Qa 3


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Qa 3

  2. 2. STANDARD <ul><li>A basis for comparison, a criterion; measure </li></ul><ul><li>--The New American Webster Dictionary (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Something that is established by authority, custom or general consent as a model or example to be followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Something established for use as a rule or basis of comparison in measuring or judging capacity, quantity, content, extent, value, quality, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Documented agreements containing specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose -- ISO </li></ul>
  3. 3. Benefits of Standards <ul><li>Standard facilitates communication and prevent misunderstanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Production Efficiency is enhanced by standardization which relates to time saving also. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards make parts interchangeability possible and as a result mass production is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization allows enhanced competition. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards can be used in marketing strategy to promote purchase of products that meet nationally recognized requirements, especially, when conformance is backed by a certification program. </li></ul><ul><li>Public welfare also gets benefited. Standards are used to protect health, environmental quality and promote safety </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Company standards- </li></ul><ul><li>These standards are useful to the company’s design, development, production, purchasing, and quality control departments. These standards may be those developed by the company itself or developed by some other organization(s) and adopted by the company as its own standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Standards- </li></ul><ul><li>These standards are typically developed by a trade association or professional society. For example, American Chemical Society has for many years maintained specifications for chemical reagents. </li></ul>Levels of Standard
  5. 5. <ul><li>Government Standards- </li></ul><ul><li>These are standards either developed by the government or developed by some other organization (s)and adopted by the government. The government standards generally tend to be related to safety or well being of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Full Consensus Standards- </li></ul><ul><li>These are standards developed by the representatives of all sectors, such as industry, consumer, government, academia, who have an interest in use of these standards either as a producer or consumer. </li></ul>Levels of Standard
  6. 6. Types of Standard <ul><ul><li>1 st set of Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd set of Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Management systems </li></ul>Different Sets of Classification are available- <ul><li>3 rd set of Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Standard <ul><li>Test method: a definitive procedure for the identification measurement, and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of a maternal, product, system, or service that produces a test result. </li></ul><ul><li>Specification: a precise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, system, or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied. They often are given as numerical requirements with appropriate units and within reasonable limits </li></ul><ul><li>Practice: a definitive procedure for performing one or more specific operations or functions that close not produce a test result, these are not down graded tests. They include statistical procedures, writing statements on precision, and selecting, installing, and operating equipment. </li></ul>ASTM develops six types of full consensus standards-
  8. 8. Types of Standard <ul><li>Terminology: a document comprising definitions of terms, descriptions of terms, and explanations of symbols, abbreviations, or acronyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Guide: a series of options or instructions that do not recommend a specific course of action. Guides suggest approaches, offer guidance for a procedure, increase awareness of available techniques and provide information regarding evaluation and standardization. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification: a systematic arrangement or division of materials, products, systems, or services into groups based on similar characteristics such as origin, composition, properties, or use. Examples include fiber and yarn classification charts used in beginning textiles classes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ORGANISATIONS <ul><li>Introduction: </li></ul><ul><li>In an industry with so many segments ,each with its own interests, communicating quality requirements and supplying goods of the appropriate quality level are difficult. As a result individuals and companies with similar interests have formed professional and trade organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>These organizations focus their efforts on identifying and defining terms, developing consistent practices within the field for describing and evaluating materials and process, encouraging fair trade practices, developing technological advances to maintain competition in the world market. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Some Important Organizations related to textile and apparel standards <ul><li>AATCC </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM </li></ul><ul><li>ASQ </li></ul><ul><li>AAFA </li></ul><ul><li>(TC)2 </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI </li></ul><ul><li>ISO </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>AATCC </li></ul><ul><li>Formed in 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>More than 7,500 members </li></ul><ul><li>World largest association devoted to textile chemistry and the wet processing with main focus on dyeing and finishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Develops internationally recognized standard test methods used by the industry which are done by research committees after extensive investigation and inter laboratory comparisons. </li></ul><ul><li>Test methods are approved by the three level hierarchy before they get published in the Technical Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains cooperative relationships with many organizations like ISO, ANSI, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes monthly journal “Textile Chemist & Colorist” </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes Annual guide & Membership Directory </li></ul>
  12. 12. ASTM- American Society for Testing and Materials <ul><li>Established in 1898 </li></ul><ul><li>World’s largest nongovernmental standards body </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with materials used in many industries, and its interest extend beyond textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Has 130 technical committees </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM committee D-13 focuses on textiles </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM procedures are used to identify physical characteristics and assess performance related to physical –mechanical procedures </li></ul><ul><li>publishes Annual Book of Standards of its 16 major areas, a monthly magazine Standardization News , several technical journals. </li></ul><ul><li>has no certification program, but standards sometimes are used in certifying products </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>ASQ has been at the forefront of the quality movement for almost 60 years, Headquartered in Milwaukee </li></ul><ul><li>More than 1,00,000 individual and organizational members. </li></ul><ul><li>An organization of professionals who work to improve the quality of manufactured goods, services and related factors </li></ul><ul><li>Has developed a professional codes of ethics to guide professional practices </li></ul><ul><li>Has 15 divisions; the Textile and Needle Trade division deals with textile products. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes Newsletter-On Q, Monthly Journal- Quality Progress </li></ul>ASQ- The American Society for Quality
  14. 14. AAFA- <ul><li>formed in August 2000 through the merger of two highly regarded trade associations: the American Apparel and Manufacturers Association (AAMA) and Footwear Industries of America </li></ul><ul><li>national trade association representing apparel, footwear and other sewn products companies, and their suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>members actively serve on some 15 committees, subcommittees, councils and divisions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>(TC)2 – Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>(TC)2 was established in 1981 as a coalition of leaders in the U.S. textile and apparel industry, labor unions and government organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently has more than 185 member and associate member companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Its focus is on improving the sewn products industry in the US to make it more productive, competitive, and cost effective. </li></ul><ul><li>It works with manufacturers to develop new processes, equipment, and implementation procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>It shares its innovation with the industry at trade shows, through professional seminars and workshops, during on-site training visits to the center, and via its educational materials and computer simulations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>ANSI- American National Standards Institute </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI, which is a federation of many organizations, agencies, and groups, coordinates all national voluntary agencies that develop standards. </li></ul><ul><li>It has accredited certification program. Certification attests that a product has been tested and meets specifies requirements. These requirements are usually based on minimum performance characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Many ASTM procedures have been approved by the ANSI, and this is indicated in the designation of the test method. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries, one from each country. ISO is an non-governmental organization established in 1947. </li></ul><ul><li>The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>International standardization is now well established for very many technologies in such diverse field as information processing and communications, textiles, packaging, distribution of goods, energy production and utilization, shipbuilding, banking and financial services. It will continue to grow in importance for all sectors of industrial activity for the foreseeable future. </li></ul>
  18. 18. SPECIFICATIONS <ul><li>A SPECIFICATION IS A DETAILED STATEMENT OF REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, A specification, or spec, is a precise statement of a set of requirement to be satisfied by a material, product, system, or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>TOLERANCE?? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Specification <ul><ul><li>1 st set of Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd set of Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul>Different Sets of Classification are available- <ul><li>3 rd set of Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Open </li></ul><ul><li>Closed </li></ul><ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Test </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Specification <ul><li>Target : details the principal elements that should be considered during the design stage Probably prepared by the marketing division. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional: describes the intended functional requirements for a product and may identify limitations. Probably prepared by the marketing division. </li></ul><ul><li>Product: describes the product to the extent necessary to make it includes details required of the various departments involved in the product’s manufacture. Probably prepared by the engineering or production division. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: includes details of materials used to produce a single product. Might include associated processes. Will closely relate to target or functional specifications </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contd.- <ul><li>Process: describes actions that need to be performed during the processing of materials to bring them to final product stage. Probably prepared by the engineering or production division. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection: describes the details of the various inspections that have to be carried out on the product of various stages of production. Based on the details in the target and functional specifications. Probably prepared by the production division. </li></ul><ul><li>Test: details any tests that may be required during decision making, manufacturing, and inspection stages. Need to pay close attention to the target and functional specifications. Probably prepared by the production, merchandising, or product development division. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance: identifies various criteria that will govern the acceptance of a product at various stages of production and at final acceptance upon completion of production. Probably prepared by the product development, engineering, or design division. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Contd.- <ul><li>Installation: details instructions necessary for installing products on site ready for use. Probably prepared by the design or product development and engineering division. </li></ul><ul><li>Use: includes information and special instructions that users will need to enable them to use the product in its intended manner. Probably prepared by the design and marketing divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal: identifies any special requirements in terms of disposal of the product. May be included with recyclable materials. Probably developed by the design and engineering divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement: provide a total picture of the what, where, when and how expected of the product so that prospective suppliers know what is expected of them. Used by buying organizations to procure relatively complex products that must meet a variety of requirements related to materials, functional, inspection, test, and acceptance areas. Probably developed by the design, product development, and engineering divisions. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Other Classification <ul><li>Open Specification- allows for consideration of multiple vendors and includes a description of the character and /or performance desired in the product or material to be purchased. For eg. Open specification of fiber might be listed as 100% polyester,2.0 denier, and 1.25 inches in length. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Specification- specifies exact material, component, or product by manufacturer or vendor and includes style nos., trade names or specific identifiers. A closed specification might be Dacron polyester with type no. identified. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Benefits of Specifications <ul><li>Accurate and consistent communication of desired quality requirements for specific jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency of language among various levels within a company. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent product through use of written specifications. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Problems with Understanding & Interpreting Standards <ul><li>Lack of clarity/confused statements </li></ul><ul><li>Contradiction </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Chain specification systems </li></ul><ul><li>Poor visual material </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive requirements </li></ul>
  27. 27. Standards Specifications <ul><li>Specifications are used to describe the materials, procedures, dimensions and performance for a particular product or style. They are more specific than standards, but reflect standards. </li></ul>