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Barry M. Evans, Ph.D.
Penn State Institutes of Energy and the Environment
Pennsylvania State University
Stroud Water Resea...
Watershed (Landscape) Models
Generally used to estimate flows and pollutant loads
produced by a given geographic area
SW...
Receiving Water Models: In-Stream

0.1 mg/l

1.5 mg/l

0.6 mg/l
Receiving Water Models: In-Stream

0.1 mg/l

1.5 mg/l
(0.8 mg/l)
0.6 mg/l
(0.3 mg/l)
Receiving Water Models: In-Stream

0.1 mg/l

1.5 mg/l

0.6 mg/l
Watershed Models
Vary in Complexity
 Pollution potential indices (GIS-based)
 Unit area loading models (STEPL)
 Statist...
Watershed Models: Pollutants and Pathways
Primary Pollutants






Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus)
Organic matter...
Water Quality Models: Calibration

Pre-calibration (N)

Post-calibration (N)
• GIS “pre-processor” used to overlay and manipulate

GIS layers, statewide weather files, and other data for
purpose of c...
Pre-Processor
Pre-Processor

….then use MapShed to derive input data for the GWLF-E model
Run Model

When input data have been prepared, open up the GWLF-E model
Run Model

Review and edit input data
Run Model

Run the GWLF-E model
Run Model

Various types of monthly
and daily output created
Run Model
Run Model

All output written to Excel
files to provide additional
control in mangement and
display of data.
Optional Tools

Various optional tools can be used view and evaluate output.
Optional Tools
Optional Tools

Input can be edited to reflect BMP implementation levels.
Optional Tools

Specify various BMP
settings for a given
scenario, and then re-run
GWLF-E to estimate
potential load reduc...
Optional Tools

... and compare the results
Some Key Questions
Planning or regulatory?
Need to compare results against observed data?
Focus on urban, agriculture o...
Knowledge Base by Barry Evans, Ph.D., Senior Research Associate, Penn State University
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Knowledge Base by Barry Evans, Ph.D., Senior Research Associate, Penn State University

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Knowledge Base by Barry Evans, Ph.D., Senior Research Associate, Penn State University

  1. 1. Barry M. Evans, Ph.D. Penn State Institutes of Energy and the Environment Pennsylvania State University Stroud Water Research Center (Adjunct)
  2. 2. Watershed (Landscape) Models Generally used to estimate flows and pollutant loads produced by a given geographic area SWAT, GWLF, AGNPS, HSPF, PLOAD, WAM, SWMM Receiving Water (Waterbody) Models Used to estimate environmental impact of flows and loads to a given waterbody (lake, river, estuary, etc.) LAKE2K, QUAL2K, Bathtub, SWAT, HSPF
  3. 3. Receiving Water Models: In-Stream 0.1 mg/l 1.5 mg/l 0.6 mg/l
  4. 4. Receiving Water Models: In-Stream 0.1 mg/l 1.5 mg/l (0.8 mg/l) 0.6 mg/l (0.3 mg/l)
  5. 5. Receiving Water Models: In-Stream 0.1 mg/l 1.5 mg/l 0.6 mg/l
  6. 6. Watershed Models Vary in Complexity  Pollution potential indices (GIS-based)  Unit area loading models (STEPL)  Statistical models (SPARROW)  Simulation models (SWAT, GWLF)
  7. 7. Watershed Models: Pollutants and Pathways Primary Pollutants      Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) Organic matter (e.g., BOD) Sediment/TSS Pathogens Exotics (pesticides) and heavy metals Primary transport pathways      Dissolved or washed off solids in surface runoff Attached to eroded soil in surface runoff Leached and transported via subsurface flow Streambank erosion Direct disposal in surface water (e.g., WWTPs, cows)
  8. 8. Water Quality Models: Calibration Pre-calibration (N) Post-calibration (N)
  9. 9. • GIS “pre-processor” used to overlay and manipulate GIS layers, statewide weather files, and other data for purpose of creating input file for the core watershed simulation model (GWLF-E) •GWLF-E model is then used to run input files to estimate nutrient (N and P), sediment, and pathogen loads for a given watershed •Various ancillary tools can be used to visualize and analyze model output, and to evaluate BMP effects
  10. 10. Pre-Processor
  11. 11. Pre-Processor ….then use MapShed to derive input data for the GWLF-E model
  12. 12. Run Model When input data have been prepared, open up the GWLF-E model
  13. 13. Run Model Review and edit input data
  14. 14. Run Model Run the GWLF-E model
  15. 15. Run Model Various types of monthly and daily output created
  16. 16. Run Model
  17. 17. Run Model All output written to Excel files to provide additional control in mangement and display of data.
  18. 18. Optional Tools Various optional tools can be used view and evaluate output.
  19. 19. Optional Tools
  20. 20. Optional Tools Input can be edited to reflect BMP implementation levels.
  21. 21. Optional Tools Specify various BMP settings for a given scenario, and then re-run GWLF-E to estimate potential load reductions….
  22. 22. Optional Tools ... and compare the results
  23. 23. Some Key Questions Planning or regulatory? Need to compare results against observed data? Focus on urban, agriculture or mixed land use? How large is the area/watershed? What pollutants/processes are to be modeled? Level of detail for model processes? How readily available are data? Can “what-if” scenarios be analyzed? How important is acceptance by state agency? How user-friendly is it?

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