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Genetic Disorders
   Yorkshire Terriers
Introduction
►   When choosing any breed of dog you must be aware of
    potential health concerns
►   All dogs mixes and pure bred can have health concerns
►   The more popular breeds and their mixes will have more
    genetic problems listed and more likely to have puppies
    with problems .
►   Although more serious in dogs under 6 lbs all sizes of
    Yorkshires can have any of these health concerns.
►   Make sure your breeder offers a written health guarantee
    good for one year.
►   Have the puppy heath checked at your Veterinarian.
Musculoskeletal Disorders
► Patellar  luxation : Slipping kneecap. Should be
  noticeable puppy vet check prior to sale
► Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease : This is a
  disease of the hip joint in young (4 to 12 months),
  small-breed dogs.
Heart Disorders
►   Patent ductus arteriosus Where the ductus arteriosus
    does not close within 24-48 hours after birth, the dog is left
    with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA causes
    unnecessary recirculation of blood through the heart,
    greatly increasing the workload of the heart and potentially
    causing terminal heart failure in time if the PDA is not
    closed via surgery
Eye Disorders
►   Retinal dysplasia : The condition is present from birth. At 3 to 4
    weeks of age, the breeder may notice that severely affected pups are
    less active and frequently bump into objects. A veterinarian will be best
    able to examine the pup's eyes for this condition with an
    ophthalmoscope at 12 to 16 weeks of age, when the retina is mature.

►   Cataracts : Can be congenital, juvenile or as a result of old age

►   Corneal dystrophy : an inherited abnormality that affects one or
    more layers of the cornea. Both eyes are usually affected, although not
    necessarily symmetrically. Chronic or recurring shallow ulcers may
    result, depending on the corneal layers affected

►   Keratoconjunctivitis sicca KCS or "dry eye" is an eye disease
    caused by abnormal bulk of the tears.
Eye Disorders
► Progressive retinal atrophy : deterioration of the retinal cells causes
  blindness.
► Generalized PRA - early onset: The first sign is generally failing night
  vision, as early as 6 weeks of age, and this progresses to complete loss of
  vision by about 1 - 2 years of age. Collies may retain some vision until the age
  of 2 - 3 years. In miniature schnauzers, poor night vision usually develops later
  (6 months to a year) and there is advanced loss of vision by 3 to 4 years.
  Affected Alaskan malamutes are day-blind (hemeralopia) at 8 to 10 weeks of
  age; night vision is never affected.

►   Generalized PRA (progressive rod-cone degeneration) - late
    onset: Generally night blindness is noticed between 2 and 5 years of age
    (depending on the breed) progressing to total blindness within a year or so.
    Peripheral vision is lost first.

►   Central PRA (CPRA) - retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy
    (RPED): Loss of vision occurs much more slowly than in generalized PRA,
    without initial night blindness. Affected dogs may not lose vision completely.
    Because the changes are in the centre of the retina, affected dogs initially have
    trouble locating still objects in bright light.
Eye Disorders
►   Entropion : Entropion is the inward rolling of the eyelid,
    most commonly the lower lid. This irritates the surface of
    the eye (the cornea) and may ultimately cause visual
    impairment.
Nervous System Disorders
►   Hydrocephalus : an abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    in cavities in the brain (the ventricles). This results in increased
    pressure on the brain. Puppies with severe hydrocephalus often die
    at a very early age due to pressure from the increased fluid in the
    brain. In other less severely affected pups, the signs gradually become
    apparent over the first few months of life, and in some mild cases the
    condition is only diagnosed later in life.
    The types of signs seen with this condition include lack of thriftiness
    (smaller than littermates, slow to grow), a domed skull (which gradually
    becomes more pronounced), abnormal movement behaviour (e.g.,
    restlessness, aimless walking), problems with vision, and seizures.
    These pups are very slow to learn - it may be extremely difficult to
    housetrain them for example, or they may lose their housetraining.
    Generally the signs gradually worsen, although by 2 years of age they
    may stabilize. To minimize brain damage, the condition must be
    recognized and appropriate treatment begun early. However, affected
    animals will likely always be slow and have a limited ability to learn.
Nervous System Disorders
►   Shaker dog disease : This disorder usually develops suddenly in
    young adult dogs (6 months to 3 years of age). The signs become
    progressively worse over 1 to 3 days and then remain the same until
    treatment is begun. There is an all-over tremor that can range from
    mild to so severe that the dog may have difficulty walking. This is
    called an intention tremor, meaning that it is worse when the animal is
    excited or tries to perform a specific action (such as eat, walk towards
    an object, etc). The tremor decreases or disappears when the dog is
    relaxed or at rest. Commonly there are rapid, random eye movements
    as well. The condition is not painful and your dog's personality is
    unaffected. Treatment is generally effective; some dogs require
    medication for life to control the tremors
Skin Disorders
► Dermoid sinus         Dermoid sinus is present from birth, although the
  condition is usually not noticed until later. The tracts contain debris
  from the skin - sebum (waxy lubricating substance), dead skin cells,
  and hair - and commonly become infected and painful. If the tract
  extends to the spinal canal, infection may cause meningitis or myelitis,
  resulting in various neurologic signs such as local or general spinal
  pain, stiffness, or weakness (depending on the location of the sinus).
► Hypotrichosis : Dogs with this condition have hair loss at birth or by
  a few months of age, due to faulty development or a complete absence
  of some or all of the hair follicles from which the hairs normally grow. In
  some dogs other structures such as the sweat glands or the teeth are
  affected as well. The hair loss is not linked to coat color as with
  color dilution alopecia
►   Color dilution alopecia : Affected dogs have a poor, patchy hair
    coat progressing to widespread permanent hair loss
Blood Disorders
►   von Willebrand's disease a common, usually mild, inherited bleeding
    disorder in people and in dogs. It is caused by a lack of von Willebrand factor
    (vWF), which plays an essential role in the blood clotting process.
    Normally the body responds to an injury causing bleeding through a complex
    defense system. This consists of local changes in the damaged blood vessels,
    activation of blood cells called platelets, and the coagulation process. A
    reduction in von Willebrand factor leads to abnormal platelet function and
    prolonged bleeding times. Affected dogs are prone to bleeding episodes, such
    as nose bleeds, and generally experience increased bleeding with trauma or a
    surgical procedure.
    Three forms of the disease are distinguished based on vWF concentration and
    function. Dogs with Type I vWD (by far the most common) have mild to
    moderate bleeding abnormalities, depending on the level of vWF. The much
    rarer types II and III vWD cause severe bleeding disorders.
    Breeders of quality bred dogs do not have a problem as they now have a blood
    test. However poorly bred dogs may still have this problem
Respiratory Disorders
►   Tracheal collapse : Tracheal collapse is a narrowing of the inner
    diameter of the trachea, that fluctuates with the stage of the respiratory
    cycle. The rings of the trachea (made of cartilage) lose their ability to
    maintain their shape, and collapse when the dog breathes, causing a
    harsh cough. Most often this disorder is seen in middle-aged toy and
    miniature breeds. Chronic respiratory infection, obesity, and heart
    disease can all contribute to the development of the condition, but it
    appears that there is also a congenital deficiency (ie. a dog is born with
    it) in the make-up of the trachea itself.
Liver Disorders
►   Portosystemic shunt : Portosystemic shunt (PSS) is a
    birth defect of the circulation in the liver. Most animals with
    congenital portosystemic shunts show symptoms before 6
    months of age. When symptoms are subtle, however, the
    condition may not be diagnosed until much later. The most
    definitive way to deal with PSS is surgery

►   Cornel University is doing a study on this defect. Their
    findings show an average of 60% are carriers of liver
    shunts
Reproductive / Urinary Disorders
  Cryptorchidism : Cryptorchidism means that one or
  both of a dog's testicles have not descended into the
  scrotum

   Urolithiasis : a condition in which crystals in the urine
  combine to form stones, also called calculi or uroliths.
  These can be found anywhere in the urinary tract,
  where they cause irritation and secondary infection.
  Most end up in the bladder or in the urethra, where they
  may cause obstruction, which is a medical emergency.
  Several different types of uroliths have been identified,
  with struvite stones (magnesium ammonium phosphate)
  the most common.
Cushing’s Syndrome
►   Hyperadrenocorticism . Hyperadrenocorticism, also
    known as Cushing's syndrome, is a common endocrine
    disorder in dogs. The clinical signs are caused by an
    excess of cortisol (the body's form of cortisone). This
    occurs because of increased secretion of cortisol by the
    adrenal glands in response to an abnormality in the
    pituitary gland in the brain, or because of a tumor in the
    adrenal glands themselves. Cushing's syndrome is more
    common in certain breeds, usually in dogs that are 6 years
    of age or older.
Hypoglycemia Low Blood Sugar
►   Seen in puppies 6 to 9 weeks
►   Can be fatal . Often occurs without warning.
►   Causes : Stress, missing a meal, chilling, too much play and upset
    stomach.
►   Typical signs: listlessness depression, staggering gate, muscle
    weakness, and tremors especially in the face
►   Severe sugar drop seizures develop, or puppy become stuperous and
    goes into a coma and without help dies.
►    Sometimes a puppy appears fine and goes into a coma
►   Prolonged or repeated attacks can cause brain damage
►   A Veterinarian can rule out other cause such as liver shunt, infections,
    or an enzyme or hormone deficiency
►   Although not a genetic problem this is mostly seen in young puppies
    but can also continue into adulthood and is life threatening.
In Conclusion
►   Yorshire Terriers have 21 health concerns Disorders relatively common in
    this breed are : Liver shunts, tracheal collapse, patellar luxation and retinal
    dysplasia .

►   Note above disorder(s) is very common in this breed. Do not take lightly
    the other disorders. Some are very serious .


►   Information for this presentation as a public service provided by:
    www.delayrekennel.com with information provided by :

►   A joint initiative of the Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre at the
    Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, and the
    Canadian Veterinary Medical Association..
    Permission is granted to reprint pages from the database, provided that
    credit is given as follows: Crook A et al. 2011. Canine Inherited Disorders
    Database

    Photos Wickipedia Encyclopedia
About the Presenter
►   Member of the Canine Ambassador Program with Orange Empire Dog Club.
    Educating people in the joy canines bring into our lives through their
    relationship, interaction, and unconditional love.
►   Pet Professional specializing in the training of puppies in Sun Valley since 1974
    . Breeder of Silky Terriers and Wire Fox Terriers
►   My boarding, training and breeding kennel was awarded Small Business of the
    Year 2000
►   Better Business Bureau A+ rating
►   I have owned and/or bred 21 Conformation Champions including 6
    International Champions
►   Member and former Vice President of the City of Angels Silky Terrier Club
►   Past President of Sun Valley Chamber of Commerce
►   Have also served on the boards of Associated Terrier Breeders, Animal Safe
    Haven Foundation, United Chambers of Commerce

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Genetic Disorders Yorkshire Terrier

  • 1. Genetic Disorders Yorkshire Terriers
  • 2. Introduction ► When choosing any breed of dog you must be aware of potential health concerns ► All dogs mixes and pure bred can have health concerns ► The more popular breeds and their mixes will have more genetic problems listed and more likely to have puppies with problems . ► Although more serious in dogs under 6 lbs all sizes of Yorkshires can have any of these health concerns. ► Make sure your breeder offers a written health guarantee good for one year. ► Have the puppy heath checked at your Veterinarian.
  • 3. Musculoskeletal Disorders ► Patellar luxation : Slipping kneecap. Should be noticeable puppy vet check prior to sale ► Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease : This is a disease of the hip joint in young (4 to 12 months), small-breed dogs.
  • 4. Heart Disorders ► Patent ductus arteriosus Where the ductus arteriosus does not close within 24-48 hours after birth, the dog is left with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA causes unnecessary recirculation of blood through the heart, greatly increasing the workload of the heart and potentially causing terminal heart failure in time if the PDA is not closed via surgery
  • 5. Eye Disorders ► Retinal dysplasia : The condition is present from birth. At 3 to 4 weeks of age, the breeder may notice that severely affected pups are less active and frequently bump into objects. A veterinarian will be best able to examine the pup's eyes for this condition with an ophthalmoscope at 12 to 16 weeks of age, when the retina is mature. ► Cataracts : Can be congenital, juvenile or as a result of old age ► Corneal dystrophy : an inherited abnormality that affects one or more layers of the cornea. Both eyes are usually affected, although not necessarily symmetrically. Chronic or recurring shallow ulcers may result, depending on the corneal layers affected ► Keratoconjunctivitis sicca KCS or "dry eye" is an eye disease caused by abnormal bulk of the tears.
  • 6. Eye Disorders ► Progressive retinal atrophy : deterioration of the retinal cells causes blindness. ► Generalized PRA - early onset: The first sign is generally failing night vision, as early as 6 weeks of age, and this progresses to complete loss of vision by about 1 - 2 years of age. Collies may retain some vision until the age of 2 - 3 years. In miniature schnauzers, poor night vision usually develops later (6 months to a year) and there is advanced loss of vision by 3 to 4 years. Affected Alaskan malamutes are day-blind (hemeralopia) at 8 to 10 weeks of age; night vision is never affected. ► Generalized PRA (progressive rod-cone degeneration) - late onset: Generally night blindness is noticed between 2 and 5 years of age (depending on the breed) progressing to total blindness within a year or so. Peripheral vision is lost first. ► Central PRA (CPRA) - retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED): Loss of vision occurs much more slowly than in generalized PRA, without initial night blindness. Affected dogs may not lose vision completely. Because the changes are in the centre of the retina, affected dogs initially have trouble locating still objects in bright light.
  • 7. Eye Disorders ► Entropion : Entropion is the inward rolling of the eyelid, most commonly the lower lid. This irritates the surface of the eye (the cornea) and may ultimately cause visual impairment.
  • 8. Nervous System Disorders ► Hydrocephalus : an abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cavities in the brain (the ventricles). This results in increased pressure on the brain. Puppies with severe hydrocephalus often die at a very early age due to pressure from the increased fluid in the brain. In other less severely affected pups, the signs gradually become apparent over the first few months of life, and in some mild cases the condition is only diagnosed later in life. The types of signs seen with this condition include lack of thriftiness (smaller than littermates, slow to grow), a domed skull (which gradually becomes more pronounced), abnormal movement behaviour (e.g., restlessness, aimless walking), problems with vision, and seizures. These pups are very slow to learn - it may be extremely difficult to housetrain them for example, or they may lose their housetraining. Generally the signs gradually worsen, although by 2 years of age they may stabilize. To minimize brain damage, the condition must be recognized and appropriate treatment begun early. However, affected animals will likely always be slow and have a limited ability to learn.
  • 9. Nervous System Disorders ► Shaker dog disease : This disorder usually develops suddenly in young adult dogs (6 months to 3 years of age). The signs become progressively worse over 1 to 3 days and then remain the same until treatment is begun. There is an all-over tremor that can range from mild to so severe that the dog may have difficulty walking. This is called an intention tremor, meaning that it is worse when the animal is excited or tries to perform a specific action (such as eat, walk towards an object, etc). The tremor decreases or disappears when the dog is relaxed or at rest. Commonly there are rapid, random eye movements as well. The condition is not painful and your dog's personality is unaffected. Treatment is generally effective; some dogs require medication for life to control the tremors
  • 10. Skin Disorders ► Dermoid sinus Dermoid sinus is present from birth, although the condition is usually not noticed until later. The tracts contain debris from the skin - sebum (waxy lubricating substance), dead skin cells, and hair - and commonly become infected and painful. If the tract extends to the spinal canal, infection may cause meningitis or myelitis, resulting in various neurologic signs such as local or general spinal pain, stiffness, or weakness (depending on the location of the sinus). ► Hypotrichosis : Dogs with this condition have hair loss at birth or by a few months of age, due to faulty development or a complete absence of some or all of the hair follicles from which the hairs normally grow. In some dogs other structures such as the sweat glands or the teeth are affected as well. The hair loss is not linked to coat color as with color dilution alopecia ► Color dilution alopecia : Affected dogs have a poor, patchy hair coat progressing to widespread permanent hair loss
  • 11. Blood Disorders ► von Willebrand's disease a common, usually mild, inherited bleeding disorder in people and in dogs. It is caused by a lack of von Willebrand factor (vWF), which plays an essential role in the blood clotting process. Normally the body responds to an injury causing bleeding through a complex defense system. This consists of local changes in the damaged blood vessels, activation of blood cells called platelets, and the coagulation process. A reduction in von Willebrand factor leads to abnormal platelet function and prolonged bleeding times. Affected dogs are prone to bleeding episodes, such as nose bleeds, and generally experience increased bleeding with trauma or a surgical procedure. Three forms of the disease are distinguished based on vWF concentration and function. Dogs with Type I vWD (by far the most common) have mild to moderate bleeding abnormalities, depending on the level of vWF. The much rarer types II and III vWD cause severe bleeding disorders. Breeders of quality bred dogs do not have a problem as they now have a blood test. However poorly bred dogs may still have this problem
  • 12. Respiratory Disorders ► Tracheal collapse : Tracheal collapse is a narrowing of the inner diameter of the trachea, that fluctuates with the stage of the respiratory cycle. The rings of the trachea (made of cartilage) lose their ability to maintain their shape, and collapse when the dog breathes, causing a harsh cough. Most often this disorder is seen in middle-aged toy and miniature breeds. Chronic respiratory infection, obesity, and heart disease can all contribute to the development of the condition, but it appears that there is also a congenital deficiency (ie. a dog is born with it) in the make-up of the trachea itself.
  • 13. Liver Disorders ► Portosystemic shunt : Portosystemic shunt (PSS) is a birth defect of the circulation in the liver. Most animals with congenital portosystemic shunts show symptoms before 6 months of age. When symptoms are subtle, however, the condition may not be diagnosed until much later. The most definitive way to deal with PSS is surgery ► Cornel University is doing a study on this defect. Their findings show an average of 60% are carriers of liver shunts
  • 14. Reproductive / Urinary Disorders Cryptorchidism : Cryptorchidism means that one or both of a dog's testicles have not descended into the scrotum Urolithiasis : a condition in which crystals in the urine combine to form stones, also called calculi or uroliths. These can be found anywhere in the urinary tract, where they cause irritation and secondary infection. Most end up in the bladder or in the urethra, where they may cause obstruction, which is a medical emergency. Several different types of uroliths have been identified, with struvite stones (magnesium ammonium phosphate) the most common.
  • 15. Cushing’s Syndrome ► Hyperadrenocorticism . Hyperadrenocorticism, also known as Cushing's syndrome, is a common endocrine disorder in dogs. The clinical signs are caused by an excess of cortisol (the body's form of cortisone). This occurs because of increased secretion of cortisol by the adrenal glands in response to an abnormality in the pituitary gland in the brain, or because of a tumor in the adrenal glands themselves. Cushing's syndrome is more common in certain breeds, usually in dogs that are 6 years of age or older.
  • 16. Hypoglycemia Low Blood Sugar ► Seen in puppies 6 to 9 weeks ► Can be fatal . Often occurs without warning. ► Causes : Stress, missing a meal, chilling, too much play and upset stomach. ► Typical signs: listlessness depression, staggering gate, muscle weakness, and tremors especially in the face ► Severe sugar drop seizures develop, or puppy become stuperous and goes into a coma and without help dies. ► Sometimes a puppy appears fine and goes into a coma ► Prolonged or repeated attacks can cause brain damage ► A Veterinarian can rule out other cause such as liver shunt, infections, or an enzyme or hormone deficiency ► Although not a genetic problem this is mostly seen in young puppies but can also continue into adulthood and is life threatening.
  • 17. In Conclusion ► Yorshire Terriers have 21 health concerns Disorders relatively common in this breed are : Liver shunts, tracheal collapse, patellar luxation and retinal dysplasia . ► Note above disorder(s) is very common in this breed. Do not take lightly the other disorders. Some are very serious . ► Information for this presentation as a public service provided by: www.delayrekennel.com with information provided by : ► A joint initiative of the Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre at the Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, and the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association.. Permission is granted to reprint pages from the database, provided that credit is given as follows: Crook A et al. 2011. Canine Inherited Disorders Database Photos Wickipedia Encyclopedia
  • 18. About the Presenter ► Member of the Canine Ambassador Program with Orange Empire Dog Club. Educating people in the joy canines bring into our lives through their relationship, interaction, and unconditional love. ► Pet Professional specializing in the training of puppies in Sun Valley since 1974 . Breeder of Silky Terriers and Wire Fox Terriers ► My boarding, training and breeding kennel was awarded Small Business of the Year 2000 ► Better Business Bureau A+ rating ► I have owned and/or bred 21 Conformation Champions including 6 International Champions ► Member and former Vice President of the City of Angels Silky Terrier Club ► Past President of Sun Valley Chamber of Commerce ► Have also served on the boards of Associated Terrier Breeders, Animal Safe Haven Foundation, United Chambers of Commerce