05 Closing cycles


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Presentation Merle de Kreuk on closing cycles - kick-off DUWC

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05 Closing cycles

  1. 1. Closing Water, Nutrient and Energy cycles Starting in wastewater treatment systems…1
  2. 2. Wastewater in The Netherlands • Production almost 2 billion m3 clean effluent per year • Originating from industry and approximately 7.2 million households • Treated in 350 WWTP’s • Electricity use of 0.37 kWh/m3 treated wastewater (but heating of water 60 Mjprimair/m3) • 15-20% of imported phosphate rock ends up in wastewater2
  3. 3. Wastewater treatment focus; changes in the past 60 years Removal of organics, Nitrogen and phosphate Multifunctional Area use Removal3 of Organics
  4. 4. Is this enough? • Water Framework Directive (WFD-EU) • Changing focus to more “sustainable” wastewater treatment: • Grey water, black water and rainwater treatment; • Less energy use + energy recovery; • Wastewater as source Possibilities & limits of the activated sludge process STOWA 20074
  5. 5. 5 Changes in the next (60) jaar? (waste)(water)chain ery co v t re rien Nut N P New E&Q sanitP atio n Product formaton W N pro aste ces sin g Sewer management Drinking water purification 5
  6. 6. Demand driven research?! Commitments of the waterboards: • Water Framework Directive EU • Good ecological status surface water (Nutrients, Micro Pollutants, metals, EDC’s, pharmaceuticals etc.) • Reduction energy consumption • 2% / year (2005-2020: 30%) • Climate agreement with the National Government, March 2010 • 40% sustainable energy production in 2020 • 30% reduction GHG 1990 en 2020 • 100% sustainable purchase • Green deal, October 2011 • 12 Energy factories + 5 Phosphorus recovery plants • Covenant Phosphorus Cycle, October 20116
  7. 7. Themes for the coming years Energy recovery Nutr i reco ent very re u se a ter W7
  8. 8. Roadmap 2030 – “sources-factory” Water Nutrients Energy8
  9. 9. Water Water reuse Nutrients Energy Important characteristics for WWTP configuration • Physical removal of COD • Biological removal of N • Biological and chemical/physical removal of P • Biological processes based on activated sludge and attached growth (membrane, sand filters, activated carbon).9
  10. 10. Projects • Irrigation in greenhouses Water • Pilot at Harnaschpolder with filtration methods; • Sewermining Water • Production of high quality process water from sewer, preferably energy neutral Energy • Anaerobic Membranes • uncoupling HRT and SRT, resulting in high quality nutrient Water rich, pathogen free effluent; • Fouling, shear and costs Nutrients Energy10
  11. 11. Water Nutrient recovery Nutrients Product recovery Energy Important characteristics for WWTP configuration • Separate nutrients and COD Nutrients Energy • Concentrate nutrients (precipitation) • Recover other products or produce products (bioplastics, other polymers, fine sieve material, algea?, duckweed?)11
  12. 12. Chances for decentralized treatment or different wastewater collection Grijs water Grey water Grey water Grijs water Feaces; 3,4% Urine; 47% 18% 11,6% Nitrogen Phosphate Feaces;12 Urine; 85% 35%
  13. 13. Water Energy production Nutrients or Energy-factory Energy Important characteristics for WWTP configuration • Separation of COD instead of aerobic degradation (optimization biogas production and energy consumption at aeration) • Energy: economic removal of N, P and residual COD (anammox) • Maximal recovery of sludge caloric content  Chances for heat recovery in the sewer13
  14. 14. • Realisation • Research/development • Marketing14 www.energiefabriek.com
  15. 15. Research topics formulated by the waterboards treatmentconcept (11) Separation solids and water Separation C and N treatment Rejectionwater treatment Small WWTP’s Low energy technologies Sludge treatment (5) Optimalisation digestionproces Alternatives digestion Co-digestion Final sludge treatment Energyconversion, -supply (7) Energy conversion Energie supply Heat from watercycle15
  16. 16. Role of Anammox in the E-factory Based on: Lower COD for N-removal (denitrification)  more COD for biogas production Rejection Water “Anammox brings WWTP closer to energyautarky due to increased biogas production and reduced aeration energy for N-removal” Sewage Siegrist et al., 2008 “Sewage treatment with Anammox” Kartal et al., 2010 - Science Revival of the A/B system:  Lower COD for N-removal (Anammox in the B-stage)  more COD for biogas production (Biomass production in A-stage)16
  17. 17. Anammox technology at low temperatures (Paques, TUD, RUN, WSHD, STOWA) Main concern: Competition ammonium and nitrite oxidizing bacteria and Anammox at pilot (and full scale) conditions17
  18. 18. Combining old and new goals Aerobic granular sludge technology:  Excellent settling properties sludge  Granules without carrier material  High biomass concentrations Activated sludge  Extensive nutrient removal Aerobic Granules  Low area requirement  Simple single-tank concept  Sustainable (energy and additives)  Low costs Water ???! Nutrients Products Energy18
  19. 19. Example of technology development Successful cooperation needed, In this Nereda Case: University (TUD), Industry (DHV) and Government (waterboards, stowa, stw, EU)19
  20. 20. Questions?20