Upstream-Downstream
Connections in the
Delaware Basin
Stephanie P. Dalke
October 28, 2013
Pinchot Institute for Conservation
• Dedicated in 1963 at Grey
Towers National Historic Site,
Milford, PA
• Forges science...
The clean, reliable water of the Delaware depends on
healthy, intact forests at its source.*
*This relationship could use ...
Delaware River Basin
•
•
•
•

Upper Basin: ~4,500 mi2
High levels of forest cover (80%)
Mostly privately owned
Development...
Trends that threaten source water
Pollution: point & non-point sources
Impervious surface
Variability in precipitation: cl...
Trends that threaten source water
Forests in the Upper Basin
25%

Protected
Unprotected
75%

*Excluding NYC watershed

Pri...
SLEUTH Development Model
Dr. Claire Jantz, Shippensburg University
Mid-Century Streamflow Models
Dr. Ray Najjar, Pennsylvania State University

Which outcome is likely?
• Low flow in summer...
Common Waters Partnership
A regional partnership of public and non-profit organizations and
agencies who recognize the imp...
Consensus Priorities for Investment
Priority areas, v.2 (May 2012)

Natural Lands Trust, The Nature
Conservancy, US Forest...
Reaching Private Forest Owners
Incentivize forest protection in priority areas
• Stewardship plans & practices
• Conservat...
Reaching Private Forest Owners
Incentivize forest protection in priority areas
“In working with my family in this effort, ...
Acquisitions

Permanent
Non-permanent

Permanent
Easements
(Purchased)

COST

Permanent Easements
(Bargain Sales)
Permanen...
Technical Assistance & Capacity Building
• Regional land-use planning
• Climate change adaptation
• Stewardship & estate
p...
Who Benefits from Upstream Forests?
Million People Served
(% State Population)
New Jersey
Pennsylvania

5.5 (43%)

New Yor...
In-Basin Water Use
All Other
Thermoelectric
Non-agricultural Irrigation
Industrial
Agriculture

Hydroelectric
Public Water...
Downstream Beneficiaries
• Sectors and facilities face different risks
• Floods
• Drought
• Water quality

• Energy
• Drin...
Downstream Beneficiaries
• How “make the case” for investment in existing forests?
– Scientific justification (modeling et...
Upstream-Downstream Connections

How link upstream “suppliers”
with downstream beneficiaries &
stakeholders?
• Water-relat...
Thank You!
Stephanie P. Dalke
202-797-6530
spdalke@pinchot.org
Will Price
301-943-5100
willprice@pinchot.org
www.commonwat...
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Upstream-Downstream Connections in the Delaware Basin by Stephanie P. Dalke

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Upstream-Downstream Connections in the Delaware Basin by Stephanie P. Dalke

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  • Healthy forests = clean water.
  • Our program, which is called the Common Waters Fund, is focused on the Upper Basin, from the Water Gap north to just below NYC’s reservoirs. This area has pretty high levels of forest cover and is mostly privately owned. It’s also under high development pressure –the fastest-growing counties in each of these three states are within the Upper Basin.It’s one of the most important watersheds for drinking water in the Northeast or Midwest, as we’ve seen from the USFS Forests to Faucets analysis. It serves over 16.2 million people – about 8 million of those are within the watershed, and another 7 million are outside the Basin in NYC and NJ.IMPORTANT CONTEXTUAL NOTE (we will discuss the implications of this more later): Few storage reservoirs! Much of this water is taken from the river directly!
  • Mid-Century Streamflow predictions based on eight Global Climate Models downscaled for the Delaware River Basin [Dr. Ray Najjar, Penn State University]
  • CW backgroundFund is currently facilitated by the Pinchot Institute for Conservation with help from a wide range of local partners
  • NLT = Natural Lands TrustTNC = The Nature ConservancyUSFS = U.S. Forest ServiceNLT Source Water Protection ModelNLT Smart Conservation Aquatic AssessmentTNC Priority Forest AreasUSFS Forests, Water, & People Assessment (APCW)TNC’s Basin-wide freshwater assessmentA quick word on how we’ve set our priorities:We combined several existing studies to find the areas that really stood out as being important for water quality. Only landowners in these areas will be eligible.We do plan to get some modeling work and other research done to help us set on-the-ground goals (and to get an idea for how much $ is needed to be successful). This information will also help us establish a value for the resource – especially if we can look at the potential changes in water treatment costs due to forest loss.
  • DISCUSS PROCESS (committees, workgroups etc)Right now we have $1 million to put on the ground into:Stewardship planningImplementation of management practicesEasementsPortable timber bridgesWe would also like to implement a CREP-style annual payments model – but we still have some details to work out there.Yes, some of this is just replicating state and federal cost share programs – but this is what the workgroups identified as high priority for the area – because of funding gaps and also b/c it’s a good way to get private landowners “in the door.” And, now we have a program going on the ground to make these concepts more concrete to potential downstream investors.
  • DISCUSS PROCESS (committees, workgroups etc)Right now we have $1 million to put on the ground into:Stewardship planningImplementation of management practicesEasementsPortable timber bridgesWe would also like to implement a CREP-style annual payments model – but we still have some details to work out there.Yes, some of this is just replicating state and federal cost share programs – but this is what the workgroups identified as high priority for the area – because of funding gaps and also b/c it’s a good way to get private landowners “in the door.” And, now we have a program going on the ground to make these concepts more concrete to potential downstream investors.
  • Stephanie P. Dalke, Pinchot Institute for Conservation
  • DISCUSS PROCESS (committees, workgroups etc)Right now we have $1 million to put on the ground into:Stewardship planningImplementation of management practicesEasementsPortable timber bridgesWe would also like to implement a CREP-style annual payments model – but we still have some details to work out there.Yes, some of this is just replicating state and federal cost share programs – but this is what the workgroups identified as high priority for the area – because of funding gaps and also b/c it’s a good way to get private landowners “in the door.” And, now we have a program going on the ground to make these concepts more concrete to potential downstream investors.
  • How do we pay for source water protection in the short- and long-term, while avoiding too many free riders?Rate-payers = very low cost per capita -- In many cases, don’t need TOO much $ from users (see: UNC’s dashboard, other examples)What else do we need to know? -- Data/science gapsWho else needs to be involved? -- Political will / rate change process -- Partners, decisionmakers, utility commissionsHow do we get the scientific information we need to support these efforts?How does the percentage of forested land correspond with water quality in a watershed?Need local models that people can trustGrey infra.Learn to speak their languageGet them thinking about “green infrastructure”Build in source water protection costsCultivate demand
  • Nature of the problemDevelopment - many decisions that take place at the local level; lots of regional coordination neededComplex economic and social forces that affect land use changeAlso:Capacity – internal and in the Upper Basin
  • Upstream-Downstream Connections in the Delaware Basin by Stephanie P. Dalke

    1. 1. Upstream-Downstream Connections in the Delaware Basin Stephanie P. Dalke October 28, 2013
    2. 2. Pinchot Institute for Conservation • Dedicated in 1963 at Grey Towers National Historic Site, Milford, PA • Forges science-based & collaborative solutions to natural resource problems • Serving the greatest good of the greatest number in the long run • Non-profit and non-partisan conservation thought, policy, & action “He was more than a forester, he was the father of American conservation. . . .It is far more fitting and proper, rather than merely honor what he [Gifford Pinchot] did, to dedicate this Institute to active work today. . .because we are reaching the limits of our fundamental needs of water to drink, of fresh air to breathe, of open space to enjoy, of abundant sources of energy to make life easier.” – John F. Kennedy, 1963
    3. 3. The clean, reliable water of the Delaware depends on healthy, intact forests at its source.* *This relationship could use further clarification
    4. 4. Delaware River Basin • • • • Upper Basin: ~4,500 mi2 High levels of forest cover (80%) Mostly privately owned Development pressure and forest loss • “Next Generation” of sediment in the Basin
    5. 5. Trends that threaten source water Pollution: point & non-point sources Impervious surface Variability in precipitation: climate change Forests: losing 100 acres/week Forest health: insects & disease Investment in source water protection
    6. 6. Trends that threaten source water Forests in the Upper Basin 25% Protected Unprotected 75% *Excluding NYC watershed Private landowners: • Few $ incentives to keep their land forested • Under increasing pressure to sell or develop their land Nearly 70% of all land conversion (between 19962002) took place on previously forested landscapes. - DRBC 2008 State of the Basin Report
    7. 7. SLEUTH Development Model Dr. Claire Jantz, Shippensburg University
    8. 8. Mid-Century Streamflow Models Dr. Ray Najjar, Pennsylvania State University Which outcome is likely? • Low flow in summer, early spring melt, salinity, discharge of cooling water • High flows in late fall/winter, higher intensity events, flooding
    9. 9. Common Waters Partnership A regional partnership of public and non-profit organizations and agencies who recognize the importance of protecting and managing the Upper Basin’s resources for many beneficiaries downstream. Brodhead Watershed Association Building Consensus for Sustainability Catskill Forest Association Delaware Highlands Conservancy Delaware River Basin Commission Environmental Protection Agency Lacawac Sanctuary League of Women Voters, Pennsylvania Monroe County Conservation District National Audubon Society National Fish and Wildlife Foundation National Parks Conservation Association National Park Service, Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area National Park Service, Rivers and Trails Conservation Assistance National Park Service, Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Natural Lands Trust Natural Resources Conservation Service New Jersey Forest Service New Jersey Water Supply Authority New York Department of Environmental Conservation Orange County, NY Department of Planning Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Pennsylvania Environmental Council Pike County Conservation District Pike County, PA Office of Community Planning Pinchot Institute for Conservation Pocono Environmental Education Center Pocono Resource Conservation and Development Council Sullivan County, NY Division of Planning and Environmental Management Sussex County Soil Conservation District Sussex County, NJ Department of GIS Management Sussex County, NJ Planning Division The Nature Conservancy, National Headquarters The Nature Conservancy, New Jersey The Nature Conservancy, Pennsylvania Upper Delaware Council Upper Delaware River Roundtable US Forest Service, Grey Towers National Historic Site US Forest Service, State and Private Forestry Wayne Conservation District
    10. 10. Consensus Priorities for Investment Priority areas, v.2 (May 2012) Natural Lands Trust, The Nature Conservancy, US Forest Service, National Park Service
    11. 11. Reaching Private Forest Owners Incentivize forest protection in priority areas • Stewardship plans & practices • Conservation Easements
    12. 12. Reaching Private Forest Owners Incentivize forest protection in priority areas “In working with my family in this effort, I have an opportunity to be a leader in saving and preserving the forest that is so essential to us, our children, and grandchildren. The Common Waters Fund’s assistance with the Stewardship Plan has been a significant driver in making this happen.” — Gary Carr
    13. 13. Acquisitions Permanent Non-permanent Permanent Easements (Purchased) COST Permanent Easements (Bargain Sales) Permanent Easements (Donated – Pay for Associated Costs) Term Easements, Contracts for Annual Payments or NPV Lump Payments, Farmland Retirement, CREP, etc Incentives for Stewardship Plans, Forest Management Practices, Agricultural BMPs Education, Estate Planning Assistance, Income Diversification/Marketing Local Forest Products (incl. carbon), Tax Credits/Preferential Assessment, etc # LANDOWNERS PARTICIPATING TIME TO ACHIEVE Land Protection Strategies
    14. 14. Technical Assistance & Capacity Building • Regional land-use planning • Climate change adaptation • Stewardship & estate planning workshops • Cross-boundary collaboration
    15. 15. Who Benefits from Upstream Forests? Million People Served (% State Population) New Jersey Pennsylvania 5.5 (43%) New York 4.2 (22%) Delaware The Delaware supplies drinking water to >15 million 5.8 (66%) 0.7 (74%)
    16. 16. In-Basin Water Use All Other Thermoelectric Non-agricultural Irrigation Industrial Agriculture Hydroelectric Public Water Supply Mining Self-supplied Domestic 8,000 7,000 mgd 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 Source: Delaware River Basin Commission 2,000 1,000 Upper & Central Region Lower & Bay Region
    17. 17. Downstream Beneficiaries • Sectors and facilities face different risks • Floods • Drought • Water quality • Energy • Drinking water • Industrial use "When the well's dry, we know the worth of water." -- Benjamin Franklin
    18. 18. Downstream Beneficiaries • How “make the case” for investment in existing forests? – Scientific justification (modeling etc.) – Economic justification (cost-benefit analyses etc.) Source: Natural Infrastructure: Investing in Forested Landscapes for Source Water Protection in the United States, World Resources Institute, 2013
    19. 19. Upstream-Downstream Connections How link upstream “suppliers” with downstream beneficiaries & stakeholders? • Water-related risks & needs • Value of forests • Challenges & opportunities
    20. 20. Thank You! Stephanie P. Dalke 202-797-6530 spdalke@pinchot.org Will Price 301-943-5100 willprice@pinchot.org www.commonwatersfund.org

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