Raves week 5_paul


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Raves week 5_paul

  1. 1. Modernity<br />
  2. 2. Modern- Characteristic of the present and recent times; new-fashioned; not antiquated or obsolete (O.E.D.)<br />Modernity- a term that refers to historical and sociological configurations<br />Modernism- a term that refers to cultural and epistemological concepts<br /> (c.1890-c.1960)<br />
  3. 3. Modern: This industrial, post Enlightenment society marks a clear break with the past.<br />Modernity: Can be traced back to the The Age of Reason/ The Enlightenment (17th and 18th C.)<br />
  4. 4. The Age of Enlightenment c. 17-18th C.<br />The Age of Reason<br />The Enlightenment<br />The two are often<br />considered as parts of a<br />whole and referred to<br />as The Age of<br />Enlightenment.<br />Rembrandt, ,The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632<br />
  5. 5. Enlightenment ideals<br />Reason (human autonomy: Humans seek knowledge and use own reason rather than being told what to think by the church)<br />Enlightenment is universal (humans are equal by nature, differences less important than inherent sameness) <br />Progress (away from superstition and ‘immaturity’)<br />Secularism (the separation of church and states)<br />Idea of popular government (not just aristocrats should rule but also the Bourgeois- middle class)<br />
  6. 6. Gidden’s Institutions of Modernity, 1990<br />Industrialism <br /> (transformation of nature, development of created environment)<br />Surveillance<br /> (control of information, social supervision)<br />Capitalism<br /> (capital accumulation within competitive labour and product markets)<br />Military Power<br /> (industrialization of war)<br />
  7. 7. “At its simplest, modernity is shorthand for modern society or industrial civilization…it is associated with…[1] the idea of the world as an open transformation by human intervention…[2] industrial production and a market economy…[3] the nation-state and mass democracy.”<br /> Conversations with Anthony Giddens: Making Sense of Modernity, 1988 p.94<br />
  8. 8. Activity<br /> With regard to Giddens’ institutions of modernity think of, and list, examples of these in the period of history we have covered this far.<br />
  9. 9. Modernity as grand narrative‘grand narrative’ (or meta-narrative): a grand narrative is anarrative form which seeks to provide a definite account of realityEdgar / Sedgwick (2004). Cultural Theory - Key concepts. Routledge, p163the grand narrative of modernity: the story of progress throughuniversal human reason (Enlightenment ideals). Modernity was "a progressive force promising to liberate humankind from ignorance and irrationality" (Rosenau 1992, 5)<br />
  10. 10. Capitalism vs Marxism Marxism as grand narrative: the analysis of history as asequence of developments; Capitalism is the last stage in a longhistory of class struggles, culminating in a liberating workers’ revolution<br />
  11. 11. Cover of Paris Match magazine <br />
  12. 12. Colonialism/European Imperialism legitimized by the grand narrative of progress.“We are modernizing, and thus liberating you.”<br />
  13. 13. Human shock in the face of the unimaginable (pollution, Holocaust, WWs, atomic bomb) results in a loss of fixed points of reference. Neither the world nor the self any longer possesses unity, coherence, meaning. They are radically 'decentred.'<br />
  14. 14. “One can note a sort of decay in the confidence placed by<br />the two last centuries in the idea of progress. This idea of<br />progress as possible, probable or necessary was rooted in<br />the certainty that the development of the arts, technology,<br />knowledge and liberty would be profitable to mankind as<br />a whole. (...) [We] concurred in the same belief that<br />enterprises, discoveries and institutions are legitimate only<br />insofar as they contribute to the emancipation of mankind.<br />After two centuries, we are more sensitive to signs that<br />signify the contrary.”<br /> Jean-Francois Lyotard (1986). Defining the Postmodern.<br />
  15. 15. critical attitudes towards the notion of ‘historical progress’POSTMODERNITY<br />Jean-Francois Lyotard: stresses the collapse of ‘grand narratives’, and<br />their replacement with ‘little narratives’, since metanarratives are created<br />and reinforced by power structures and are therefore not to be trusted;<br />they ignore the heterogeneity or variety of human existence.<br />Michel Foucault: stresses the questioning of all truth claims. Discourse is<br />always inseparable from power. It determines what it is possible to say,<br />what are the criteria of ‘truth’, who is allowed to speak with authority,<br />and where such speech can be spoken. In a given period only certain<br />kinds of speaking and writing are recognised as valid.<br />There are no absolutely ‘true’ discourses, only more or less powerful<br />ones.<br />JürgenHabermas: argues for the importance of the unfinished modern<br />project; it needs to be reconsidered, but not relinquished<br />