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The fourth paradigm: a research perspective 
Data Science Symposium 
Arnold Bregt
Outline presentation 
The fourth paradigm 
Your opinion 
The roles of science 
●Data producer role 
●Data user role 
●D...
A short introduction to.....me (Arnold) 
Geo-information Science - Wageningen University 
MSc Geo-information science 
...
My field: Geo-information science
Paradigms in Science: a classification
Your opinion 
Who has made new discoveries by only analysing data? 
Who think we collect too much data? 
Who beliefs th...
The fourth paradigm 
Data-intensive scientific discovery 
(almost) all disciplines are more data intensive 
It is a hyp...
Papers in Scopus “fourth paradigm”
Papers in Scopus “big data”
A lot of conferences
Universities and IBM
eScience in Scopus
Marie Tharp (Oceanography) 
1920- 2006 
Seafloor mapping (1957) 
Envisioning processes from 2D observations
Is it really new? 
Data is always used by science for discovery 
What is new: 
●Volume 
●Type of data (more spatial/temp...
More for less
Data by surprise
The role of Science 
Data producer role 
●Past 
●Present 
●Future 
Data user role 
●... 
Data governance/management rol...
Data producer role: Past 
Collect own data key part of research 
Contextual knowledge of data 
Owned by researcher (at ...
Data producer role: Present 
Own data collection additionally to existing data (data for validation) 
Data collection in...
Data producer role: Future 
More producer of aggregated data based on existing data (meta- analysis on data) 
Role of sc...
Data user role: Past 
Analyse own data 
Direct knowledge of data context 
(even) own software for data analysis (exampl...
Data user role: Present 
Strong increase of reuse of existing data (example) 
More statistical relations (statistically ...
Example
Data user role: Future 
Quest for processing and visualisation algorithms 
Strong increase of re-use 
More “data-based”...
Data governance/management role: Past 
Researcher manages own data 
Stored in paper archives 
Collections are important...
Data governance/management role: Present 
Increased attention and institutions 
Data as part of publications 
DANS, 3TU...
Data management plan 
All PhD’s must formulate DMP. 
Chair groups are responsible 
Critical issue from plan to implemen...
Data governance/Management 
The Availability of Research Data Declines Rapidly with Article Age 
Timothy H. et al. 2014,...
Data governance/management role: Future 
Selection of data to be preserved 
Specialist task (in close interaction with t...
Extent description 
Target groups Functions Manage Search Exchange Use Personal + + - - Own organisation/researchers ++ ++...
Conclusions/Refection 
Data has always played a key-role in science 
The fourth paradigm is not new, but “scale is new” ...
The fourth paradigm 
For scientists an 
evolution 
(not a revolution)
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Dsd int 2014 - data science symposium - 4th paradigm a research perspective, prof. arnold bregt, wageningen ur & amsterdam institute for advanced metropolitan solutions

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Dsd int 2014 - data science symposium - 4th paradigm a research perspective, prof. arnold bregt, wageningen ur & amsterdam institute for advanced metropolitan solutions

  1. 1. The fourth paradigm: a research perspective Data Science Symposium Arnold Bregt
  2. 2. Outline presentation The fourth paradigm Your opinion The roles of science ●Data producer role ●Data user role ●Data governance/management role Conclusions/refection
  3. 3. A short introduction to.....me (Arnold) Geo-information Science - Wageningen University MSc Geo-information science Research topics our group: ●Sensing and measuring ●Modelling and visualization ●Integrated land monitoring ●Human-space interaction ●Empowering communities
  4. 4. My field: Geo-information science
  5. 5. Paradigms in Science: a classification
  6. 6. Your opinion Who has made new discoveries by only analysing data? Who think we collect too much data? Who beliefs that the fourth paradigm is a new paradigm?
  7. 7. The fourth paradigm Data-intensive scientific discovery (almost) all disciplines are more data intensive It is a hype (“Big data”)
  8. 8. Papers in Scopus “fourth paradigm”
  9. 9. Papers in Scopus “big data”
  10. 10. A lot of conferences
  11. 11. Universities and IBM
  12. 12. eScience in Scopus
  13. 13. Marie Tharp (Oceanography) 1920- 2006 Seafloor mapping (1957) Envisioning processes from 2D observations
  14. 14. Is it really new? Data is always used by science for discovery What is new: ●Volume ●Type of data (more spatial/temporal resolution) ●Data by “accident” or “surprice”
  15. 15. More for less
  16. 16. Data by surprise
  17. 17. The role of Science Data producer role ●Past ●Present ●Future Data user role ●... Data governance/management role ●....
  18. 18. Data producer role: Past Collect own data key part of research Contextual knowledge of data Owned by researcher (at least not claimed by university)
  19. 19. Data producer role: Present Own data collection additionally to existing data (data for validation) Data collection in communities (consortia) Researcher compile collections (data selection) (example)
  20. 20. Data producer role: Future More producer of aggregated data based on existing data (meta- analysis on data) Role of scientist as data producer will be reduced Validation data from small experiments Data production as an own activity (specialist) ....
  21. 21. Data user role: Past Analyse own data Direct knowledge of data context (even) own software for data analysis (example)
  22. 22. Data user role: Present Strong increase of reuse of existing data (example) More statistical relations (statistically different) Less understanding of causal relations
  23. 23. Example
  24. 24. Data user role: Future Quest for processing and visualisation algorithms Strong increase of re-use More “data-based” science ..
  25. 25. Data governance/management role: Past Researcher manages own data Stored in paper archives Collections are important Role of libraries and museum's
  26. 26. Data governance/management role: Present Increased attention and institutions Data as part of publications DANS, 3TU.datacentrum Research data Netherlands Data management plan (PhD’s)
  27. 27. Data management plan All PhD’s must formulate DMP. Chair groups are responsible Critical issue from plan to implementation
  28. 28. Data governance/Management The Availability of Research Data Declines Rapidly with Article Age Timothy H. et al. 2014, Current Biology We examined the availability of data from 516 studies between 2 and 22 years old The odds of a data set being reported as extant fell by 17% per year Broken e-mails and obsolete storage devices were the main obstacles to data sharing Policies mandating data archiving at publication are clearly needed
  29. 29. Data governance/management role: Future Selection of data to be preserved Specialist task (in close interaction with the library) “from book to data library” Key-role for meta-data
  30. 30. Extent description Target groups Functions Manage Search Exchange Use Personal + + - - Own organisation/researchers ++ ++ ++ ++ Other organisation/researchers - +++ +++ +++
  31. 31. Conclusions/Refection Data has always played a key-role in science The fourth paradigm is not new, but “scale is new” The role of the scientist is changing from primary data collection to re-use of existing data Which means that the “data knowledge” is decreasing
  32. 32. The fourth paradigm For scientists an evolution (not a revolution)

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