Computer Based Training Methods


Published on

Chpt.7 Training and Development Course
MAN3450 UCF instructor Kathie Holland

Published in: Business, Technology
1 Comment
  • Does anyone know what the book title is for these slides?
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Computer Based Training Methods

  1. 1. Chapter 7Computer Based TrainingMethodsLearning Objectives<br />“Computers Are Useless. They Can Only Give You Answers.” <br /> Pablo Picasso 1881-1973<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Learning Objectives<br />Differentiate Between Computer Based Training (CBT) and E-Learning<br />Compare and Contrast CBT Methods<br />Identify When to Use CBT<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Brainstorming Ice-Breaker<br />Rules:<br />Choose Scribe<br />Fast and Furious – Don’t Think, Just Speak<br />Quantity, Not Quality<br />No Criticism Allowed<br />Piggybacking Encouraged<br />Topic: What Are Advantages of Using WebCT and Webcourses?<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Some Key Definitions<br />E-Learning<br />Delivery of Training or Education Through Electronic Media<br />CBT<br /> Delivery System (Internet, DVD)<br />Learning Management System<br />Software, Such As Webcourses<br />Knowledge Base<br />Content Provided by Text, Instructor, Etc.<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Practice: Team Presentations<br />Choose Topic:<br />Programmed Instruction<br />Intelligent Tutoring Systems<br />Interactive Multimedia Training<br />Virtual Reality Training<br />Advantages of Using CBT<br />Disadvantages of CBT<br />How and When to Use CBT Effectively<br />Prepare 15 Minutes<br />Use My PowerPoint Slides<br />Create Lecturette (Review Table 6.2 Page 224)<br />Present 5 Minute Lecturette<br />Everyone Must Speak<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Programmed Instruction<br />Self-Paced Learning <br />Learner’s Progress Monitored Through Assessments<br />Systematic Process<br />Expensive to Purpose and Implement<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Intelligent Tutoring Systems<br />Software Customizes Itself to Learner’s Needs<br />Diagnoses Individual’s Problems and Adapts Instruction<br />Expensive to Purchase and Implement<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Interactive Multimedia Training<br />Integrates:<br />Text, Video<br />Graphics, Photos<br />Animation, Sound<br />Self-Paced and Interactive<br />Useful to Train Most Any Job<br />Most Effective When Facilitated by Trainer<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Virtual Reality<br />Artificial Three-Dimensional Environment<br />Simulates Events and Situations to be Experienced on the Job<br />Experience a Physical Involvement with Situation<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />CBT Advantages<br /><ul><li>Cost Effective When Provided to More Employees in More Locations
  11. 11. Maintains Good Control of Learning Process
  12. 12. Provides Consistency
  13. 13. Accommodates Differences in Trainee Readiness
  14. 14. Excellent for Training Knowledge and Attitudes
  15. 15. Good for Training Skills
  16. 16. Can Reduce Learning Time </li></li></ul><li>11<br />CBT Disadvantages<br /><ul><li>High Cost to Purchase and Implement
  17. 17. Limits Discussion, Questions, and Resolution of Trainee Concerns
  18. 18. Should Not Be Used Exclusively
  19. 19. Still Need Trainer/Facilitator
  20. 20. Still Need Materials or Manuals
  21. 21. Still Need Other Training Methods </li></li></ul><li>12<br />When to Use CBT<br />When Cost/Benefit Analysis Indicates Use is Cost-Effective<br />When Content is Unlikely to Change Over Time<br />When Experienced Trainer is Involved<br />When Other Training Methods Used<br />
  22. 22. 13<br />Did You Learn?<br />Differentiate Between Computer Based Training (CBT) and E-Learning<br />Compare and Contrast CBT Methods<br />Identify When to Use CBT<br />
  23. 23. LEARNING MODULES<br />1 Intro to CBT<br />2 CBT vs. E learning<br />3 CBT vs. Methods<br />4 When to use CBT<br />5 Conclusion and reminders<br />14<br />
  24. 24. “Computers Are Useless. They Can Only Give You Answers.” <br />7.0<br />Why do you think Picasso made the statement I’ve quoted on the first Powerpoint slide? Remember, he died in 1973 at age 91. What do you believe he was thinking? Do you know anyone who would agree with him?<br />(This image of Pablo Picasso is in the public domain because the copyright of this photograph, registered in Argentina, has expired.)<br />It’s very obvious to you that computers can do far more than just give you answers today. After all, if it wasn’t for computers you would be in the parking lot searching for a space right now!<br />In fact, computer-based training is a very rapidly growing training delivery method for large and small organizations. Our authors point out that, by 2001, about 75% of organizations provided online training to their employees. It is for this reason that I decided that you and my other students needed to complete this course in an online environment to prepare you for your careers. If I didn’t make the effort to convert this course into an M (mixed) course, I would really be doing you a disfavor!<br />15<br />
  25. 25. Let’s do a little brainstorming right now – just you and me! Let’s see how long of a list we can create of all the advantages of online learning (like our Webcourse).<br />Reduced time in the classroom and more time by the pool. <br />Reduced cost of delivering classroom instruction. For example, an instructor teaching online can easily teach more students than in the classroom. In a full-time web-based course there is no need for a classroom. <br />More consistency in content from term to term. <br />Privacy of learning – you can ask me questions that you are afraid might be “stupid” without being embarrassed in front of other students in the classroom. <br />Easy tracking of grades and progress. <br />Extra time to understand concepts. <br />Increased access to learning materials. <br />Increased access to other students in the class. <br />Your turn, fill in another reason… <br />One last turn… <br />16<br />
  26. 26. In this chapter you’ll complete three learning objectives. It’s a fairly short chapter, so we will breeze through this one much faster than our other chapters. By the time you are finished with this chapter you should be able to:<br />Differentiate Between Computer Based Training (CBT) and E-Learning. <br />Compare and Contrast CBT Methods <br />Identify When to Use CBT <br />17<br />
  27. 27. 7.2<br />CBT vs. E-Learning<br />I’d like to kick off this chapter by asking you to skim through a very short case about how Marriott International, the hotel company, trained about a million employees. Wow, can you imagine your boss asking you to train a million people!<br />Please turn to page 281 and read “Training in Action 7-2.”<br />Once you’ve read through the short case, I’d like your opinion on these two questions:<br />What do you think it would cost to train a million people using individual trainers in traditional classrooms? <br />Do you think those trainers would have gotten bored delivering the same training material over and over again for a million people? How consistently would that training have been delivered? <br />18<br />
  28. 28. Learning Objective 1: Differentiate Computer-Based Training and E-Learning<br />Our first learning objective for this chapter is to differentiate between computer-based training (CBT) and E-Learning. Most people really do not know the difference, and frankly don’t care that much. However, as a manager you will appear to be rather naïve if you use the terms incorrectly, so we’re going to make sure you know the difference.<br />What do you think the difference is?<br />E-Learning vs. CBT<br />E-Learning is the process of delivering training or education through electronic media. It is NOT the electronic delivery system itself. For example, you and I are engaging in E-Learning right this second!<br />CBT<br />In contract, CBT IS the delivery system. Examples include the Internet, CD-ROMs, DVDs, and local area networks (LANs). CBT refers to your computer hooked up to the Internet for the purpose of E-Learning. Obviously, E-Learning is only one reason why you choose to own a computer connected to the Internet; you use your computer for more than just taking courses.<br />There are a few more key terms related to E-Learning and CBT that you should know.  <br />19<br />
  29. 29. Learning Management System<br />A learning management system refers to the software that integrates training management functions (such as delivering exams and recording grades) and learning tools with the training program. In our case, the software that UCF has provided us is named WebCT Vista. UCF chooses to “brand” this software Webcourses. (Don’t ask me why!)<br />Nevertheless, our learning management system is Webcourses software.<br />Knowledge Base<br />Another important term, knowledge base refers to the informational content developed by subject matter experts (SME) who use a variety of different CBT methods.<br />In our case, I am the SME. Think of me as a chef, mixing up a masterpiece of a meal. I take our text, combine it with our course’s learning objectives, sift in a lot of information from professionals affiliated with the American Society for Training and Development, spice it heavily with my own knowledge and experience in learning and training, and stir it all up. Once I’ve finished structuring it and shaping it perfectly, I present it here just for you.<br />Do you think you understand the differences in all these terms? Wouldn’t all these terms make for some great exam questions? This is a short chapter, so you know I could use your help in writing some questions.<br />20<br />
  30. 30. Individual Webcourse Chapter Assignment: Chapter 7 Exam Questions and Answers<br />Formulate one possible exam question (and the answer to it) based on this section of Chapter 7. How about an application question with a scenario followed by a question? Can you make it humorous (without losing your professionalism, of course)? Make sure you include your answer.<br />Click on the "Discussions" button on the left.  Post your exam question and answer in the Discussion link labeled "Chapter 7 Exam Questions and Answers."  What a great way to study for the exam; you just might even see your question on the exam!<br />21<br />
  31. 31. Learning Objective 2:<br />Contrast Computer Based Training (CBT) MethodsThere are four basic CBT methods: programmed instruction intelligent tutoring systems, interactive multimedia training, and virtual reality.<br />Programmed Instruction<br />Programmed instruction is a type of self-paced learning. This means that the trainee can move forward or linger on a topic as quickly or slowly as she needs in order to learn the material. The trainer (or learner) must complete various activities along the way that will document whether he has learned the material. For example, the learner takes a quiz, posts information to a discussion board, interacts with other learners, etc. The trainee is lead systematically through new information in a way that facilitates the most efficient learning.<br />Does this sound a bit familiar? <br />In our text, look at Table 7-2 on page 277 for an example. In this example, there are several questions, and possible answers for each content component (learning stem)<br />This is quite an expensive CBT method to implement, unless a large number of people will use it. The software is expensive, and training the trainers (me) to use the software takes time and expense, and then you must also add in the cost of the hardware to support the system. When a large number of people will be using the software, then the cost per-person is lowered, and it becomes cost efficient. <br />22<br />
  32. 32. Intelligent Tutoring System<br />Ah, we would all love to have an intelligent tutoring system! This is fairly similar to programmed instruction, but it is much better! In this case, the software is very smart, and “learns” about the trainee as he moves through the training. The software begins to recognize the types of mistakes a trainee makes, and automatically determines why each mistake is made. Then the software creates a customized learning strategy to help him overcome his problem. The software actually changes the way the training is delivered to the trainee to help him learn. <br />In addition to generating instruction that matches the trainee’s individual needs and communicating and responding to the trainee’s questions, an intelligent tutoring system actually learns from the trainee’s responses what approach to take in teaching the trainee.<br />Don’t you wish Webcourses could do this for you? I sure do!<br />Refer to Figure 7-2 on page 279. It depicts three learners to make different mistakes to the same problem, and then shows how the software customizes the instruction to fit each person's needs.<br />23<br />
  33. 33. Interactive Multimedia Training<br />Interactive Multimedia (IM) training incorporates text, video, graphics, photos, animation, and sound into the training. In some respects, it is similar to simulations as it attempts to recreate actual situation similar to on-the-job tasks.<br />This type of training is becoming more popular as technology has become easier to customize to this kind of application. It provides stimulus to more of the human’s five senses, thus creating a better learning environment than our plain ol’ Webcourses.<br />Turn to pages 280 and 281 in your text, and review the two excellent examples of companies that use multimedia training. I particularly like the Marriott example, as many experts predicted that people just could not be trained in soft skills on a computer! They said it just could not be done unless in a classroom environment. Marriott, thankfully, did not listen. Today, almost any training objective can be achieved through IM.<br />There are definite advantages and disadvantages of IM. On page 283, look at Table 7-3; you’ll see that it compare the key factors of IM, including self-pacing, interactivity, and multimedia sophistication.<br />However, most of the disadvantages can be overcome by “blending” it with other types of training methods. It is most effective when an on-site trainer facilitates the process and the debriefing. Job aids such as manuals and handouts also increase the effectiveness.<br />Research done here at UCF about online learning has clearly documented that students are more satisfied with an M (mixed web and classroom) course, than they are with W (entirely web-based) courses.  In fact, many are claiming that students are also more satisfied with M courses than they are with course that meet entirely in the classroom!<br />24<br />
  34. 34. Virtual Reality<br />Theme park rides where you feel like you are completely immersed in the environment? Example: Back to the Future ride at Universal Studios, got eaten by a dinosaur! Entertainment industry has used virtual reality<br />Military was probably the first industry to invest in developing the technology. <br />Less expensive to train a pilot to fly a billion dollar airplane in a virtual reality simulator<br />In the UCF Research Park, companies that are involved in developing such software for a multitude of uses<br />NASA-train astronaut to mars<br />Florida Hospital- Using Computer-based Simulation for Pediatric Pain Management Education.“<br />Lot of jobs in the training and development industry that are related to CBT.<br />Individual Webcourse Assignment: Careers in Training<br />For your second assignment for Chapter 7, I’d like you to do a bit of career research to find out just what kinds of jobs are out there in training. So I’d like you to surf the web a bit to find HR and training jobs. Go now to the Assignment button, and complete the "Careers in Training" assignment.<br />You just might find a job you’d like to apply for. Need a reference? Just ask!<br />25<br />
  35. 35. 4<br />When to Use CBT<br />On my website you’ll find the 2005 ASTD State of the Industry Report, a summary of trends in the field of training and workplace learning and development. Four major companies paid to sponsor the study and the resulting report. Can you guess which two technology companies sponsored it? Microsoft and Intel! On page 4 of the report is a summary of all the findings, including the following:<br />Use of technology for delivering learning continued to increase, from 24 percent in 2003 to 27 percent in 2004 in BMS organizations, and from 35 percent to 38 percent in 2004 in BMF organizations. BEST organizations delivered 32 percent of all their learning content using technology. Approximately 75 percent of technology-based learning was online in 2004, and about 75 percent of online learning was self-paced.<br />The 2006 State of the Industry Report reported, “The use of technology was 36.9 percent in BMF organizations and 36.6 percent in BEST organizations. At least 60 percent of technology-based learning was online in 2005, and almost 90 percent of online learning was self-paced.” (ASTD State of the Industry Report 2006) Do you see any trends here?<br />26<br />
  36. 36. Learning Objective 3: Identify When to Use CBT<br />While the trend of using technology, CBT, to deliver training and learning to employees continues to grow every year, CBT is NOT always the best choice. As a manager, choose the best training for your employees, which means evaluate all of the training options available to you.<br />You may make the decision to convert your organization’s existing classroom-based training programs to CBT. How do you decide?<br />How much do you think it would cost to develop and deliver a workplace training program using CBT? Several hundred dollars or several thousand dollars? The actual cost is most likely to be several hundred thousand dollars if you started with no resources!<br />There are four factors to consider when evaluating whether to implement CBT or not:<br />When it is cost effective. <br />When informational content is unlikely to change over time. <br />When experienced trainers are involved <br />When CBT is combined with other training methods. <br />27<br />
  37. 37. Cost/Benefit Analysis<br />You compare the costs – all of the costs! – with the projected benefits. If the benefits outweigh the costs, then you can consider this to have a positive impact on your decision. The trick is to think of ALL of the costs, as this is the most common problem.<br />Let’s look at our class as an example. <br />UCF has already invested heavily in CBT and make the resources available to any instructor who wants to use them. The hardware and software are already in place. There are training programs for faculty who are interested in learning how to adapt their course content to online delivery, and there are instructional designers available to coach faculty in a one-on-one relationship. There are also technology trainers to teach faculty how to use the WebCT/Webcourses software, and to work with instructors one-on-one to solve technological problems we encounter. In essence, there is NO added cost to UCF for me to convert this course and deliver it to you online.<br />Benefits to the University- More students can enroll online,F ewer students need parking, In essence, there is a positive impact on the university and on the decision to deliver this course online.<br />28<br />
  38. 38. Content Changes<br />The second factor to consider is the degree of changes in the informational content that can be expected to occur over time. If the informational content is expected to change frequently and dramatically, then the training program will have to be changed frequently and dramatically. This will increase your costs.<br />Using our class as an example, <br />The field of training and development – workplace learning and performance – is not a rapidly changing field. The textbook does not change frequently. This means fewer reasons to change the informational content of our course. The lack of frequent and dramatic changes in informational content has a positive impact on the decision to deliver this course online.<br />29<br />
  39. 39. Experienced Trainers Involved<br />learning curve has a huge impact on anyone considering implementing CBT! Important considerations to qualify design/deliver learning via CBT:<br />Subject matter. In the case of our course, I have to know a lot about, and have experience in everything in our textbook! No instructor gets hired without having at least some education and experience in the subject matter. <br />Classroom instruction. I have to know how to deliver our course in the classroom in order to know what works well for you, and what would bomb with you. Since I’ve been teaching so long, this wasn’t tough for me. But a new instructor will learn a lot about teaching during their first year or so. <br />Target audience. I have to understand the unique needs of you, my students. You have very different needs than school kids, and very different needs than adults who are even 10 years older than you. A new instructor may not have this experience, and may need a year or so before he or she really understands your needs. <br />Online course instructional design. Converting a classroom-based course to online is a very time-consuming climb up the learning curve. It wasn’t as tough for me because I have a solid background in training and development. But training and teaching have very distinct difference. UCF provides a 40-hour course to faculty to learn this. <br />Software. The 40-hour course I mentioned above does include some training on the WebCT/Webcourses software, but there is really no substitute for actually using the software. <br />To determine the impact ,evaluate background & level of experience of trainers involved. Her level of experience created somewhere between a neutral impact to a positive impact on this decision.<br />30<br />
  40. 40. Other Training Methods Used<br />The fourth and final factor is important to individual learning. Since we all have different preferences in how we learn, it is critically important combine CBT with a variety of other training methods. <br />In the example of our class, we have a wide variety of other training methods available to us. <br />Meet in the classroom for specific chapters <br />Meet one-on-one with me for individual coaching <br />Individuals and teams can physically meet together <br />Teams can deliver workshops in our classroom <br />So again, using our class as an example, this factor has a positive impact on the decision.<br />31<br />
  41. 41. Summing Up: Our Course<br />Factors with Positive Impact <br />When it is cost effective. <br />When informational content is unlikely to change over time. <br />When experienced trainers are involved <br />When CBT is combined with other training methods. <br />Your Turn – Your Experience<br />It’s your turn now to think of an example you can use to evaluate whether CBT was a good choice or not. Think about a training program that you’ve attended – perhaps an orientation training when you started a new job. If you’ve never attended a training program then think of another class you’ve taken that was delivered entirely in the classroom. Got an example in mind? Now, where would you put the X’s in our matrix?<br />To demonstrate that even I use Event 9 Transfer of Learning<br />How can this matrix help you determine whether to have your employees complete a CBT training program? <br />How can this matrix help you determine whether to convert a current classroom-based training program at your company to CBT? <br />32<br />
  42. 42. 5<br />Conclusion and Reminders<br />3 learning objectives, At this point you should be able to:<br />Differentiate Between Computer Based Training (CBT) and E-Learning. <br />Compare and Contrast CBT Methods <br />Identify When to Use CBT <br />There were also two assignments. There were two individual assignments: create an exam question and answer, and research careers in the field of training.<br />33<br />