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DSD-INT 2023 Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM - taking pressure into account in the Equation of State - Zijl

Deltares
Deltares

Presentation by Firmijn Zijl (Deltares, Netherlands) at the Delft3D User Days, during the Delft Software Days - Edition 2023 (DSD-INT 2023). Monday, 13 November 2023, Delft.

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Firmijn Zijl Firmijn Zijl
Herman Kernkamp Julien Groenenboom
Martin Verlaan Stendert Laan
Erik de Goede Tammo Zijlker
13-11-2023
Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
Taking pressure into account in the Equation of State
Thermobaricity: DCSM-FM:
3D Dutch Continental Shelf Model – Flexible Mesh
2
Yellow: 1/10° x 1/15° ~ 4 nm x 4 nm
Green: 1/20° x 1/30° ~ 2 nm x 2 nm
Blue: 1/40° x 1/60° ~ 1 nm x 1 nm
Red: 0.75’ x 0.5’ ~ 0.5 nm x 0.5 nm
→ 800 m isobath
→ 50 m isobath
→ 200 m isobath
bathymetry grid resolution measurement locations
Delft3D
User
Days
2023
|
Thermobaricity
in
3D
DCSM-FM
Background – Model applications
3
Ensemble Prediction
System (EPS)
Deterministic
water level forecasts
Currents and transport
Search and rescue
2D 3D
Water levels (incl. Mean
Dynamic Topography)
Geodetic applications 3D boundary conditions MetOcean
Water quality and ecology
Oil dispersal
DCSM-FM: Hydrodynamic models of the NW European Shelf used for multiple applications
➢ 3D DCSM-FM form basis for (coupled) Fine Sediment, Water Quality and Ecology modelling
➢ Techniques/methods developed for DCSM-FM are also used in other regional/global applications
Delft3D
User
Days
2023
|
Thermobaricity
in
3D
DCSM-FM
Model validation
4
RMSE surge (2013-2017) RMSE tide (2013-2017)
Temperature stratification (2006-2013)
Sea surface temperature (2006-2012)
Salinity at various depths (2013-2017)
Measured Modelled
Delft3D
User
Days
2023
|
Thermobaricity
in
3D
DCSM-FM
3D
DCSM-FM
(20
σ-layers)
Bay of Biscay (vertical temperature distribution)
CMEMS (‘GLORYS12V1’) 3D DCSM-FM (20 sigma-layers)
Thickness of 1 vertical
sigma-layer in deep water
• The modelled sea surface
temperature is not
accurately modelled in the
20 sigma-layer version
5
Delft3D
User
Days
2023
|
Thermobaricity
in
3D
DCSM-FM
3D
DCSM-FM
(20
σ-layers)
Bay of Biscay (vertical temperature distribution)
CMEMS (‘GLORYS12V1’) 3D DCSM-FM (20 sigma-layers)
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DSD-INT 2023 Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM - taking pressure into account in the Equation of State - Zijl

  • 1. Firmijn Zijl Firmijn Zijl Herman Kernkamp Julien Groenenboom Martin Verlaan Stendert Laan Erik de Goede Tammo Zijlker 13-11-2023 Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM Taking pressure into account in the Equation of State Thermobaricity: DCSM-FM:
  • 2. 3D Dutch Continental Shelf Model – Flexible Mesh 2 Yellow: 1/10° x 1/15° ~ 4 nm x 4 nm Green: 1/20° x 1/30° ~ 2 nm x 2 nm Blue: 1/40° x 1/60° ~ 1 nm x 1 nm Red: 0.75’ x 0.5’ ~ 0.5 nm x 0.5 nm → 800 m isobath → 50 m isobath → 200 m isobath bathymetry grid resolution measurement locations Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 3. Background – Model applications 3 Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) Deterministic water level forecasts Currents and transport Search and rescue 2D 3D Water levels (incl. Mean Dynamic Topography) Geodetic applications 3D boundary conditions MetOcean Water quality and ecology Oil dispersal DCSM-FM: Hydrodynamic models of the NW European Shelf used for multiple applications ➢ 3D DCSM-FM form basis for (coupled) Fine Sediment, Water Quality and Ecology modelling ➢ Techniques/methods developed for DCSM-FM are also used in other regional/global applications Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 4. Model validation 4 RMSE surge (2013-2017) RMSE tide (2013-2017) Temperature stratification (2006-2013) Sea surface temperature (2006-2012) Salinity at various depths (2013-2017) Measured Modelled Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 5. 3D DCSM-FM (20 σ-layers) Bay of Biscay (vertical temperature distribution) CMEMS (‘GLORYS12V1’) 3D DCSM-FM (20 sigma-layers) Thickness of 1 vertical sigma-layer in deep water • The modelled sea surface temperature is not accurately modelled in the 20 sigma-layer version 5 Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 6. 3D DCSM-FM (20 σ-layers) Bay of Biscay (vertical temperature distribution) CMEMS (‘GLORYS12V1’) 3D DCSM-FM (20 sigma-layers)
  • 7. Impact on sea surface salinity 7 20 σ-layers 50 z-σ-layers Large reduction in RMSE (0.7 psu → 0.3 psu), mostly due to reduction in bias • Ocean is important for correct representation of (residual) transport and salinity in southern North Sea
  • 8. Ocean validation • Collaboration with researchers at Delft University, especially Geodetic application • Validation: focus up to now primarily on North Sea (or other shallow areas) • The transition to z-sigma layers has improved the sea surface temperature, but what about deeper layers? 8 Selected EN4 profile measurements
  • 9. Time stack plots 9 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Salinity Temperature
  • 11. Vetical mixing caused by instabilities • Instabilities along open boundaries (not visible at surface) • Possibly caused by inconsistencies in resolved physics between 3D DCSM-FM and ocean model? • More and more models developed at Deltares are nested in ocean models (often CMEMS/NEMO). − Downscaling global phenomena (SLR, CC) to local impacts − Along most global coasts, the ocean has a more direct impact − Great opportunity to use and connect to excellent global data sets and add value 11 Horizontal cross-section at 500 m depth Horizontal cross-section at 3500 m depth Vertical cross-section along southern boundary Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 12. Density profiles and stability 12 • Stability is defined by the Brunt-Väisälä frequency 𝑁: 𝑁2 = − 𝑔 𝜌 𝜕𝜌 𝜕𝑧 • Stability should be assessed using potential quantities (i.e. the density a parcel of water would have if you bring it to a certain vertical level) Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 13. Density profiles and stability 13 Alternative expression: 𝑁2 = 𝑔 𝛼 𝜕Θ 𝜕𝑧 − 𝛽 𝜕𝑠𝐴 𝜕𝑧 with 𝛼: Thermal expansion coefficient 𝛽: Haline expansion coefficient Θ: Potential / Conservative Temperature 𝑠𝐴: Practical / Absolute Salinity Thermal expansion coefficient α depends non- linearly on: • Temperature (cabbeling) • Pressure/depth (thermobaricity) → Stability should be assessed using local pressure Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 14. Pressure-dependent Equation of State (Thermobaricity) • In Delft3D FM the EOS-80 Equation of State is applied, with the additional assumption of zero pressure • This implies that the stabilizing effect thermobaricity (i.e., the increase of thermal expansion coefficient with increasing pressure) is ignored • The lack of pressure-dependency is not valid in deep water (oceans and deep lakes) ➢ Stable stratification (in reality, or ocean model) can become instable in Delft3D FM. • Fixing this requires more than updating EoS, − Implication for turbulence model − Iterations required: pressure depends on density and vice-versa 14 Instable  → Stable excluding pressure-dependency including pressure-dependency Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 15. Horizontal baroclinic pressure gradient 15 In standard Delft3D FM implementation potential densities are also used for the baroclinic pressure gradient Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 16. Done • Pressure dependency added to EoS • Computation of source term in k-eps model adjusted (by taking the vertical gradient of the locally referenced potential density) • Possibility to output potential density, in-situ density and Brunt-Väisälä frequency added • Number of iterations required (pressure depends on density and vice-versa) • Interpolation of S, T → D instead of S,T → D, then interpolation 16 Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 17. Schematic tests • Case with linear, stable potential density profile, no horizontal gradient, no external forcing • Nothing should happen → works with uniform bottom • Problems with realistic, varying bathymetry • Problems become larger with: − Low vertical resolution − Large vertical density gradient (increases with thermobaricity) − Slope of the layer interfaces 17 • First step is to get it working with full z-layers − Bathymetry is adjusted to the height of the nearest z-layer (adjustments of up to hundreds of meters!) Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 18. Time stack plots (salinity) 18 3 4 3 4 3D DCSM-FM CMEMS
  • 19. Vertical cross-sections (salinity) 19 excluding thermobaricity including thermobaricity Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 20. Vertical cross-sections (temperature) 20 excluding thermobaricity including thermobaricity Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 21. Temperature profiles 21 Measurements CMEMS 3D DCSM-FM excluding thermobaricity including thermobaricity Salinity Temperature
  • 23. Impact on bottom temperature and salinity (DCSM minus CMEMS) 23 excl. thermobaricity incl. thermobaricity Temperature Salinity Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 24. Conclusions and steps ahead Conclusions • Thermobaricity successfully implemented • Stability in oceanic areas of 3D DCSM-FM improved, leading to better separation of water masses • Many issues solved during development Work to be done • Improve computational efficiency (currently increase in computational time of 22%) • From prototype to GA 24 Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 25. Lessons learned • Also leads to improvements in other models/areas (e.g. Mass Bay) − Improving physics/parameterizations more important than tuning − 3D DCSM-FM provides an excellent test environment to prioritize and test new developments and improvements • Physical considerations play an important role in numerical choices − Collaboration across disciples essential • There is a lot to learn from the oceanographic (and climate science) community − NEMO-related scientific papers and manual proved very helpful 25 Original results Incl. thermobaricity Delft3D User Days 2023 | Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM
  • 26. Firmijn Zijl Firmijn Zijl Herman Kernkamp Julien Groenenboom Martin Verlaan Stendert Laan Erik de Goede Tammo Zijlker 13-11-2023 Thermobaricity in 3D DCSM-FM Taking pressure into account in the Equation of State Thermobaricity: DCSM-FM: