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DSD-INT 2023 Salt intrusion Modelling of the Lauwersmeer, towards a measurement campaign - Velhorst

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Presentation by Rufus Velhorst (Arcadis, Netherlands) at the Delft3D User Days, during the Delft Software Days - Edition 2023 (DSD-INT 2023). Tuesday, 14 November 2023, Delft.

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Salt intrusion Modelling of the
Lauwersmeer
Towards a measurement campaign
14-11-2023 Delft Software Days
Agenda
© Arcadis 2022
Introduction
Lauwersmeer
Project
1
System description
2
Model set up
Model train
3
Results
Validation
Scenario’s
4
Discussion
5
Conclusion &
recommendations
6
Client
WS Noorderzijlvest (water board)
Engineering firm
Arcadis
Quality control
Deltares
Introduction
Introduction
Lauwersmeer
Former sea (closed 1969)
Sluices
National park
25 November 2023
© Arcadis 2022 4
Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
Introduction
The Project
Future perspective formulated
together with stakeholders
Multiple stakes:
• Agriculture (fresh water)
• Nature (fresh salt gradient)
• Flood protection
25 November 2023
© Arcadis 2022 5
Need: a fundamental understanding of the system
Tools: measurements → model
Project goal: Proposition measurement campaign
Total Project budget ~75k €
• Open water model
• Ground water model
• Proposition measurement campaign
/ monitoring network
Presentation focusses on open water model
Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
System description

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DSD-INT 2023 Salt intrusion Modelling of the Lauwersmeer, towards a measurement campaign - Velhorst

  • 1. Salt intrusion Modelling of the Lauwersmeer Towards a measurement campaign 14-11-2023 Delft Software Days
  • 2. Agenda © Arcadis 2022 Introduction Lauwersmeer Project 1 System description 2 Model set up Model train 3 Results Validation Scenario’s 4 Discussion 5 Conclusion & recommendations 6 Client WS Noorderzijlvest (water board) Engineering firm Arcadis Quality control Deltares
  • 4. Introduction Lauwersmeer Former sea (closed 1969) Sluices National park 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 4 Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 5. Introduction The Project Future perspective formulated together with stakeholders Multiple stakes: • Agriculture (fresh water) • Nature (fresh salt gradient) • Flood protection 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 5 Need: a fundamental understanding of the system Tools: measurements → model Project goal: Proposition measurement campaign Total Project budget ~75k € • Open water model • Ground water model • Proposition measurement campaign / monitoring network Presentation focusses on open water model Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 7. Robbengatsluis Sea lock Google Earth System description © Arcadis 2022 System dynamics: controlled water level High refreshment rate Bathymetry Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations Cleveringsluizen Sluice complex 3x4x10x5m Wikimedia commons Nieuwe Robbengat Pumping station Gemalen.nl NAP-0,91m NAP-6,5m
  • 8. System description © Arcadis 2022 Yearly averaged discharges of locks, sluices and pumping stations Total does not add up to net 0! “Missing” ingoing discharge 8,8 m3/s on 59 total ingoing salt flux 18,6 kg/s on 53 total Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations Dongerdielen Cleveringsluizen Dokkumer Nieuwe Zijlen Gemaal Nieuwe Robbengat Zoutkamp Robbengatsluis +1.6 m3/s 0.4 PSU 0.7 kg/s +31.2 m3/s 0.2 PSU 6.9 kg/s +15.6 m3/s 0.2 PSU 3.2 kg/s -58.5 m3/s ∆4 PSU -53 kg/s 0.4 m3/s 30 PSU 7.6 kg/s 0.8 m3/s 18 PSU 15.0 kg/s Discharge [m3/s] Discharge [m3/s] 2-day averaged correction Lateral model discharges
  • 9. Salinity overall System description 25/11/23 © Arcadis 2022 Surface Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations Salinity [PSU] Time Salinity [PSU] 0 30 2 types of salinity data available WAM loggers: overall indication 3 Salinity time series Bottom 0.2 1.4 PSU = Practical Salinity Unity Brackisch water >3 PSU Sea water ~35 PSU Sluices open
  • 11. Processes Included • Salinity; • Tide; • Laterals; • Sluice gates; • Lock (averaged); • Wind (local). Not included • Morphology; • Sediment transport; • Temperature; • Waves; • Atmosphere (pressure); • Ground water infiltration (no sink) Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 12. Model set up 25/11/23 © Arcadis 2022 Delft3D FM 2D + RTC Delft3D FM 3D KustFIJN 2D Modelling train Tidal wave propagation KustFijn 2D RTC Cleveringssluizen 3D salt intrusion model RTC: 12cm water level difference 15 layers z-sigma Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations Water levels from KustFIJN Open/close by RTC time series Origin SIMONA-Lauwersmeer-2006-v2 → Delft3D 4 → Delft3D FM
  • 13. Computational Grid 25/11/23 © Arcadis 2022 14 Locally refined and optimized Lauwersmeer resolution ~35m General structure at Cleveringsluizen resolution ~10m Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 14. Results – part 1 • Validation: 1. Water levels 2. Salinity
  • 15. Water levels Tidal wave propagation ok Lake water level sometimes too low (simplified RTC) Cumulative discharge ~8% error margin Opening / closing simplified but acts reasonably well 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 16 Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations Model Measurement Nr sluice gates open Water levels at both sides of gates Discharge through sluices Cumulative [m3] [m3/s] [m NAP] [-]
  • 16. Salinity Project result Overall averaged values ok 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 17 surface bottom Model Measurement Near bottom too low Near surface too high Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations 1 2 3
  • 17. Salinity Additional RD model run (not included in project) 60 layers: 0,35m resolution Different (reduced) vertical mixing numeric settings 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 18 surface bottom Model Measurement Wind events Spin up Peaks still not accounted for Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations 1 2 3
  • 18. Results • 3 scenarios: 1. Current situation autonomous behavior in 2021 2. Increased salinization 3. Extreme: Increased salinization + drought August 2022 2&3 2&3 1 1 Seaward Inward Lauwersmeer Waddensea Lauwersmeer Waddensea Lauwersmeer Waddensea Lauwersmeer Waddensea 1) 12 cm 0 cm 2&3) -12 cm water level difference
  • 19. Scenario 1 current situation 2021 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 20 Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations Single moment in time Deeper part near sluices more saline Depth averaged Top layer well mixed system – no clear stratification
  • 20. Scenario 1 current situation 2021 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 21 Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 21. Scenario 1 current situation 2021 Additional RD model run 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 22 Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 22. Scenario 2 Increased salinization 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 23 Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 23. Scenario 3 increased salinization + drought 2022 25 November 2023 © Arcadis 2022 24 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Brackish 10 0 Brackish 0 10
  • 24. Scenario 3 increased salinization + drought 2022 © Arcadis 2022 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations Depth averaged single moment in time
  • 26. Discussion System comprehension • Relatively large unknowns in both water and salt fluxes Promising model improvements • Reduce numerical mixing coefficients • Finer resolution Further model improvements • Extra sensitivity models runs • Time component of inward salt fluxes • Offshore water levels tidal signal combined with large scale atmospheric effects • Refine RTC rules & triggers Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 27. Conclusions & Recommendations • Model provides preliminary insight in system • Extra data needed for deeper understanding • Measurement campaign will provide new data • Use new data to improve model Introduction - System description - Model set up - Results - Discussion - Conclusion & recommendations
  • 28. Arcadis. Improving quality of life. © Arcadis 2023 Rufus Velhorst Coastal engineer Contact us rufus.velhorst@arcadis.com Sanne van der Heijden Specialist river and coastal systems sanne.vanderheijden@arcadis.com