Quality first chapter for class


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Quality first chapter for class

  1. 1. Concepts of Quality
  2. 2. <ul><li>ASQ - “quality is a subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition” </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Quality: <ul><li>The best money can buy </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting a specification or conformance to specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsmanship </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of excellence that an item possesses. </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 1% defective lot </li></ul><ul><li>Anything Japanese or German. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Webster’s Dictionary 1977 defines Quality as <ul><li>that which belongs to something and makes or helps to make it what it is: characteristic element: any character or characteristic which may make an object good or bad; the degree of excellence which a thing possesses. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quality as per ISO (International Standard Organisation) <ul><li>The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition of Quality <ul><li>John Rabbitt defines Quality as: </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to exceed a customer’s expectations while maintaining a cost competitive market positions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definition of Quality <ul><li>Based on Holistic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Product perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Producer’s perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Based on customer perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Value </li></ul>
  8. 8. Holistic Perspective: <ul><li>Quality is the total of the characteristics that describe the overall object or service. </li></ul><ul><li>The assumption is that “ you will recognize quality when you see it.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Product Perspective <ul><li>Product quality is represented by the total of a set of precise and measurable characteristics or components of a finished products. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Producer Perspective <ul><li>Quality is defined as consistent conformance to specifications and standards. </li></ul><ul><li>When a product meets a company’s standards and specifications; it has achieved a desired quality level. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Producer Perspective <ul><li>Philip Crosby, a well known quality expert, states that quality is FREE. </li></ul><ul><li>He means that the production costs are the same for FIRST quality products or for the SUBSTANDARD products. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Customer Perspective <ul><li>Quality depends on the dimensions of a product or service that are of importance to that user. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Value-based Approach <ul><li>Manufacturing dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serviceability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangibles </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Factors that influence consumers’ perception of quality <ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Time Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Contractual </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul>
  15. 15. Deming’s Management principle <ul><li>According to W. Edwards Deming who maintained that quality is the responsibility of management. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Juran’s Approach <ul><li>It concentrates on eliminating the few sources that cause majority of problems. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication within the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication with customers and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. TQM <ul><li>This focus on customers and their satisfaction is a basic underlying principle of Total Quality Management. </li></ul>
  18. 18. TQM <ul><li>In TQM, all of the company’s actions are directed towards </li></ul><ul><li>producing a quality product for the target market, </li></ul><ul><li>satisfying the target market and </li></ul><ul><li>meeting the company’s business objectives. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Value based perspective <ul><li>Winchester,1994 defines quality products are those that perform at acceptable prices or conform at acceptable costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Silverman and Propst,1996 expand the scope and define value as the customer’s perception of total lifetime benefits minus total lifetime costs. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Quality should not be confused with Grade.
  21. 21. Grade is defined as <ul><li>A category or rank indicator of the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service intended for the same functional use or purpose, oriented at a specified cost related consumer/user market. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why Quality <ul><li>Foreign markets have grown </li></ul><ul><li>Import barriers and protection are not the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers are offered more choices </li></ul><ul><li>They have become more discriminating. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers are more sophisticated </li></ul><ul><li>They demand new and better products. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>It pays: </li></ul><ul><li>Less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>15 to 20% of the production costs are incurred in finding and correcting mistakes. </li></ul>
  24. 24. How the organizations compete <ul><li>Most common competitive measures: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality (both real and perceived) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery (lead time and accuracy) </li></ul><ul><li>Other measures </li></ul><ul><li>safety, </li></ul><ul><li>employee morale, </li></ul><ul><li>product development (time-to-market, innovative products) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Quality is a dynamic state associated with: </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Processes and </li></ul><ul><li>Environment that meets or exceeds expectations </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thank you.