From Forest to Faucet: Drinking Water as an Ecosystem Service by Albert H. Todd & Emily Weidner

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From Forest to Faucet: Drinking Water as an Ecosystem Service by Albert H. Todd & Emily Weidner

  1. 1. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets From Forest to Faucet: Drinking Water as an Ecosystem Service Albert H. Todd & Emily Weidner USDA Forest Service, State & Private Forestry
  2. 2. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets How we get water in our homes… I don’t have any Information on this bit
  3. 3. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Project Objectives 1. Identify areas important to surface drinking water quality 2. Understand the role of forests in protecting surface drinking water 3. Identify threats that may affect the forests ability to provide clean surface drinking water in the future 4. Identify opportunities for PWS
  4. 4. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Limits • Surface water only not groundwater • Drinking water not aquatic system health • Threats to forests only not industry, point sources, etc. Ecosystem Services and Markets
  5. 5. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Collaboration Science Advisory Team • Dr. Jim Vose, USFS Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory • Dr. Tom Brown, USFS Rocky Mountain Research Station • Dr. Paul Barten, Professor, University of Massachusetts • Dr. Steve McNulty, USFS Southern Research Station USFS Project Advisors • FHTET: Frank Krist and Frank Sapio • USFS Fire Modeling Insttute: Jim Menekis • GIS Advisor: Rebecca Whitney Lilja • NFS: Jean Thomas, Chris Carlson, Rick Swanson • S&PF: Susan Stein, Karl Dalla Rosa
  6. 6. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Data Sources • Surface water intakes, EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) • Delineated Sub-watersheds (12-digit HUCs), NRCS/USGS National Cartography & Geospatial Center • Forest Land, USGS 2001 National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) • Forest Ownership, USFS 2009 NFS Basic Ownership, and Conservation Biology Institute Protected Areas Database Version 4. • Development Pressure, David Theobald, 2009, Colorado State University (same data used in “Forests on the Edge”) • Insect and Disease Risk, USFS Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, National Insect & Disease Risk Map, 2007. • Wildland Fire Potential, USDA Forest Service, Fire Modeling Institute
  7. 7. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Map Scale • Sub-watersheds = 12-digit HUC, lt blue lines • > 88,000 HUCs • Ave. size = 35 sq mi Ecosystem Services and Markets
  8. 8. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Three Step Analysis Process Step 1: Create a watershed index for surface drinking water importance - # of consumers, proximity to intakes, water supply Step 2: Create a watershed index of importance of forest area to surface drinking water - step 1 results, and forest area Step 3: Identify threats that may affect the forest’s ability to provide clean drinking water - step 2 results, and development and other threats
  9. 9. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Step 1: Important watersheds for surface drinking water • What is the relative importance of each subwatershed in providing surface drinking water? • Population served • Distance to intake
  10. 10. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Surface Drinking Water Importance Index: water protection risk model PRn = P0 + ∑ (Wi * Pi) Pi = the population served by intakes in the ith downstream sub-watershed, Wi = the proportional weight for ith downstream subwatershed
  11. 11. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Surface Drinking Water Importance Index: weighting by water supply IMPn = (Qn) * (PRn) mean annual mean annual water supply water supply Qn = the mean annual water supply for subwatershed n PRn = the risk-based drinking water protection for subwatershed n IMP = surface drinking water importance index
  12. 12. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry areas of surface drinking water importance (weighted by mean annual water supply) Ecosystem Services and Markets
  13. 13. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry areas of surface drinking water importance (weighted by mean annual water supply) Ecosystem Services and Markets
  14. 14. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Step 2: Importance of forests for surface drinking water • To what extent do forests protect important watersheds for surface drinking water? • All forests • Private forests • All protected forests • NFS lands
  15. 15. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets % All forests % Protected forests % Private forests % NFS forests
  16. 16. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry the extent to which all forests are currently protecting areas of surface drinking water importance. Ecosystem Services and Markets
  17. 17. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry the extent to which NFS forests are currently protecting areas of surface drinking water importance. Ecosystem Services and Markets
  18. 18. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry the extent to which protected forests are currently protecting areas of surface drinking water importance. Ecosystem Services and Markets
  19. 19. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry the extent to which private forests are currently protecting areas of surface drinking water importance. Ecosystem Services and Markets
  20. 20. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Step 3: Threats facing forests important for surface drinking water • To what extent do development, fire, and insects and disease threaten forests important for surface drinking water?
  21. 21. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Housing development increase, 2000-2030 • Dave Theobald FOTE data – 2030: SERGoM v3 model for development – 2000: Census Bureau block dataset • Eligible change: – Rural 1 to Rural 2 – Rural 2 to Exurban/Urban – Rural 1 to Exurban/Urban
  22. 22. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry % of each sub-watershed expected to increase housing development in forested areas between 2000 and 2030 (Theobald) Ecosystem Services and Markets
  23. 23. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Forests important for surface drinking water and threatened by development Ecosystem Services and Markets
  24. 24. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Wildland Fire Potential • USFS Fire Modeling Institute data – Considered fuels potential and crown fire potential. – Based on fire severity, weather, frequency, and size. • Eligible threats: – High or very high wildland fire potential
  25. 25. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry % of sub-watershed containing forests with high or very high wildland fire potential (USFS Fire Modeling Institute) Ecosystem Services and Markets
  26. 26. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Forested areas important for surface drinking water and threatened by wildland fire Ecosystem Services and Markets
  27. 27. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Insect and Disease • USFS Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team – 188 models of agent/host interactions which result in tree mortality • Eligible threat: – areas where, without remediation, 25 percent or more of the standing live basal area of will die over the next 15 years
  28. 28. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry % of sub-watershed classified as having high risk of mortality due to insects and disease (USFS Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team) Ecosystem Services and Markets
  29. 29. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Forested areas important for surface drinking water and threatened by insects and disease Ecosystem Services and Markets
  30. 30. USDA Forest Service Insect and Disease Development Wildland Fire S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets
  31. 31. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Overlay of Other threats • Stress due to climate change (work of Ge Sun and Steve McNulty) • Risk from other disturbances – mining • Linkage with water quality improvement efforts • Concurrence with aquatic system needs.
  32. 32. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Key Benefits of Results • Aid decision-making to protect, restore, or manage priority watersheds – – – – – – – State forest resource assessments & strategies Hazardous Fuels Priority Allocation System Wildland Fire Decision Support System West Wide Wildfire Risk Assessment “Landscape Conservation/All lands” prioritization models (FHTET) Stewardship Program Planning Land conservation programs - legacy • Heighten awareness of dependency on forests for clean water • Enhance Performance Measures – provides context
  33. 33. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Application to PES siting: Helping to identify 3 criteria • Consumer demand for the clean water and a willingness to pay • A clear connection between forest management and drinking water • Future threat to the existing watershed services that can be avoided or averted through a payment designated for management or protection
  34. 34. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Putting a value on water from forests • • • • Assume clean water is produced for free! Take services for granted No consequences for loss Undervaluing leads to overuse or lack of protection
  35. 35. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Less Forest Cover = Higher Treatment Costs A 10% decline in forest cover leads to an $8-12 increase in chemical costs per million gallons of water treated. E.g. 26 MGD ($10) = 228.8 (365) = $ 95,000/yr Impact of Forest Cover on Chemical Treatment Costs Chemical cost/MG $250.00 $200.00 $150.00 or stated another way… $100.00 $50.00 $0.00 0 20 40 60 80 Percent Forest in Drainage Area 100 For every 10% decline in forest cover, there may be a 8-20% increase in chemical treatment costs. May be higher when other costs are added.
  36. 36. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry NYC Watershed • Supply for 6+ million people • Threat of regulation or protection of forests and agricultural lands • $7+ billion-capital invest ; $50 million/year in conservation vs. $300+ million/year in operating costs. • Enhanced services model Ecosystem Services and Markets
  37. 37. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Denver Water • 2.5 + million people • Upper Platte & St.Vrain Rivers or Colorado Front Range • Fire and flood degraded quality and damaged treatment and storage facilities ($27 million) • $25 million fund for fire reduction, road rehab, and fire prevention measures in watersheds (City and FS) Ecosystem Services and Markets
  38. 38. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Sante Fe, NM • City of Sante Fe, Watershed Association, TNC, USFS • Prevent wildfire damage • Forest thinning 17,000 acres • 20-year 6.2 million plan with shared costs • $43.5 million in avoided costs in provisioning/regulating services Ecosystem Services and Markets
  39. 39. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Payments for Watershed Services in Latin America • Longest Running Experience with PWS programs • National Programs in Costa Rica, Mexico, & Ecuador • 5.7 Million Acres - $31M for Watershed Conservation • Drinking Water and Hydropower key concerns Costa Rica Mexico Equador
  40. 40. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets Ecuador - Quito Region • Water supply for Quito and surrounding areas - comes from two public reserves • Water Conservation Trust fund • Water tariff /user fee(1 cent /m3)on water use or dependent goods • Land acquisition, management practices within 1.3 million acre area. • Landowners receive support for improved management not payments. Quito, Ecuador - David Berkowitz ©© Antisana Volcano – Nicole Balloffet
  41. 41. USDA Forest Service S&PF, Cooperative Forestry Ecosystem Services and Markets

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