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DSD-INT 2023 Modelling litter in the Yarra and Maribyrnong Rivers (Australia) using Delft3D 4 - Shipton

Deltares
Deltares

Presentation by Jack Shipton (Port and Coastal Solutions Ltd., UK) at the Delft3D User Days, during the Delft Software Days - Edition 2023 (DSD-INT 2023). Monday, 13 November 2023, Delft.

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Modelling litter in the Yarra and Maribyrnong
Rivers (Australia) using Delft3D 4
Jack Shipton
Delft Software Days 2023
13th November 2023 - Deltares
www.portandcoastalsolutions.com
jack@portandcoastalsolutions.co.uk
Introduction
• City of Melbourne, Australia
• CBD at confluence of two rivers:
− Maribyrnong
− Yarra
• Port Phillip – 1,930km²
• Parks Victoria – Local Government agency
• Poor river health
− Storm water
− Sewage
− Legacy of poor WQ (Industry, mining & land clearance)
• Litter pollution – key issue
• Litter degrading to microplastics
• Two thirds of ocean plastic is thought to originate in
rivers and canals
Background
Yarra
Maribyrnong
Full River Yarra Catchment
Study Area
Two 4m boom arms = 8m total boom length
First 3 traps installed in 1996 (on the Yarra)
Developed in Australia
Currently 20 traps across both rivers
Diagram of a Bandalong litter trap
Project Outline
Parks Victoria observations:
Traps on the Maribyrnong appear less
effective than those on the Yarra
Maribyrnong traps are successful during large
rain events
Litter is not retained long enough in the
Maribyrnong traps to be recovered after
storm events
Litter traps
capture
≈500m³ litter
& debris each
year
Traps
monitored,
and emptied
every two
weeks
Trap Audits:
•Organic material
(59%)
•Polystyrene (18%)
•Plastic bottles (13%)
Trap
placement
dictated by
water depth
& river traffic
CCTV
survey of
litter traps
Project Objectives
i. To better understand the inflow & movement of litter on the
Maribyrnong & Yarra Rivers
ii. Assess the effectiveness of current litter traps
iii. Consider potential future alternative options

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DSD-INT 2023 Modelling litter in the Yarra and Maribyrnong Rivers (Australia) using Delft3D 4 - Shipton

  • 1. Modelling litter in the Yarra and Maribyrnong Rivers (Australia) using Delft3D 4 Jack Shipton Delft Software Days 2023 13th November 2023 - Deltares www.portandcoastalsolutions.com jack@portandcoastalsolutions.co.uk
  • 2. Introduction • City of Melbourne, Australia • CBD at confluence of two rivers: − Maribyrnong − Yarra • Port Phillip – 1,930km² • Parks Victoria – Local Government agency • Poor river health − Storm water − Sewage − Legacy of poor WQ (Industry, mining & land clearance) • Litter pollution – key issue • Litter degrading to microplastics • Two thirds of ocean plastic is thought to originate in rivers and canals
  • 4. Two 4m boom arms = 8m total boom length First 3 traps installed in 1996 (on the Yarra) Developed in Australia Currently 20 traps across both rivers Diagram of a Bandalong litter trap
  • 5. Project Outline Parks Victoria observations: Traps on the Maribyrnong appear less effective than those on the Yarra Maribyrnong traps are successful during large rain events Litter is not retained long enough in the Maribyrnong traps to be recovered after storm events Litter traps capture ≈500m³ litter & debris each year Traps monitored, and emptied every two weeks Trap Audits: •Organic material (59%) •Polystyrene (18%) •Plastic bottles (13%) Trap placement dictated by water depth & river traffic CCTV survey of litter traps
  • 6. Project Objectives i. To better understand the inflow & movement of litter on the Maribyrnong & Yarra Rivers ii. Assess the effectiveness of current litter traps iii. Consider potential future alternative options
  • 7. Maribyrnong River • 3.5km study area • Three Litter Traps − Numbered 1 – 3 − 1 is most upstream (5.6km from mouth) − 3 is most downstream (2.3km from mouth) • Tidally influenced (to Solomans Ford - 16km upstream) • Flows in the order of: − 2m³/second (normal conditions) − 60m³/second (high flow conditions)
  • 8. Yarra River • 9 traps upriver not included within this study • Tidally influenced 20 km upstream (Dights Falls) • Flows in the order of: − 20m³/second (normal conditions) − 120m³/second (high flow conditions) • 4km study area • 8 Litter Traps − Numbered 10 - 17 − 10 is most upstream (7.7km) − 17 is most downstream 3.6km)
  • 9. Modelling - Build • Delft3D 4 - Curvilinear grid • Upstream & Downstream WL boundaries • Resolution = 4m by 9m • 3D – Three equal sigma layers • Bridge piers as dry cells • Winds (for calibration only)
  • 10. Model Runs • Calibration against two short drogue surveys • Wind included for calibration • No wind for assessment − although likely to be important • 7 day run time • Typical Flows (low rainfall) • Storm Flows (high rainfall)
  • 11. Results – Hydrodynamics Only Maribyrnong • River stations have flow reversals • Tidal flows control river flow • Flow reversals limited under storm conditions • Flow reversals a likely influence on litter retention Normal Condition - Flows – Trap 3 Storm Condition - Flows – Trap 3
  • 12. Results – Hydrodynamics Only Yarra River • No flow reversals • Trap 17 on Yarra – lowest flow speeds and influenced by localized eddies! Normal Condition - Flows – Trap 14 Normal Condition - Flows – Trap 17
  • 13. Modelling Droges (Litter) • Litter represented as drogues • Considered best approach for surface litter − No mass − No spatial extent • Simplification – for high level assessment • Released at upstream boundary: − Batches of ≈200 drogues − 6 release times − Total of >1000 drogues per simulation
  • 14. Drogue Modelling - Maribyrnong Maribyrnong – Trap1 Normal Conditions Storm Conditions
  • 15. Drogue Modelling - Maribyrnong Maribyrnong – Trap 2 Normal Conditions Storm Conditions
  • 16. Drogue Modelling - Maribyrnong Maribyrnong – Trap 3 Normal Conditions Storm Conditions
  • 17. Drogue Modelling - Yarra Yarra – Normal Conditions Trap 10 (Normal Conditions) Traps 11 & 12 (Normal Conditions)
  • 18. Drogue Modelling - Yarra Yarra – Traps 13 & 14 Traps 13 & 14 (Normal Conditions) Traps 13 & 14 (Storm Conditions)
  • 19. Drogue Modelling - Yarra Yarra – Traps 15, 16 & 17 Traps 15, 16 & 17 (Normal Conditions) Traps 15, 16 & 17 (Storm Conditions)
  • 20. Modelling – Litter Traps • Traps represented as 3D Gates – surface layer only • Two cells wide – representing full 8m boom • U shape – 2 cells wide, 2 cells deep
  • 21. Results – Drogue Modelling with Traps Maribyrnong – Trap1 Normal Conditions Storm Conditions
  • 22. Results - Maribyrnong Litter Trap Typical Conditions High Rainfall Conditions No. Drogues % of Drogues No. Drogues % of Drogues Trap 1 10 1% 68 6% Trap 2 353 32% 282 25% Trap 3 0 0% 0 0% Total 363 33% 350 31% • Traps 1 & 3 – very few drogues captured • Trap 2 – Captures 33% of drogues
  • 23. Results - Yarra Litter Trap Typical Conditions High Rainfall Conditions No. Drogues % of Drogues No. Drogues % of Drogues Trap 10 59 5% 25 2% Trap 11 213 19% 300 27% Trap 12 28 3% 17 2% Trap 13 174 16% 191 17% Trap 14 4 <1% 1 <1% Trap 15 72 6% 17 2% Trap 16 169 15% 204 18% Trap 17 5 <1% 9 1% Total 724 65% 764 69% • Overall – 65% - 69% of drogues captured • Trap 11, 13 & 16 best performing • Proportion of litter similar to proportions from 2017 survey (Trap 11 & 13) • Trap 17 & 14, perform poorly
  • 24. Results – Drogue Modelling Yarra – Normal Conditions Traps 13 & 14 Traps 11 & 12 Direction of river flow Trap 14 Trap 12
  • 25. Future Options Maribyrnong • Option 1a − Move Trap 1 downstream, to the adjacent bank from Trap 3 (upstream of Dynon Bridge) • Option 1b − As Option 1a, & extend Trap 1 boom to riverbank • Option 2 − As Option 1b, & extend Trap 2 boom to riverbank
  • 26. Results – Future Options Litter Trap Existing Option 1a Option 1b Option 2 No. Drogues % of Drogues No. Drogues % of Drogues No. Drogues % of Drogues No. Drogues % of Drogues Trap 1 10 1% 209 19% 776 70% 445 40% Trap 2 353 32% 348 31% 333 30% 662 59% Trap 3 0 0% 28 3% 0 0% 2 0% Total 363 33% 585 52% 1109 99% 1109 99% Maribyrnong Future Options – Normal Conditions Maribyrnong • New location of Trap 1 − Improved from 1% to 19% • Extending boom for Trap 1 − Improved from 19% to 70% − 99% Total drogues captured • Extended booms at Trap 1 & 2 Maintained overall performance with a more equal split between Trap 1 & 2
  • 27. Future Options Yarra • Option 1a − Move Trap 17 upstream 250m • Option 1b − As Option 1a, but extend all trap booms to riverbank • Option 2 − As Option 1b, but bubble curtain installed in main channel between Trap 14 & 15
  • 28. Future Options Bubble Curtain • Aim to passively divert drogues to banks • Technology also used to move litter to the surface • Porous Plate Structure
  • 29. Results – Future Options Yarra Future Options – Normal Conditions Litter Trap Existing Option 1a Option 1b Option 2 No. Drogues % of Drogues No. Drogues % of Drogues No. Drogues % of Drogues No. Drogues % of Drogues Trap 10 59 5% 62 6% 87 8% 101 9% Trap 11 213 19% 214 19% 217 20% 208 19% Trap 12 28 3% 33 3% 47 4% 41 4% Trap 13 174 16% 166 15% 167 15% 173 16% Trap 14 4 0% 6 1% 5 0% 9 1% Trap 15 72 6% 66 6% 67 6% 74 7% Trap 16 169 15% 165 15% 244 22% 329 30% Trap 17 5 0% 14 1% 0 0% 0 0% Total 724 65% 726 65% 834 75% 935 84% Yarra • New location of Trap 17 − Successfully captures all litter on north bank − Negligible change to overall amount • Extending booms for all traps − Improved capture by 10% − Little increase under storm conditions (1%) • Addition of a bubble curtain − Increase capture by 9%
  • 30. Conclusions Project Objectives i. To better understand the inflow & movement of litter on the Maribyrnong & Yarra Rivers ii. Assess the effectiveness of current litter traps iii. Consider potential future alternative options i • Model demonstrated tidal influences to flows on Maribyrnong & eddies on Yarra ii • Identified issues with positioning of litter traps Understanding informed by HD & Drogues iii Suggested efficiencies through: > Repositioning > Extending booms to riverbanks > Use of bubble screens to push litter to the banks
  • 32. Model Calibration • No measured current data • Data collected from a drogue survey of the Maribyrnong • Bed roughness tuned • Location 1 Drogue Data − Speed between 0.17 – 0.26 m/s − Direction of 165° • ?Schedule of models: • HD only • HD + Drogues • Litter Traps • Litter Traps + Drogues
  • 33. Model Calibration • No measured current data • Data collected from a drogue survey of the Maribyrnong • Bed roughness tuned • Location 2 Drogue Data − Speed between 0.08 – 0.14 m/s − Direction of 305°
  • 34. Volumes of litter collected: LITTER AND FLOWS CONNECTING THE YARRA AND BAY (2020) – Yarra Riverkeepers Association