict Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Process Conflict Conflict over how work gets done.
  24. 24. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T 14 –1
  25. 25. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and specialization of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member/goal incompatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership styles (close or participative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward systems (win-lose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence/interdependence of groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differing individual value systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality types </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  26. 26. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Conflict Definition Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility. Positive Feelings Negative Emotions
  27. 27. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– <ul><li>Cooperativeness: </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>Assertiveness: </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. </li></ul>Intentions Decisions to act in a given way.
  28. 28. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T 14 –2 Source: K. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology , 2nd ed., vol. 3 (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p. 668. With permission.
  29. 29. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict. Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.
  30. 30. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Accommodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. Compromising A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
  31. 31. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Conflict Management The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.
  32. 32. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T 14 –3 Source: Based on S.P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 93–97; and F. Glasi, “The Process of Conflict Escalation and the Roles of Third Parties,” in G.B.J. Bomers and R. Peterson (eds.), Conflict Management and Industrial Relations (Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1982), pp. 119–40.
  33. 33. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– <ul><li>Conflict Resolution Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Superordinate goals </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Smoothing </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative command </li></ul><ul><li>Altering the human variable </li></ul><ul><li>Altering the structural variables </li></ul>E X H I B I T 14 –4 Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89
  34. 34. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– <ul><li>Conflict Resolution Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing in outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>Restructuring the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Appointing a devil’s advocate </li></ul>E X H I B I T 14 –4 (cont’d) Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89
  35. 35. <ul><li>Functional Outcomes from Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased group performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved quality of decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation of creativity and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement of interest and curiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of a medium for problem-solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating Functional Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  36. 36. <ul><li>Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of discontent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced group effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retarded communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced group cohesiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infighting among group members overcomes group goals </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  37. 37. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Negotiation A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. BATNA The B est A lternative T o a N egotiated A greement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement.
  38. 38. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation. Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution.
  39. 39. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T 14 –5 Bargaining Distributive Integrative Characteristic Characteristic Characteristic Available resources Fixed amount of Variable amount of resources to be divided resources to be divided Primary motivations I win, you lose I win, you win Primary interests Opposed to each other Convergent or congruent with each other Focus of relationships Short term Long term Source: Based on R. J. Lewicki and J. A. Litterer, Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1985), p. 280.
  40. 40. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T 14 –6
  41. 41. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T 14 –7
  42. 42. <ul><li>The Role of Personality Traits in Negotiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits do not appear to have a significantly direct effect on the outcomes of either bargaining or negotiating processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences in Negotiations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women negotiate no differently from men, although men apparently negotiate slightly better outcomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women with similar power bases use the same negotiating styles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and their success as negotiators are less favorable than men’s. </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  43. 43. <ul><li>Italians, Germans, and French don’t soften up executives with praise before they criticize. Americans do, and to many Europeans this seems manipulative. Israelis, accustomed to fast-paced meetings, have no patience for American small talk. </li></ul><ul><li>British executives often complain that their U.S. counterparts chatter too much. Indian executives are used to interrupting one another. When Americans listen without asking for clarification or posing questions, Indians can feel the Americans aren’t paying attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans often mix their business and personal lives. They think nothing, for instance, about asking a colleague a question like, “How was your weekend?” In many cultures such a question is seen as intrusive because business and private lives are totally compartmentalized. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T 14 –8 Source: Adapted from L. Khosla, “You Say Tomato,” Forbes , May 21, 2001, p. 36.
  44. 44. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Mediator A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives. Arbitrator A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement.
  45. 45. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– Consultant An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis. Conciliator A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent.
  46. 46. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14– E X H I B I T 14 –9
  47. 47. <ul><li>When quick, decisive action is vital (in emergencies); on important issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Where unpopular actions need implementing (in cost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline). </li></ul><ul><li>On issues vital to the organization’s welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>When you know you’re right. </li></ul><ul><li>Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  48. 48. <ul><li>To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised. </li></ul><ul><li>When your objective is to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>To merge insights from people with different perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus. </li></ul><ul><li>To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  49. 49. <ul><li>When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing. </li></ul><ul><li>When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>To let people cool down and regain perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>When gathering information supersedes immediate decision. </li></ul><ul><li>When others can resolve the conflict effectively </li></ul><ul><li>When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  50. 50. <ul><li>When you find you’re wrong and to allow a better position to be heard. </li></ul><ul><li>To learn, and to show your reasonableness. </li></ul><ul><li>When issues are more important to others than to yourself and to satisfy others and maintain cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>To build social credits for later issues. </li></ul><ul><li>To minimize loss when outmatched and losing. </li></ul><ul><li>When harmony and stability are especially important. </li></ul><ul><li>To allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  51. 51. <ul><li>When goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues. </li></ul><ul><li>To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful. </li></ul>© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14–
  52. 52. <ul><li>Modern organization are full of stressors .stress is a contagion , a black plaque , spreading like wildfire and spewing large number of organizational members across the world. </li></ul>WORK STRESS
  53. 53. <ul><li>Stress is one’s reaction to stressors and consequence of such reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of stress varies from person to person. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress originates at the individual, group, organisational or extra-organisational level. </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes of stress include physical and physiological problems of employees, increased absenteeism and reduced productivity for organisations. </li></ul><ul><li>Burnout is the consequence of prolonged exposure to stress. </li></ul><ul><li>There are individual and organisational strategies to cope with stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is negatively related to performance. </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Stress is an individual’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment , and the consequence of such reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress obviously involves interaction of the person and the environment. Stress is associated with constraints and demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is defined as “ an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical , psychological and /or behavioral deviations for organizational participants”. </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>The physical or psychological demands from the environment that cause stress are called stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>They create stress or the potential for stress when an individual perceives them as representing a demand that may exceed that person’s ability to respond. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can manifest itself in both a positive way and a negative way. </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Stress is said to be positive when situation offers an opportunity for one to gain something. </li></ul><ul><li>EUSTRESS is the term used to describe positive stress and viewed as motivator. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is negative when it is associated with heart-disease , alcoholism , drug abuse , marital breakdowns, absenteeism , child abuse and host of other social, physical , organizational and emotional problems. </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Stress is not simply anxiety or nervous tension – these symptoms do not constitute stress . People exhibiting these behaviors may not be under stress of anxiety or nervous tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress need not always be damaging – people frequently experience stress without any strain at all . Daily life activities may be stressful , but not all harmful. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Stress is not always due to overwork – stress out individuals are not those who are overworked . Stress may also result from having too little to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress cannot be avoided –it is necessary that stress is an inevitable part of life and it cannot be avoided . What can , however , be avoided are the negative reactions to the stress. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Body has limited capacity to respond – stress is body’s biological response mechanisms. But the body has only limited capacity to respond to stressors . The work place makes a variety of demands on people and too much stress over too long a period of time will exhaust their ability to cope with stressors as is evident. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Not all individuals experience stress with same intensity. Some people overact to stressors and get highly stressed . Some others have stamina , endurance and composure to cope with any stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress depends on </li></ul><ul><li>The person’s perception of the situation </li></ul><ul><li>The person’s past experience </li></ul><ul><li>The presence or absence of social support and </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences with regard to stress reactions. </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>Perception refers to a psychological process whereby a person selects and organizes stimuli into a concept reality . </li></ul><ul><li>Employee’s perception of a situation can influence whether or not they experience stress Ex: A simple transfer from one place to another may be perceived by one employee as an opportunity to see new places and learn new things. </li></ul><ul><li>The same transfer may be understood by another employee as extremely threatening and indicating unhappiness of the management with his or her performance. </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>Whether a person experiences stress depends on his or her past experience with a similar stressor . </li></ul><ul><li>Writing anonymous letters against the boss or giving leads to the newspaper and getting false stories published in them against the boss are common among disgruntled employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Over a period of time , the boss will get used to such allegations , though initially he or she underwent stress. </li></ul>
  63. 64. <ul><li>The relationship between experience and stress is also based on reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement or previous success in a similar situation can reduce the level of stress that a person experiences under certain circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement is punishment or past failure under similar conditions can increase stress under the same circumstances. </li></ul>
  64. 65. <ul><li>The presence or absence of other people influences how individuals in work place experience stress and respond to stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of co-workers may increase an individual’s confidence allowing that person cope more effectively with stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: working alongside someone who performs confidently and competently in a stressed situation may help an employee behave in a identical way . </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely , the presence of fellow workers may irritate some people or make them anxious , reducing their ability to cope with stress. </li></ul>
  65. 66. <ul><li>Individual differences in motivation , attitudes, personality and abilities also influence whether employees experience work stress , and if they do, how they respond to it . What one person considers a major source of stress , another may hardly notice it. </li></ul>
  66. 67. As illustrated in coming diagram , stressors lead to stress , which in turn , lead to a variety of consequences.
  67. 69. <ul><li>Stressors originate at individual , group , organizational and extra – organizational levels. </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL LEVEL STRESSORS- most common </li></ul><ul><li>Type of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Role over load </li></ul><ul><li>Role conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity. </li></ul>
  68. 70. <ul><li>Always moves, walks and eats rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Feels impatient with the pace of things, hurries others, dislikes waiting. </li></ul><ul><li>Does several things simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Feels guilty when relaxing. </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist, banging the hand on the table. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not have time to enjoy life. </li></ul><ul><li>The achievement orientation , impatience and perfectionism of individuals with Type A personalities may create stress in work circumstances that other persons find relatively stress free and bring stress on themselves. </li></ul>
  69. 71. <ul><li>Is not concerned about time. </li></ul><ul><li>Is patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not brag </li></ul><ul><li>Play to fun, not to win. </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxes without feeling guilty. </li></ul><ul><li>Has no pressing deadlines. </li></ul><ul><li>Is mild-mannered. </li></ul><ul><li>Is never in a hurry. </li></ul>
  70. 72. <ul><li>ROLE OVERLOAD – too much of work causes stress to an employee . </li></ul><ul><li>Excess work load has become the norm these days as more and more organizations have reduced their workforce and restructured work, leaving the remaining employees with more tasks and fewer resources of time to complete them. </li></ul>
  71. 73. <ul><li>ROLE CONFLICT- two types of role conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Inter – role conflict - occurs when an employee has two roles that are in conflict with each other. Inter – role conflict is common in matrix organizations where subordinates will be shared by matrix bosses. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal conflict – occurs when personal values clash with organizational goals. Ex: offering bribe. </li></ul>
  72. 74. <ul><li>ROLE AMBIQUITY – exists when employees are uncertain about their responsibilities , functions , performance expectations an levels of authority . This tends to occur when people enter new situations , such as joining the organization or taking foreign assignment, because they are uncertain about tasks and social expectations. </li></ul>
  73. 75. <ul><li>Group level stressors are caused by group dynamics and managerial behaviors. Managers create stress for employees by </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibiting inconsistent behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to provide support </li></ul><ul><li>Showing lack of concern </li></ul><ul><li>Providing inadequate direction </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a high productivity environment </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on negative while ignoring good performance. </li></ul>
  74. 76. <ul><li>Sexual harassment is yet another group level stressor . </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment refers to unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature that effects the job-related performance of an employee adversely . </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Male supervisor threatening to fire a female employee if she fails to accept his sexual advances. </li></ul>
  75. 77. <ul><li>Another serious interpersonal stressor is the rising wave of physical violence and aggression in the work place . </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that more than 1000 employees are murdered at work each year in the US . </li></ul><ul><li>Work place violence includes assaults , rape and threats using a weapon. </li></ul>
  76. 78. <ul><li>Organizational stressors affect large number of employees . Organizational climate is a prime EX: A high pressure environment that places chronic work demands on employees fuels the stress response . In contrast , participative management can reduce organizational-level stressors. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor lighting , loud noise , improper placement of furniture and the dirty and smelly environment create stress . Managers should monitor these and eliminate them at the earliest . </li></ul>
  77. 79. <ul><li>Organizational structure – defines the level of differentiation , the degree of rules and regulations , and where decisions are made . </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive rules and lack of participation in decision that affect an employee are examples of structural variables that might be potential stressors. </li></ul>
  78. 80. <ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP – represents the managerial style of the organization’s senior executives . </li></ul><ul><li>Some chief executive officers create a culture characterized by tension , fear and anxiety . </li></ul><ul><li>They establish unrealistic pressures to perform in the short run , impose excessively tight controls and routine fire employees who fail to measure up. </li></ul>
  79. 81. <ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE-CYCLE – organizations like human beings , pass through a life cycle . </li></ul><ul><li>The life cycle of an organization comprises eight stages – </li></ul><ul><li>Birth </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual – things are done without questioning and </li></ul><ul><li>Last rites- ordinarily follow. </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage of the life cycle poses its own challenges and problems . While the early stages are exciting , the latter ones create anxiety and tension. </li></ul>
  80. 82. <ul><li>Extra- organizational stressors are caused by factors outside the organization . For instance conflicts associated with one’s career and family life are stressful. </li></ul><ul><li>Home life certainly impacts one’s attitudes and performance at work . Death of a spouse , injury to one’s child , war , failure in school or at work , an unplanned pregnancy and similar other life events can be stressful. </li></ul>
  81. 83. BURNOUT IS TROUBLESOME OUTCOME OF STRESS. IT IS A STATE OF MIND RESULTING FROM PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO INTENSE EMOTIONAL STRESS
  82. 84. <ul><li>Attitude Description </li></ul><ul><li>Fatalism A feeling that you lack control over your work. </li></ul><ul><li>Boredom A lack of interest in doing your job. </li></ul><ul><li>Discontent A sense of being unhappy with your job. </li></ul><ul><li>Cynicism A tendency to undervalue the content of your job and the rewards received. </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequacy A feeling of not being able to meet your objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure A tendency to discredit your performance and conclude that you are ineffective. </li></ul><ul><li>Overwork A feeling of having too much to do and not enough time to complete it. </li></ul><ul><li>Nastiness A tendency to be rude or unpleasant to your co-workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction A feeling that you are not being justly rewarded for your efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Escape A desire to give up and get away from it all. </li></ul>
  83. 86. <ul><li>Stress Burnout </li></ul><ul><li>The person feels fatigued The individual encounters chronic exhaustion. </li></ul><ul><li>The person is anxious The individual is hypertensive. </li></ul><ul><li>The person is dissatisfied with his or her job The individual is bored and cynical about the work. </li></ul><ul><li>The person’s job commitment has dropped off The individual’s job commitment is virtually nil; he or she is mentally detached from the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>The person feels moody The individual feels impatient, irritable and unwilling to talk to others. </li></ul><ul><li>The person feels guilty The individual encounters mental depression. </li></ul><ul><li>The person is having difficulty concentrating; The individual does not seem to know where he or she </li></ul><ul><li>he or she tends to forget things is; forgetfulness is becoming more and more frequent. </li></ul><ul><li>The person undergoes physiological changes The individual begins to voice psychosomatic complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>such as increased blood pressure and heart beat </li></ul>
  84. 87. <ul><li>Physical Emotional Mental Relational Spiritual Behavioural </li></ul><ul><li>Signs Signs Signs Signs Signs Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Appetite Bad temper Lacking Isolation A feeling of Pacing </li></ul><ul><li>changes humour emptiness </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches Anxiety Dull senses Defensive Apathy Swearing </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue Nightmares Lethargy Intolerance Inability to Substance forgive abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia Irritability Boredom Resentment Cynicism Nail biting </li></ul><ul><li>Indigestion Depression Indecisiveness Loneliness Loss of direction Slumped posture </li></ul><ul><li>Colds Frustration Forgetfulness Nagging Doubt Restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Weight change Oversensitivity Poor Lower sex drive Need to prove Risk aversion concentration self </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth grinding Mood swings Personality Aggression Negative Eating changes outlook disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Tension Fearfulness Stuck in past Abuse Gloom Headaches </li></ul>
  85. 88. <ul><li>Individual strategies to cope with stress include </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCLE RELAXATION </li></ul><ul><li>BIOFEEDBACK- used to train people and detect and control stress – related symptoms such as tense muscles and related blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>MEDITATION </li></ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING </li></ul><ul><li>TIME MANAGEMENT </li></ul>
  86. 89. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements in the physical work environment; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job redesign to eliminate stressors; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in workloads and deadlines; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural reorganization; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in work schedules, more flexible hours and sabbaticals; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management by objectives or other goal-setting programmes; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater levels of employee participation, particularly in planning changes that affect them; and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops dealing with role clarity and role analysis. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  87. 91. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress is one’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment and the consequences of such reaction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response to stress varies between individuals. How an individual experiences stress depends on perception, past experience and social support the individual has. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stressors originate at the individual, group, organisational or extra-organisational level. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes of stress are very serious. Individual suffers from stress, so also the organisation which has to pay in terms of absenteeism, reduced productivity and claims of damages from affected employees. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One serious consequence of stress is burnout. Burnout results from prolonged exposure to stress. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are individual as well as organisational strategies to cope with stress. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress is negatively related to performance. Higher the stress, lower the performance. The earlier belief that moderate level of stress enhances performance is not held tenable now. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 92. Presented by: Avantika Gupta
  89. 93. <ul><ul><li>Conflict begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about. </li></ul></ul>
  90. 94. <ul><ul><ul><li>Individual level– intra individual conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal level – interpersonal conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group or organisational level </li></ul></ul></ul>
  91. 95. <ul><ul><li>Within every individual there are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of competing needs and roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of ways that drives and roles can be expressed </li></ul></ul>
  92. 96. <ul><ul><ul><li>Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both negative and positive aspects attached to desired goals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  93. 97. <ul><li>Conflict due to frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Role-conflict </li></ul>
  94. 98. <ul><li>Intra-sender role conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different messages from a single member of the role set are incompatible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-sender role conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages from one role sender oppose those from one or more other senders </li></ul></ul>
  95. 99. <ul><li>Inter-role conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role pressures associated with membership in one group are incompatible with those stemming from membership in other groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Person–role conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role requirements are incompatible with the focal person’s own attitudes, values, or views of acceptable behavior </li></ul></ul>
  96. 100. <ul><li>Approach-Approach Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Approach-Avoidance Conflict </li></ul>
  97. 101. <ul><li>Approach–approach conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual must choose among alternatives, each of which is expected to have a positive outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoidance–avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual must choose among alternatives, each of which is expected to have a negative outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  98. 102. <ul><li>Approach–avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual must decide whether to do something that has both positive and negative outcomes </li></ul></ul>
  99. 103. <ul><ul><li>Sources of Interpersonal Conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental stress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  100. 104. OPEN BLIND HIDDEN UNKNOWN KNOWN TO OTHERS NOT-KNOWN TO OTHERS NOT-KNOWN TO SELF KNOWN TO SELF JOHRI WINDOW- JOSEPH LUFT AND HARRY INGHAM
  101. 105. <ul><li>Accommodation – surrender one's own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance – avoid or postpone conflict by ignoring it, changing the subject, etc. Avoidance can be useful as a temporary measure to buy time or to deal with very minor, non-recurring conflicts. </li></ul>
  102. 106. <ul><li>Collaboration – work together to find a mutually beneficial solution. While some views suggest that collaboration is the only win-win solution to conflict, collaboration can also be time-intensive and inappropriate when there is not enough trust, respect or communication among participants </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise – bring the problem into the open and have the third person present. The aim of conflict resolution is to reach agreement and most often this will mean compromise. </li></ul>
  103. 107. <ul><ul><li>Competition – assert one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. It can be useful when achieving one's objectives outweighs one's concern for the relationship. </li></ul></ul>
  104. 108. <ul><ul><li>Model the attitudes and behaviours you want your employees to emulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the source of conflict, structural or interpersonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on tasks, not personalities </li></ul></ul>
  105. 109. <ul><ul><li>Address the conflict in a timely way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from conflict </li></ul></ul>
  106. 110. <ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/shidan99/conflict-management-365254 </li></ul><ul><li>http://markbiz.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/8-interactive-conflict.pdf </li></ul>

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