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DSD-INT 2018 Catchment scale modelling of sediment dynamics using wflow- Boisgontier

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Presentation by Hélène Boisgontier (Deltares) at the wflow User Day 2018, during Delft Software Days - Edition 2018. Friday 09 November 2018, Delft.

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DSD-INT 2018 Catchment scale modelling of sediment dynamics using wflow- Boisgontier

  1. 1. 9 November 2018 Catchment/continental scale model of sediment dynamics using wflow Delft Software Days – wflow Hélène Boisgontier The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska -Curie grant agreement No 643052 (CCASCADES project)
  2. 2. 9 November 2018 C-CASCADES • A Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network • Consortium of 9 academic institutions, 3 industrial partners and 1 international organisation • Goal: Better understand, quantify and model the role of the Land Ocean Aquatic Continuum (LOAC) and its dynamics in the global carbon budget. • 15 sub-projects done by 15 Early Stage Researchers 2
  3. 3. 9 November 2018 Goals of the project • Goal: Model exports of terrestrial sediment/carbon through the LOAC at the catchment/continent scale In-stream processes River modelSoil loss model 3
  4. 4. 9 November 2018 Context/Goals of the project • Goal: Model exports of terrestrial sediment/carbon through the LOAC at the catchment/continent scale • Model and estimate soil loss and sediment yield by land erosion • Determine the fate and transport of the incoming sediments along the river system • Application across Europe • Application for water quality issues Coupling with a distributed hydrology model  fine space resolution  large space scale  fine temporal resolution 4
  5. 5. Hydrology model wflow SBM 9 November 2018 5
  6. 6. Why wflow SBM model • Distributed hydrology model developed by Deltares • Open source model • Global version in development • Based on available global datasets • Uncalibrated model • Three-clicks-to-a-model framework 9 November 2018 Overview of the different processes and fluxes in wflow_sbm model 6
  7. 7. GENERALITIES Sediment model 9 November 2018 7
  8. 8. Framework and inputs • Wflow module with the same structure as wflow SBM • Runned after wflow SBM • Required (dynamic) inputs from wflow SBM: • Surface Runoff • Water Level • Rainfall interception • Additional input data • Topsoil clay, silt, organic carbon from Soilgrids • Optional: canopy height from a global map from Simard, 2011 9 November 2018 Kinnell, 20108
  9. 9. Test basin: Rhine basin • Resolution: 0.6 km2 • Global datasets • Catchment/river: HydroSheds • Lakes: GLWD • DEM: SRTM 30m • Precipitation from eartH2Observe • Land Use: Globcover • Soil: SoilGrids 9 November 2018 9
  10. 10. SOIL LOSS PART Sediment model 9 November 2018 10
  11. 11. Processes to take into account • Soil detachment • Splash/Rainfall erosion • Overland flow erosion • Wind erosion • Mass wasting… • Transport / delivery to the river or catchment outlet • Deposition • Valley bottom • Floodplain • Depressions • Field boundaries… 26 October 2018 Kinnell, 201011
  12. 12. Erosion models available • USLE-based family (semi-empirical) • Most well-known and used erosion models • USLE-RUSLE: more suited for yearly/monthly timestep • MUSLE: event-based (~daily) but implied sediment delivery ratio 𝑆𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 𝑅𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 ∗ 𝐿𝑆 ∗ 𝐾 ∗ 𝐶 ∗ 𝑃 • Physics-based models • ANSWERS • EUROSEM • SWAT (hourly): combination of the two 𝑆𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 = 𝑅𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 + 𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑒𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 9 November 2018 12
  13. 13. Final chosen erosion model: EUROSEM+ANSWERS 9 November 2018 Adapted from De Vente et al., 2008 Soil from Upslope Detachment by Rain Detachment by Flow Detachment on Increment Total Detached Soil Transport Capacity of Flow Soil Carried Downslope Compare If Det < Trans If Det > Trans EUROSEM ANSWERS Govers or Yalin 13
  14. 14. Results: Rhine basin 9 November 2018 Simulated surface runoff and soil loss for the year 2010: 14
  15. 15. Results: Rhine basin 9 November 2018 Comparison with modelled soil loss from Panagos & al. (2010) and PESERA (2003): Panagos map RUSLE (rainfall based) PESERA map Physics (surface runoff based) 15
  16. 16. Results: Rhine basin 9 November 2018 Comparison per land use type with soil loss plots data and other modelled studies: 16 Forest [t.ha-1.yr-1] Cropland [t.ha-1.yr-1] Grassland [t.ha-1.yr-1] Cerdan (Europe) 0.2 3.6 0.4 Maetens (Europe) 0.7 6.5 0.7 Panagos (Rhine, year 2010) 2.61 2.16 2.53 PESERA (Rhine, year 2003) 0.33 1.62 0.73 Mean modelled (Rhine, years 2010 to 2014) 0.28 1.50 0.45 Mean Soil Loss per LUSources Literature (field data) Other simulations wflow sed
  17. 17. RIVER PART Sediment model 9 November 2018 17
  18. 18. Processes to take into account • Transport (equation or capacity) • River erosion (total or bed/bank) • Deposition/settling • River • Reservoir / lake • Floodplain • Particle differentiation (for water quality modelling) 26 October 2018 18
  19. 19. Models available (hydrology coupling) 9 November 2018 • Delft3D-WAQ type: • Krone-Partheniades • Transport equation (Engelund and Hansen & advection- dispersion equation) • SWAT (default) based on a sediment concentration threshold • Erosion if C < Cthres • Else deposition • SWAT (physics-based) • Erosion of bed and bank with physics based equation • Deposition from Einstein • Separation of suspended and bed loads • Multiple equations for transport 19 Possibility of no calibration calibration calibration
  20. 20. Final chosen river model: SWAT 9 November 2018 Sediment from Upstream Sediment from Previous Timestep Sediment from Land Erosion Total Sediment Input River Erosion Transport Capacity of Flow Total Sediment Load Compare If Input < TransEinstein Camp (reservoir) Bagnold (possible others) Soil model Deposition Knight, 1984 Julian & Torres, 2006 20
  21. 21. Issues with the river model 9 November 2018 • wflow SBM and rivers: • River map with cells containing part of the main streams • Surface runoff and water level adapted • River width (empirical equation) • But not the slope! 21 Need calibration for river transport
  22. 22. Results: Rhine at Lobith 2012 (calibration) 9 November 2018 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 03-11-11 23-12-11 11-02-12 01-04-12 21-05-12 10-07-12 29-08-12 18-10-12 07-12-12 26-01-13 Q [m3/s] Qsim 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 03-11-11 23-12-11 11-02-12 01-04-12 21-05-12 10-07-12 29-08-12 18-10-12 07-12-12 26-01-13 SPM [mg/L] SPM sim 22
  23. 23. Results: Rhine at Lobith 2010 9 November 2018 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 03-12-09 22-01-10 13-03-10 02-05-10 21-06-10 10-08-10 29-09-10 18-11-10 07-01-11 26-02-11 Q [m3/s] Qsim 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 03-12-09 22-01-10 13-03-10 02-05-10 21-06-10 10-08-10 29-09-10 18-11-10 07-01-11 26-02-11 SPM[mg/L] SPM sim 23
  24. 24. Conclusions 9 November 2018 • Development of a sediment model coupled to wflow: • Based entirely on global datasets • No calibration for the soil loss part • Calibration (minimum) for the river part 24
  25. 25. Thank you for your attention 9 November 2018 25
  26. 26. 9 November 2018 C-CASCADES project Goal: Better quantify the role of the Land Ocean Aquatic Continuum (LOAC) and its dynamics in the global carbon budget. • Improved understanding of the processes controlling carbon transport and transformations (from mountain stream to open ocean). • Quantification of LOAC carbon fluxes and CO2 emissions in hotspot regions. • Integration of the LOAC carbon cycle in European Earth System Models to better estimate the global CO2 budget. 26
  27. 27. Model equations: Soil loss 9 November 2018 • Rainfall erosion • ANSWERS: 𝐷 𝑅 = 0,108 ∗ 𝐾 𝑈𝑆𝐿𝐸 ∗ 𝐶 𝑈𝑆𝐿𝐸 ∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝑅𝑖 2 • EUROSEM: 𝐷 𝑅 = 𝑘 ∗ 𝐾𝐸 ∗ 𝑒−𝜑ℎ • Overland flow erosion • ANSWERS: 𝐷 𝐹 = 0,90 ∗ 𝐾 𝑈𝑆𝐿𝐸 ∗ 𝐶 𝑈𝑆𝐿𝐸∗ 𝐴 ∗ 𝑆 ∗ 𝑄 • Transport capacity • Govers: 𝑇𝐶 = 𝑐 𝜔 − 𝜔𝑐𝑟 η • Yalin (differentiation): 𝑇𝐶 = 𝐿 𝑄 (𝜌𝑠 − 𝜌 𝑓)𝐷50 𝑈∗ 𝑃 𝐾𝐸𝑙𝑒𝑎𝑓 = 15,8𝐻 𝑝 0,5 − 5,87 𝐾𝐸 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡 = 11,87 + 8,73𝑙𝑜𝑔10 𝑅𝑖 27
  28. 28. Model equations: River 9 November 2018 • Deposition • Einstein: 𝑃𝑑𝑒𝑝 = 1 − 1 𝑒 𝑥 ∗ 100 𝑥 = 1,055∗𝐿∗𝜔 𝑠 𝑢∗ℎ • Erosion • Erosion rates: 𝐸 𝑅 = 𝑘 𝑑 ∗ (𝜏 𝑒 − 𝜏 𝑐𝑟) • Knight: 𝜏 𝑒,𝑏𝑒𝑑 = 𝜌𝑔𝑅ℎ 𝑆 ∗ 1 − 𝑆𝐹𝑏𝑎𝑛𝑘 ∗ 1 + 2ℎ 𝑊 log 𝑆𝐹𝑏𝑎𝑛𝑘 = −1,4026 ∗ 𝑙𝑜𝑔 𝑊 ℎ + 3 + 2,6692 • Julian & Torres: 𝜏 𝑐𝑟,𝑏𝑎𝑛𝑘 = 0,1 + 0,1779 ∗ 𝑆𝐶 + 0,0028 ∗ 𝑆𝐶2 − 2,34 ∗ 10−5 ∗ 𝑆𝐶3 ∗ 𝐶𝑐ℎ 𝑘 𝑑 = 0,2 ∗ 𝜏 𝑐𝑟 −0,5 h WL u𝜔𝑠 28
  29. 29. Model equations: River 9 November 2018 • Transport • Simplified Bagnold: TC = 𝑐 𝑠𝑝 𝑝𝑟𝑓∗𝑄 ℎ∗𝑊 𝑠𝑝 𝑒𝑥𝑝 h WL u𝜔𝑠 29

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