Genetic Disorders Shih Tzu


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Genetic Disorders Shih Tzu

  1. 1. Genetic Disorders Shih Tzu
  2. 2. IntroductionWhen choosing any breed of dog you must be aware ofpotential health concernsAll dogs mixes and pure bred can have health concernsThe more popular breeds and their mixes will have moregenetic problems listed and more likely to have puppieswith problems .Although more serious in dogs under 6 lbs all sizes ofShih Tzus can have any of these health concerns.Make sure your breeder offers a written health guaranteegood for one year.Have the puppy heath checked at your Veterinarian.
  3. 3. Eye DisordersExposure keratopathy syndrome (exophthalmos, lagophthalmos, and/or mac)With this syndrome, there is chronic irritation of the surface ofthe eye (the cornea) because of increased evaporation of tearsand increased corneal exposure. This is a result of acombination of anatomic features including exophthalmos(protrusion of the eyeball), lagophthalmos (inability to close theeyelids completely) andmacroblepharon (an exceptionally largeeyelid opening, often associated with lower lid entropion). Theresult is inadequate blinking, and therefore reduced protectionfor the eye. Affected dogs experience chronic discomfort andare prone to ulceration of the cornea.
  4. 4. Eye DisordersRetinal dysplasia: The condition is present from birth. At 3 to 4weeks of age, the breeder may notice that severely affected pupsare less active and frequently bump into objects. A veterinarian willbe best able to examine the pups eyes for this condition with anophthalmoscope at 12 to 16 weeks of age, when the retina ismature.Cataracts: Can be congenital, juvenile or as a result of old ageKeratoconjunctivitis sicca KCS or "dry eye" is an eye diseasecaused by abnormal bulk of the tears.Entropion : Entropion is the inward rolling of the eyelid, mostcommonly the lower lid. This irritates the surface of the eye (thecornea) and may ultimately cause visual impairment.
  5. 5. Eye DisordersProgressive retinal atrophy: deterioration of the retinal cells causes blindness.Generalized PRA - early onset: The first sign is generally failing night vision, asearly as 6 weeks of age, and this progresses to complete loss of vision by about 1 - 2years of age. Collies may retain some vision until the age of 2 - 3 years. In miniatureschnauzers, poor night vision usually develops later (6 months to a year) and there isadvanced loss of vision by 3 to 4 years. Affected Alaskan malamutes are day-blind(hemeralopia) at 8 to 10 weeks of age; night vision is never affected.Generalized PRA (progressive rod-cone degeneration) - late onset: Generallynight blindness is noticed between 2 and 5 years of age (depending on the breed)progressing to total blindness within a year or so. Peripheral vision is lost first.Central PRA (CPRA) - retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED): Loss of visionoccurs much more slowly than in generalized PRA, without initial night blindness.Affected dogs may not lose vision completely. Because the changes are in the centreof the retina, affected dogs initially have trouble locating still objects in bright light.
  6. 6. Eye DisordersEctropion Ectropion is a defect of conformation in which there is asagging or rolling-out (eversion) of the eyelids. This results inabnormal exposure of the eye, which often leads to irritation.Eyelash abnormalities Normally the eyelashes (or cilia) growfrom follicles in the eyelid. Abnormalities of the eyelash are acommon hereditary problem in dogs. The three types are:distichiasis, in which extra eyelashes grow from abnormalfollicles located on the inside edge of the eyelid. They may besingular or multiple.ectopic cilia, in which the extra eyelash grows through theeyelid to the inside.One or more ectopic cilia may be present.trichiasis, in which eyelashes growing from normal sites turninward. The eyelashes are often abnormally long.
  7. 7. Eye DisordersThird eyelid (nictitating membrane) abnormalities - "cherry eye" Aprolapse of the gland or "cherry eye" occurs when the base of thegland (embedded in the cartilage) flips up and is seen above andbehind the border of the third eyelid. The prolapsed gland becomesswollen and inflamed. The condition frequently occurs in both eyesand is most common in young dogs
  8. 8. Heart DisordersTricuspid valve dysplasia Dogs with a mildly or even moderatelymalformed tricuspid valve routinely live normal lifespans. However,dogs with severe tricuspid valve malformations, even as pups, maydevelop symptoms of congestive heart failure, especially a bloated,pot-bellied appearance due to fluid pooling in the abdomen(ascites), difficulty breathing due to fluid retention in the chest cavity(pleural effusion), or both. Such severely affected dogs requiremedications to reduce the impact of the problem and maintain anacceptable quality of life
  9. 9. Cleft Lip /palateCleft lip/palate This is an opening in the lip or the roof of themouth that occurs due to failure of normal fusion processesduring embryonic development. Cleft palate and cleft lip mayresult from either hereditary or environmental causes (such asthe use of certain drugs during pregnancy).Affected pups are born with the condition. A minor defect willcause little or no problem, while a more severe defect willcause signs such as a chronic nasal discharge (that mayinclude food), poor growth, aspiration pneumonia (frominhalation of food), or even death.
  10. 10. Musculoskeletal DisordersIntervertebral disk disease Intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) occurswhen the jelly-like inner layer protrudes, or herniates, into thevertebral canal and presses on the spinal cord. Compression of thespinal cord may be minimal (causing mild back or neck pain) tosevere (causing paralysis, loss of sensation, and lack of bladder andbowel control) and may be irreversible.Problems are most commonly seen in the thoracolumbar (lowerback) region of the spine, and are also seen in the cervical (neck)region. IVDD is seldom a concern in the thoracic (upper back)region, because extra ligaments connect the ribs and help toreinforce the annulus fibrosusPatellar luxation: Slipping kneecap. Should be noticeable puppyvet check prior to sale
  11. 11. Nervous System DisorderHydrocephalus: an abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) incavities in the brain (the ventricles). This results in increased pressure onthe brain. Puppies with severe hydrocephalus often die at a very early agedue to pressure from the increased fluid in the brain. In other less severelyaffected pups, the signs gradually become apparent over the first fewmonths of life, and in some mild cases the condition is only diagnosed laterin life.The types of signs seen with this condition include lack of thriftiness (smallerthan littermates, slow to grow), a domed skull (which gradually becomesmore pronounced), abnormal movement behaviour (e.g., restlessness,aimless walking), problems with vision, and seizures. These pups are veryslow to learn - it may be extremely difficult to housetrain them for example,or they may lose their housetraining.Generally the signs gradually worsen, although by 2 years of age they maystabilize. To minimize brain damage, the condition must be recognized andappropriate treatment begun early. However, affected animals will likelyalways be slow and have a limited ability to learn.
  12. 12. Skin DisordersDermoid sinus Dermoid sinus is present from birth, although thecondition is usually not noticed until later. The tracts contain debrisfrom the skin - sebum (waxy lubricating substance), dead skin cells,and hair - and commonly become infected and painful. If the tractextends to the spinal canal, infection may cause meningitis ormyelitis, resulting in various neurologic signs such as local orgeneral spinal pain, stiffness, or weakness (depending on thelocation of the sinus).sebaceous adenitis This is a perplexing condition in which thesebaceous glands in the skin become inflamed for unknownreasons, and are eventually destroyed. These glands normallyproduce sebum, a fatty secretion that helps prevent drying of theskin.Clinical signs vary with the severity of the condition
  13. 13. Urinary DisordersFamilial kidney disease In many of these disorders, the kidneys areapparently normal at birth but begin to deteriorate early in life (lessthan 1 year of age). While the underlying problem in the kidneysvaries between breeds, the end result is the same - kidney failure forthe dog, generally by 5 years of age, although the severity and rateof progression vary between breeds and between individual dogsIn Shih Tzu the disorder is renal dysplasia Urolithiasis: a condition in which crystals in the urine combine to form stones, also called calculi or uroliths. These can be found anywhere in the urinary tract, where they cause irritation and secondary infection. Most end up in the bladder or in the urethra, where they may cause obstruction, which is a medical emergency. Several different types of uroliths have been identified, with struvite stones (magnesium ammonium phosphate) the most common.
  14. 14. Respiratory Disorders brachycephalic syndrome Problems associated with this syndrome range in severity, with most brachycephalic dogs snuffling and snorting to some degree. Some will have no further difficulties, but many will have problems such as increasingly noisy breathing, coughing and gagging, fainting or collapsing episodes, and a decreased tolerance for exercise (ie. they tire easily). Over the long term, this also puts an increased strain on the heart. Overheating is especially dangerous because increased panting (the normal mechanism for cooling in dogs) can cause further swelling and narrowing of the already constricted airways, which will increase your dogs anxiety. Excitement, exercise, or warm weather (and especially a combination of these factors) can trigger this vicious cycle. These dogs can also have gastrointestinal problems, because of difficulties coordinating swallowing when they are working so hard at breathing. This can result in vomiting gagging because of swallowing so much air, or aspiration pneumonia, because of breathing in saliva or food particles.They have an increased risk associated with sedation and anesthesia,.
  15. 15. In ConclusionShih Tzus have 19 health concerns Disorders relatively common inthis breed are : Exposure Keratopathy syndromeNote above disorder(s) is very common in this breed. Do not takelightly the other disorders. Some are very serious .Information for this presentation as a public service provided with information provided by :A joint initiative of the Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre at theAtlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, andthe Canadian Veterinary Medical Association..Permission is granted to reprint pages from the database, providedthat credit is given as follows: Crook A et al. 2011. Canine InheritedDisorders DatabaseWikipedia Photos
  16. 16. About your PresenterMember of the Canine Ambassador Program with Orange EmpireDog Club. Educating people in the joy canines bring into our livesthrough their relationship, interaction, and unconditional love.Pet Professional specializing in the training of puppies in Sun Valleysince 1974 .Breeder of Silky Terriers and Wire Fox TerriersMy boarding, training and breeding kennel was awarded SmallBusiness of the Year 2000Better Business Bureau A+ ratingI have owned and/or bred 21 Conformation Champions including 6International ChampionsMember and former Vice President of the City of Angels SilkyTerrier ClubPast President of Sun Valley Chamber of CommerceHave also served on the boards of Associated Terrier Breeders,Animal Safe Haven Foundation, United Chambers of Commerce