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  1. 1. Lecture ThreeThe Modern Movement and its impact on fashion<br />Art Nouveau 1890-1910<br />Cubism c.1909<br />Ballets Russes 1909 - 1929<br />The Modern Movement<br />Futurism 1909 – 1916 <br />Dada 1916 – 1921<br />Art Deco 1910 – 1939<br />Constructivism 1917 – c.1930<br />The Bauhaus 1919 - 1933<br />Surrealism 1924 – 1929 and beyond <br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Ballets Russes 1909 – 1929<br />Founded by Sergei Diaghilev – impresario: art exhibitions, opera, ballet etc.<br />Emphasis on colour and exoticism, rather than the romantic tradition<br />Star and lead dancer (also choreographer) Vaslav Nijinsky<br />Sets and costumes by Leon Bakst<br />Diaghilev expert at involving other great creatives at the time (Chanel designed costumes; Picasso, artwork for programmes; Cocteau wrote scenarios etc)<br />Last performance in 1929, Diaghilev died later that year.<br />Paul Poiret 1879 – 1944 <br />Opened his own couture house in 1903<br />Rose to fame under the influence of the avant garde art of the time, as well as the Ballets Russes;<br />Emphasis on loose clothing, simple lines, strong colours, orientalism (collected ethnological textiles)<br />A heavy self-promoter, theatrical in spirit – he designed for impact<br />Designed the ‘hobble skirt’, ungainly but influential 1909-1914<br />Allegedly: freed women from corsets; first couturier to launch a perfume<br />
  3. 3. Ballets Russes, Vaslav Nijinsky in Scheherazade, 1910, costumes by Leon Bakst<br />
  4. 4. Designs influenced by Bakst and the Russian ballet, 1914 (‘Salome’ by Paul Poiret, on the left)<br />
  5. 5. 3<br />Art Deco1910 – 1939 <br />Similar to Art Nouveau in that it is a highly decorative, international movement.<br />But line, pattern, shape and form are heavily stylised and sculptural;<br />Favoured motifs: fan motifs, geometric fan motifs, zig-zags, sunbursts.<br />Emphasis on exoticism, strong colours, sophisticated taste.<br />Brought glamour and opulence to architecture and interiors.<br />(The Discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb in 1922 brought a craze for Egyptian-style designs and antique colours eg. gold, turquoise and so on)<br />Sonia Delaunay<br />Vibrant, artistic use of colour: paintings, graphics, stage designs, fashions<br />Coco Chanel<br />Introduced chic daywear, classic two-piece suits, flamboyant costume jewelry, ‘the little black dress’, and menswear for women (trousers, blazers, etc). Emphasis on youth and elegance. First couturier to place her name on a perfume (and designed the bottle). <br />
  6. 6. Young Woman in Green, portrait by Tamara de Lempicka, 1927<br />
  7. 7. Normandie, 1935A. M. Cassandre<br />
  8. 8. Left: Radiator grille, entrance lobby of Chanin building NYC 1929Right: ‘Sight’ and ‘Sound’ reliefs, Warner West End, Leicester Square, London 1938 <br />
  9. 9. Dressing gown made of a fabric designed by Sonia Delaunay, 1926<br />
  10. 10. Gouache design on paper, 1935 – Sonia Delaunay<br />
  11. 11. Sports coat and its material, 1926By Sonia Delaunay<br />
  12. 12. 4<br />Constructivism 1917 – c.1930<br />1917 Russian Revolution (October Revolution) – V.I.Lenin emerges as Leader.<br />Constructivists: founders Vladimir Tatlin, Alexander Rodchenko, plus other artists – El Lissitzky, Varvara Stepanova, Ljubov Popova and more.<br />Rejected ‘Art for Art’s Sake’ and used their artistic skills to create products and imagery for the good of society – thus building or ‘constructing’ the new Soviet future, while also redefining the role of the artist.<br />1917 – late 1920s: an intense period of prolific work for the avant garde artists.<br />1924 – Lenin dies.<br />By the 1930s, Socialist Realism was favoured; in 1932 Stalin outlawed abstract art and design.<br />Varvara Stepanova 1894 – 1958 <br />Sportswear design, textile (pattern) design, graphics, theatre design<br />Alexandra Exter 1882 – 1949 <br />Painting, stage and costume design, also decorating ‘agit-trains’ with her pupils.<br />Designed costumes for ‘Aelita’, first Russian science fiction film.<br />
  13. 13. Below: Varvara Stepanova, Ljubov PopovaRight: Alexander Rodchenko<br />
  14. 14. Poster by Rodchenko for the Leningrad State Publishers, 1925‘Lengiz – BOOKS – in all branches of knowledge’<br />
  15. 15. Costume sketch No. 7, 1921 – Ljubov Popova<br />
  16. 16. Designs for sportswear by Stepanova (left) and logo designs by Rodchenko (right), c.1917<br />
  17. 17. The Female PyramidPhotograph byAlexander Rodchenko,1936<br />
  18. 18. Textile design, 1924 – Varvara Stepanova<br />
  19. 19. Water sports, textile design, late 1920s<br />
  20. 20. Tractors, textile design, 1930<br />
  21. 21. Red Army soldiers help with the cotton harvest, textile design, 1932<br />
  22. 22. Untitled fabric design, 1932/4<br />
  23. 23. The Turkish Siberian Railway, textile design, 1930s<br />
  24. 24. Poster for the film ‘Man with a Movie Camera’, 1929 – The Stenberg Brothers<br />
  25. 25. 5<br />Surrealism 1924 – 1929 and beyond<br />Founded in Paris by Andre Breton; emerged from Dadaism.<br />Attracted to the theories of the psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, and consequently the creative potential of dreams and the unconscious. <br />Diverse and often startling imagery due to unusual juxtapositioning of elements and collage; encompassed a wide range of media, from painting to photography to installations. <br />Has had a heavy impact on fashion and advertising ever since.<br />Elsa Schiaparelli 1890 – 1973 <br />Combined Surrealism and Art Deco, glamour and fun, to produce highly distinctive fashion using themes such as ‘mad carnival’, ‘circus’, ‘pagan’ etc <br />‘For colours, she is the feminine Paul Poiret.’ (Harper’s Bazaar, 1934)<br />Collaborated with Surrealist artist Salvador Dali, Jean Cocteau and others.<br />Added features: her trademark colour ‘shocking pink’, plus hats, embroidery.<br />Customers included many 1930s Hollywood actresses, as well as Mrs. Wallis Simpson (married Duke of Windsor, formerly Edward VIII)<br />
  26. 26. Lobster telephone, Surrealist object, 1936 – Salvador Dali<br />
  27. 27. Dali-inspired lobster on a white evening dress, c.1937 – Elsa Schiaparelli<br />
  28. 28. Evening coat by Elsa Schiaparelli with embroidered illustration by Jean Cocteau, c.1937<br />
  29. 29. Hen in Nest Hat, 1938 (illustration by Eric) – Vogue, New York, March 15, 1938<br />
  30. 30. Men’s shoes, 1986 – Pierre Cardin<br />