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DSD-INT 2023 Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong - Ye

Deltares
Deltares

Presentation by Qinghua Ye (Deltares, Netherlands) at the Delft3D User Days, during the Delft Software Days - Edition 2023 (DSD-INT 2023). Thursday, 16 November 2023, Delft.

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Ken TM Wong, SN Chan, HS Lee, Alex YW Chiu from EPD Hong Kong
Arjen Markus, Qinghua Ye, Frank Kleissen, Michelle Jeuken, Sonja Pans,
Julien Groenenboom , Firmijn Zijl, Jos van Gils and
many other colleagues…
- Recent development of D-Water Quality
16-Nov-2023
Simulation of Coastal
Hydrodynamics and Water Quality
in Hong Kong
Environmental Protection Department
環境保護署
HK-DFM Model –
Background and main concerns
2
• Interaction of oceanic and freshwater masses
− Varying throughout the year
• Three different ocean currents
− Summer: Hainan current+ Pearl river
− Winter: Kuroshio current, Taiwan
• Complex landboundary
− Tidal range 1-2 meters
− Tidal current can vary 0,5 knots, 1.5 knots to
5 knots
Simulation
of
Coastal
Hydrodynamics
and
Water
Quality
in
Hong
Kong
HK-DFM Model –
Background and main concerns
3
• Increase of pollution loadings due to
− increased population
− increased commercial activities
− better sewerage system
• Decrease of pollution loadings due to
− increased treatment
Simulation
of
Coastal
Hydrodynamics
and
Water
Quality
in
Hong
Kong
Development of Hong Kong coastline
4
https://yeungchakyan.medium.com/map-showing-38-years-of-landscape-
change-in-hong-kong-cda95e85ab1b https://www.lantau.gov.hk/filemanager/content/lantau-tomorrow-vision/leaflet_e1.pdf
Concentrations effects
Pollution
inputs
Transport
and mixing
by
currents
5
Pollution
inputs
Simulation
of
Coastal
Hydrodynamics
and
Water
Quality
in
Hong
Kong
HK-DFM Model –
New generation 3D hydrodynamic and water quality model
6
• 3D unstructured grid with smooth transition from
fine grids (~70m) to coarse grids (~5km)
• Large spatial coverage - 6 times larger than
previous model
• Consider effect of spatio-temporal variations of
meteorological forcing and oceanic current
• Improved model performance with more realistic
coastline features
▪ 1980s - 2D rectangular grid
▪ 2000s - 3D curvilinear grid
▪ 2020s - 3D Flexible Mesh
▪ 1980s - 2D rectangular grid
▪ 2000s - 3D curvilinear grid
Simulation
of
Coastal
Hydrodynamics
and
Water
Quality
in
Hong
Kong

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DSD-INT 2023 Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong - Ye

  • 1. Ken TM Wong, SN Chan, HS Lee, Alex YW Chiu from EPD Hong Kong Arjen Markus, Qinghua Ye, Frank Kleissen, Michelle Jeuken, Sonja Pans, Julien Groenenboom , Firmijn Zijl, Jos van Gils and many other colleagues… - Recent development of D-Water Quality 16-Nov-2023 Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department 環境保護署
  • 2. HK-DFM Model – Background and main concerns 2 • Interaction of oceanic and freshwater masses − Varying throughout the year • Three different ocean currents − Summer: Hainan current+ Pearl river − Winter: Kuroshio current, Taiwan • Complex landboundary − Tidal range 1-2 meters − Tidal current can vary 0,5 knots, 1.5 knots to 5 knots Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 3. HK-DFM Model – Background and main concerns 3 • Increase of pollution loadings due to − increased population − increased commercial activities − better sewerage system • Decrease of pollution loadings due to − increased treatment Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 4. Development of Hong Kong coastline 4 https://yeungchakyan.medium.com/map-showing-38-years-of-landscape- change-in-hong-kong-cda95e85ab1b https://www.lantau.gov.hk/filemanager/content/lantau-tomorrow-vision/leaflet_e1.pdf
  • 6. HK-DFM Model – New generation 3D hydrodynamic and water quality model 6 • 3D unstructured grid with smooth transition from fine grids (~70m) to coarse grids (~5km) • Large spatial coverage - 6 times larger than previous model • Consider effect of spatio-temporal variations of meteorological forcing and oceanic current • Improved model performance with more realistic coastline features ▪ 1980s - 2D rectangular grid ▪ 2000s - 3D curvilinear grid ▪ 2020s - 3D Flexible Mesh ▪ 1980s - 2D rectangular grid ▪ 2000s - 3D curvilinear grid Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 7. HK-DFM Model – Modelling approach • Modelling approach. Figure. 7 3D Hydrodynamic model 3D Water quality model Current, water level, dispersion, stratification 2D Particle tracking model Loads EIA studies, reclamation, environmental incidents…
  • 8. HK-DFM Model – Grid Refinement 8 Previous generation 3D structured model grid distortion to fit the coastline Local grid refinement for reclamation project triangular grids for transition New generation HK-DFM model
  • 9. HK-DFM Model – Hydrodynamic model forcing • 3D 20 sigma layers • River flow • Tide BC • Salinity • Temperature • Meteo: wind/pressure/heat flux 9 tide Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 10. HK-DFM Model – Model Calibration and Validation: Tide 10 Model Observed Difference Station name Water level RMSE (m) Tidal range (m) RMSE% (over tidal range) 1. Cheung Chau (CHC) 0.10 2.43 4.1 2. Chep Lap Kok (CLK) 0.12 2.37 5.1 3. Kwai Chung (CT8) 0.11 2.49 4.4 4. Ko Lau wan (KLW) 0.13 2.23 5.8 5. Ma Wan (MWC) 0.11 2.54 4.3 6. Quarry Bay (QUB) 0.12 2.35 5.1 7. Shek Pik (SPK) 0.11 2.34 4.7 8. Tsim Bei Tsui (TBT) 0.17 2.54 6.7 9. Tai Miu Wan (TMW) 0.10 1.99 5.0 10. Tai Po Kau (TPK) 0.18 1.95 9.2 11. Waglan Island (WAG) 0.12 2.00 6.0 12. Zhapo 0.14 3.40 4.1 13. Penghu 0.18 3.11 5.8 Average 0.13 5.4 Tidal constituent Amplitude bias (m) Phase bias (°) M2 0.01 4.95 K1 0.01 3.70 O1 0.02 4.58 S2 0.03 -5.83 (based on 2016 measurements) Tidal Stations in HK
  • 11. • HK-DFM model has been well- calibrated, validated and verified with extensive field data. • Velocity • Salinity • DO • Chlorophyll • Turbidity and pH 11 HK-DFM Model – Model Calibration and Validation: Velocity EPD’s scientific buoy ADCP -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1Feb 3Feb 5Feb 7Feb 9Feb 11Feb 13Feb 15Feb Velocity in Major Flow Direction (m/s) Model Measurement 2023 Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 12. 12 HK-DFM Model – Model Calibration and Validation: Residual flow Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 13. HK-DFM Model – Water quality model • Suspended solids • Phytoplankton • Organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus • Inorganic nitrogen, inorganic dissolved silica, inorganic phosphorus (dissolved and adsorbed) • DO, CBODu • Ecoli • Copper 13 Life cycle of algae Inorganic matter (C, N, P, Si) algae sedimentation mineralisation O2 mortality pr.production Organic matter (C, N, P, Si) solar radiation respiration
  • 14. 14 Salinity (psu) Pred. Surface Pred. Bottom Meas. Surface Meas. Bottom HK-DFM Model – Surface salinity – Wet season Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 15. 15 HK-DFM Model – Surface DO - Wet season Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 16. 16 HK-DFM Model – Surface TN - Wet season Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 17. • For organic matters, mainly process driven. • For TP, TN, transport driven. ->outer sea to dissolved N and P. 17 HK-DFM Model – Water quantity system analysis and understanding Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 18. HK-DFM Model – Storm surge: preliminary results Air Pressure and wind field (ECMWF-ERA5 reanalysis data) 16 Sep 2018, 13:00 HKT 0 1 2 3 4 10/Sep 12/Sep 14/Sep 16/Sep 18/Sep 20/Sep 22/Sep 24/Sep WL (m) Meas. DFM Harmonic Pred. HK-DFM model captures the storm surge dynamics well during the passage of a tropical cyclone (Typhoon Mangkhut, 2018)
  • 19. HK-DFM model serves as a new standard modelling tool for water quality management in HK:  Environmental impact assessment (EIA) and planning studies of large-scale infrastructure projects  Provide predictions to support handling of environmental incidents, e.g. oil spills and marine refuse incidents 19 HK-DFM Model – New Standard Modelling Tool for Hong Kong Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 20. 20 Assessing impacts of reclamation on hydrodynamics Source Prediction of the potential affected areas of marine refuse
  • 21. 21 Simulation for oil spill incidents in Hong Kong and northern South China Sea Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong
  • 22. Simulation of Coastal Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Hong Kong 22 The Water Quality Modeling tool – D-Water Quality • Robustness: CMAKE, refactoring, testing steps, testing in parallel, new linux/unix platform AlmaLinux OS 8… • BMI interface: towards an integral modelling train… • CART: water age, residence time • D-Eco Impact… • D-Particle Tracking: 2D -> 3D • …