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Practice and reflecting on engineering education

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by Yu Shouwen, Tsinghua University

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Practice and reflecting on engineering education

  1. 1. The Practice and Reflection on the Quality Improvment of Engineering Education Yu Shouwen Tsinghua University 2016-October, 18,Beijing,China
  2. 2. Outline • 1---A very brief introduction of engineering education in China • 2—The practice of enhancing the quality of engineering education in China 3—Reflecting on the concept of engineering education
  3. 3. • 1---A very brief introduction of engineering education in China
  4. 4. Chinese Engineering Education System
  5. 5. Chinese Engineering Education System-2015 12 11 PhD in Eng 10 Doctor Level D. Eng 9 8 Master in Eng M. Eng7 Master Level6 Bachelor in Eng5 4 Bachelor Level 3 Vocational Education2 Technical College 1
  6. 6. Engineering programs took about 1/3 of all the undergraduate programs in 2013. Engineering Levels, types & scale of engineering education
  7. 7. • By 2014, China had 2,529 regular HEIs (including 1,202 undergraduate HEIs and 1,327 higher vocational colleges). There were 788 institutions providing graduate programs, including 571 regular higher education institutions and 217 research institutes. • The total number of undergraduates in regular HEIs reached 25,476,999 in 2014 and the gross enrollment rate was 37.5%. • 30% of the educational programs in universities were engineering programs. Scope of Engineering Education in China Percentage of Eng degrees in all degrees awarded by Chinese universities in 2010. Resource: Educational Statistics in China, 2011.
  8. 8. Strengthen the engineering education in China • In general, the engineering education programs compose about 30~40% in China’s higher education system. • With the rapid development of science and technology, and with the awareness of the importance of technological transfer, the role and position of engineering education will become more significant.
  9. 9. Encouraging Outstanding Young People to Be Modern Engineers in the 21st Century • ‘Better Engineers and Better Professionals” • Some outstanding Chinese youths in current society didn’t want to choose engineering technology as their major • They were unlikely to be cultivated to be engineers and professionals. • The preferred majors of many young people included such hot specialties as: finance, commerce, administration, foreign language, law etc.
  10. 10. The Needs • The development of this system was continuously promoted along with the process of Industrialization. • At the medium-term development of modern industrialization. • On the basis of economic globalization, build the modern engineering systems with Chinese characteristics
  11. 11. The development trend of international engineering education showed the following characteristics throughout: – First, engineering development towards the direction of comprehensive and systematic large project. – Second, nanometer, information and biotechnology,.... were inevitably combined with engineering technique due to its fast develop the engineering education strategy some developed country used was to “occupy” the innovative persons training in the high-end,
  12. 12. Vest(MIT,AAE,US)pointed
  13. 13. Change—fundamental engineering vocabulary ht t p: //www. Nae. Edu/Act ivitie s/Event s/Annual Meetings/19611/53074.aspx • Force, velocity, size, modulus, electric power. temperature , frequency…old vocabulary… • Now, we use new vocabulary: such as • Scale, range, state, complexity, integration, framework, evolution , robot, cost accounting, coupling system , green production, climate change,…. • It is language in the engineering system • To face these change in the EE
  14. 14. • The manufacture and the engineering need large labor input were transformed or “outsourcing” to other countries, • We must “walking on two legs”, not only possess innovative engineering but also served to manufacture engineering which need large number of labors but will combined with IT • Third, projects are developing towards two ends: part of it developed to cutting-edge and fine, the other part developed to systematic, complex and large
  15. 15. • Some developed countries have aware their problems and proposed the “return to engineering” .changing after financial crisis; • The goal of our country is “Toward innovation” • The engineering education in China must hold the need of country, achieve the balance between “globalization” and “localization” • Establish the engineering education not only have Chinese characteristic but also adapt to the development of the global.
  16. 16. 2—The practice on the quality improvement of engineering education in China • 2.1—How to improve the training for better engineers and professional?(Tsinghua Univ.) • 2-2--The new professional degree—Master of Engineering • 2-3—Quality assurance and engineering education accreditation • 2-4--New achievement of newly-built HEIs and its eligibility evaluation • 2-5—PETOE Project driven from 2010 in China • 2-6-CDIO --a new pilot and extension in China • 2-7—Innovation, SRT Project ,
  17. 17. 2.1—How to improve the training for better engineers and professional? --- Encouraging outstanding young people to be modern engineers in the 21th century
  18. 18. ---Problem 1)---In the taching and learning:Lack for practice and students learning 2)---Evaluation of teachers—Orient on research Big R --- “normal “ E ( Education) 3)--The third problem, the regulations and upgrading of the institutions. Many colleges like to be upgraded into universities. 4)--The fourth problem is that practice is reduced constantly and lack cooperation between the university and industry
  19. 19. • To get through the learning of engineering knowledge, practical training of engineering, and experience of real work. • A gap between requirements of China’ industrial development and engineering personnel training in institutions of higher learning
  20. 20. • This training process should be completed by both universities and enterprises. • Engineering training is a vital section for the students to combine theory with practice • Put what they have learned into practice and adapt themselves quickly into their future work. • Engineering education programs lack practical training, the students’ basic engineering abilities and designing abilities can’t be developed,
  21. 21. Ask the understanding of some knowledge related to economy and society • We should provide outstanding students who wish to be modern engineers with favorable circumstances • The practice and achievements of reform and education—in the Engineering Education in China: First--The efforts in some universities:---
  22. 22. • Firstly, many engineering colleges have offered some engineering specialties ( program ) to meet the demand of the need • Industrial engineering • Financial engineering • Engineering management,…….. • Other interdisciplinary specialties such as systematic engineering, distributive engineering and technology, social engineering science , logistic-engineering etc
  23. 23. • 2) Joint Bechlor and Master degree integrated program • Secondary, schools of engineering at some Chinese universities, Tsinghua University’s engineering departments, have carried out Bachelor-Master consecutive pursuit system. • About more than 50% of students in Tsinghua University major-Engineering prefer such a learning approach, students at Chinese engineering colleges will take average 4 years to achieve a bachelor’s degree.
  24. 24. • However, duo to time limit, most graduates are no more than “semi-finished engineer”. • If students only take 6 years take one or one and a half year to put what they have learnt into engineering practice during the phase of graduation design thus they will be advanced talents with engineering expertise. • 3) Thirdly,The new professional Master Degree—Master of Engineering:--it will talking later..
  25. 25. • Fourthly A recent survey revealed that “UROP” and “UPOP” developed by MIT, • In China, University’s “Students’ Research Training”(“SRT”,….) program and national “Challenge Cup” of science and technology contest also appeal to a great number of undergraduates and even postgraduates to participate in such activities. • Most Chinese universities encourage students to involve themselves in such practical activities as science and technology innovation or establishment of enterprises. • Innovation activities, such as " Innovation center" and " Maker Space"...
  26. 26. • Someone’s performance is excellent, he or she will be given enough credits to replace graduation design • They are in or after class, and make them grow into future outstanding engineers.
  27. 27. • To accomplish course concerned with engineering technology and administration or courses for postgraduates • Such a distance-education approach important form of further education for engineering technicians • Continuation engineering education and advanced vocational training will become another focal point.
  28. 28. • However, duo to time limit, most graduates are no more than “semi-finished engineer”. • If students only take 6 years take one or one and a half year to put what they have learnt into engineering practice during the phase of graduation design thus they will be advanced talents with engineering expertise.
  29. 29. 2.2-- New professional degree— Master of Engineering • Since 1984 China has begun to carry out Master of Engineering Program. mid-1990s, Master of Engineering was set up. • Up to ~80 thousand per year now, covers more than 4 dozens of engineering fields . For candidates had practical experience concerning engineering of more than 3 years • Two-year period of courses learning and thesis writing, finally achieve ME by passing the oral defense.
  30. 30. • As one of feasible ways to cultivate modern engineers as the society requires thesis papers regard to such enterprises’ urgent needs as design, technique, experiment, development of new technology and so on; • Dual-tutor system (i.e. one tutor comes from universities and the other from enterprises) has been adopted;
  31. 31. • The oral defense committee are made up of teachers and advanced engineers. • An excellent model for cultivating modern engineers.Backbone for the important workforce in the industry and enterprises. The Data--- • 1998---4200 Master of Engineering candidates; • 2009---~90000 • There are about 200 thousand conferred professional degree
  32. 32. • 2-3—Quality assurance and engineering education accreditation
  33. 33. • We hope engineering educational program accreditation will: • Plays a key role in the quality assurance system of engineering education. • Links engineering education with industry and being a driving force to promote the reform of engineering education. • Promotes Chinese engineering and technology talents joining in the international competition and mobility.
  34. 34. • The theoretical research and practice of program evaluation in China could be traced back to the late 20th century. • The program evaluation of architecture, urban planning, civil engineering, construction environment and equipment engineering, water supply and drainage works, engineering management began in 1993. • China launched the engineering educational program accreditation in 2006 and began to establish the accreditation system.
  35. 35. 1980s 2006 2013-2016 1994 Study Pilot Accreditation Establishment of Accreditation System A provisional member of Washington Accord -----Signatory member of WA in 2016. History of engineering education accreditation in China 2005 2012 Reform of the engineers system Implementation of substantial equivalent system Engineering education accreditation laying a basis for Chinese professional engineers system and a linkage between them is under exploration.
  36. 36. Electrical Engineering Accreditation program areas Mechanical Engineering Chemical & Pharmaceutical Engineering Electronic information Hydraulic Engineering Transportation Engineering Environmental Engineering Food Engineering Mineral Engineering Safety Engineering Materials Engineering Computer Engineering Surveying Engineering Instrument Engineering Geographic Engineering Civil Engineering 17 already accredited areas Energy and Power Textile Engineering Light Industry Forestry Engineering Agricultural Engineering Nuclear Engineering Aerospace Engineering 11 to be accredited areas Biological Engineering Biological Medicine Ocean Engineering Mechanics Total31programareasinengineeringdirectory
  37. 37. Accreditation organization system CAST CEEAA Board of SupervisorsCouncil Secretariat Academic Committee Decision Advisory Committee Sub- Committee Sub- Committee Sub- Committee  CAST represents China to apply for the provisional status of Washington Accord.  CAST conduct engineering education accreditation in China through its member organization, CEEAA  Established in 2012  Under the oversight of CAST  Non-profit, NGO  Authorized by MOE, independent of MOE  33 associations involved
  38. 38. Philosophies of Criteria Education Objectives Graduate Outcomes Faculty Resources and Facilities Administration Support Curriculum CQI Outcome-based Education(OBE) Continuous Quality Improvement(CQI) Students-centered
  39. 39. Criteria Accreditation Criteria General Criteria Students Educational objectives Graduate outcomes Continuous improvement Curriculum Faculty Supporting resources Complementary Program Criteria All outcome based for students learning
  40. 40. A brief introduction and review on the accreditation of engineering education in China • Three basic principles of accreditation • Students centered ( SC ) • outcome-based education(OBE ) • continuous quality improvement(CQI) • For the implementation of engineering education accreditation
  41. 41. By the end of 2015, 553 programs have been accredited, among which 216 programs were re-accredited for the second time, and 118 programs have gone through three full accreditation cycles. In 2015, 376 programs applied for accreditation. 163 institutions have participated in accreditation.
  42. 42. Accreditation procedures Application and Acceptance • Self-evaluation • Submitting Self-study Report • Self-study Report Reviewing On-site Visiting Reviews and Suggestions on Accreditation Decision Maintenance of Accreditation Status • Voluntary application • Bachelor’s programs admitted by MOE • Program areas covered by the CEEAA • Programs have at least three cohorts of graduates • Applications submitted to the Secretariat by according institutions • Application report prepared in accordance with the Guidance
  43. 43. Accreditation evaluators Over 600 evaluators 42% of them: from industry 58% of them: from academe
  44. 44. Publicizing the concept of OBE Increasing the understanding of core philosophies of engineering education accreditation around the country Launching a series of meetings in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Tsingdao and Chengdu 600+ HEIs, 3000+ faculty involved  Graduate attributes oriented program standard  Outcome-Based Education (OBE)  Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)
  45. 45. Consistency Checks Accreditation Conclusions Decision Advisory Committee Meeting Program Sub- Committees Meeting PEVs Assessment PEVs Assessment PEVs Assessment Team Report Team Report Team Report PEVs Assessment PEVs Assessment PEVs Assessment PEVs Assessment Program Sub- Committees Meeting Team Report PEVs Assessment PEVs Assessment … … …
  46. 46. • CAST • The Board of Supervisors • HEIs • Society • Workshop in Tsinghua University • Project for Excellent Engineers of MOE • IEA conference • ABET symposium • Investigate issues involving the accreditation process • On-site Visit • Accreditation Organization • Accreditation Cases Continuous improvement in accreditation system Information Feedback Accreditation Symposiums Information Collection Management & Supervision
  47. 47. The establishment of engineering educational program accreditation system follows these general principals: Substantial Equivalence with international accreditation systems Outcome based education ( OBE), Continue Quality Improvement ( C Q I )  Third party accreditation body The Graduate outcomes--as following,12 Articles General Principal for Accreditation
  48. 48. (1) Engineering Knowledge: An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, natural science, engineering fundamentals and engineering specialization to solving complex engineering problems; (2) Problem Analysis: An ability to analyze, identify, formulate, and research literature of complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering sciences; (3) Design/development of solutions: An ability to design solutions for complex engineering problems and design systems, components or processes that meet specified needs with appropriate considerations of legal, public health, safety, cultural, societal, and environmental issues; (4) Investigation: An ability to investigate complex problems using research-based knowledge and research methods to provide valid conclusions via the process of experiment design, data analysis and interpretation, and information synthesis; (5) Modern Tool Usage: An ability to create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modeling, to complex engineering problems, with an understanding of the limitations; (6) The Engineer and Society: An ability to rationalize and assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities involving professional engineering practice and solutions to complex engineering problems by contextual knowledge;
  49. 49. (7) Environment and Sustainability:--An ability to understand and evaluate the impact of professional engineering work in the solution of complex engineering problems on sustainability of society and environment; (8) Ethics:--An ability to apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics, norms and responsibilities in engineering practice; (9) Individual and Team work:--An ability to function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse and multi-disciplinary teams; (10) Communication:--An ability to communicate effectively with the engineering community and general public on complex engineering activities at home and abroad, such as being able to comprehend and write effective reports, design documentations, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions; (11) Project Management and Finance:--An ability to understand and apply engineering management principles and economic decision-making to managing projects as a member or leader in a multi-disciplinary team; (12) Lifelong Learning: An ability to recognize the need and prepare for independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change
  50. 50. --COMPLEX ENGINEERING PROBLEM • Washington Accord Definition of Complex Problems: • Complex problems: [are] engineering problems which cannot be resolved without in-depth engineering knowledge, much of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of the professional discipline, and have some or all of the following characteristics: • Involve wide-ranging or conflicting technical, engineering and other issues •  Have no obvious solution and require abstract thinking, originality in analysis to formulate suitable models •  Require research-based knowledge much of which is at, or informed by, the fore-front of the professional discipline and which allows a fundamentals-based, first principles analytical approach •  Involve infrequently encountered issues • Are outside problems encompassed by standards and codes of practice for professional engineering •  Involve diverse groups of stakeholders with widely varying needs •  Have significant consequences in a range of contexts •  Require judgment in decision making • Are high level problems including many component parts or sub- problems
  51. 51. 2-4,New Achievement of newly-built HEIs • Newly-built HEIs: • 2000-2015: ---403 42.69% of all HEIs • Gross enrollment rate: • 2002--15%; 2005--21%; 2015-->38% • Triple transformation Tertirary vacational college--->University Single discipline-----> various disciplines Imitating traditional academic type-->to practical oriented for the needs of local economic region
  52. 52. -five shifts Towards--practical oriented;Demand orientation; Output orientaion; Double-qualified; Two satifications 2014--312 Newly-built HEIs, Evaluation.From the data analysis based on the establishing national database of education status of HEIs : 1--Responsiveness to public demands 2--Fitness for education objective 3--Supportability of faculty and resources 4--Effectiveness of quality assurance system 5--Satification of students and society Then--Early warning and countermeasure
  53. 53. 2-5—PETOE ( Plan for educationg and training outstanding egineers)—the Project driven from June,2010 in China
  54. 54. Driving force • Progress in past 30 years; • 1--Established higher EE system--Compatible the economic needs • 2-Total number of students--biggest in the world,To enhanced the quality of higher EE • 3--How to encourage the young people to select the job as engineers as firstly satisfied the need from the industry and enterpriceand
  55. 55. PETOE--data • Date---2010-June 23 initiation • Universities---~60--------------- 208 (2014) • Enterprises--~20---------------------10415(2014) • Departments of State and Association---~23 • Several program per Univ. ,linking Ba. and Ma. Dr.degree,---50824 students enrolment in 1257programs for undergraduate and 514 graduate programs(2015) • Established National practice Center--626 • Teacher from Enterprise (part time)-11487
  56. 56. --Aim: • Face to industry; Face to the world ;Face to the future; • The duty of different division: • 1--State; • 2--Local government • 3--Ministry of Education • 4--Chinese Academy of Engineering
  57. 57. --Characteristics • 1--Enterprises joint deeply in the training process • 2--University-According to the standards ( Generally standard; Professional standard; University's standard ) to realize the training of students • 3- Strengthen the Engineering capacity and innovation ability of students
  58. 58. Key points: • 1--Attach important to the serves for the strategy of national development • 2-- Attach important to built close links between Industry and University • 3-- Attach important to the training the comprehensive quality and social duty for the students • 4-- Attach important to the training of students for internationalization ( According to the international standard; Exchanging of EE )
  59. 59. 2-6-CDIO --a new pilot and extension in China • Conceive-Design-Implement--Operation • 2005-Shan-Tou Univ. initiative—in China • ~50 Universities—Pilot group---`200 Univ. and Coll.now Syllabus codifying the standard, Program inquiry based-+PBL Continuous improvement system;Joint in OET Project Federation of CDIO in China established ;Intelligence Quotient ~Emotional Quotient --- IQ--EQ
  60. 60. 3—Reflecting on the concept of engineering education 3.1-Engineering Ethics in EE 3.2,—OBE and Graduate Outcomes 3.3--On the Education-Evaluation 3.4—Input or Outcome 3.5-- Diversity 3.6--To building a powerful country of human resource 3-7 Strategy of development of EE 3-8—Main task of University
  61. 61. 3.1-- ENGINEEING ETHICS • School Motto--厚德载物-As Earth is vast and grand, so a gentleman must embrace everything with virtue and tolerance. • The Main goal---IAE, Engineer Association for peoples well-being • The Accreditation--Criteria The contents of the course • 1, Engineering ethics, including traditional and modern engineering, particularly the ethical issues emerging in bioengineering, medical engineering, computer networking, atomic energy and environmental engineering;
  62. 62. • 2, the code and standard of ethics and norms of behavior for professional engineers; • 3, the ethical guidelines in project designing, decision making and the legal right, duty and ethical responsibility, etc., of the individual, organization, employee and employer. • -See report of the working group on the teaching of ethics of the world commission on the ethics of scientific knowledge and technology ( COMEST ), Paris, 26th January 2004
  63. 63. 3.2—OBE and Graduate Outcomes • (1) Engineering Knowledge:-An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, natural science, engineering fundamentals and engineering specialization to solving complex engineering problems; • (2) Problem Analysis:-An ability to analyze, identify, formulate, and research literature of complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering sciences; • (3) Design/development of solutions:-An ability to design solutions for complex engineering problems and design systems, components or processes that meet specified needs with appropriate considerations of legal, public health, safety, cultural, societal, and environmental issues; • (4) Investigation: • An ability to investigate complex problems using research-based knowledge and research methods to provide valid conclusions via the process of experiment design, data analysis and interpretation, and information synthesis; • (5) Modern Tool Usage: • An ability to create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modeling, to complex engineering problems, with an understanding of the limitations; • (6) The Engineer and Society: • An ability to rationalize and assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities involving professional engineering practice and solutions to complex engineering problems by contextual knowledge;
  64. 64. • (7) Environment and Sustainability:--An ability to understand and evaluate the impact of professional engineering work in the solution of complex engineering problems on sustainability of society and environment; • (8) Ethics:--An ability to apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics, norms and responsibilities in engineering practice; • (9) Individual and Team work:--An ability to function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse and multi-disciplinary teams; • (10) Communication:--An ability to communicate effectively with the engineering community and general public on complex engineering activities at home and abroad, such as being able to comprehend and write effective reports, design documentations, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions; • (11) Project Management and Finance:--An ability to understand and apply engineering management principles and economic decision-making to managing projects as a member or leader in a multi-disciplinary team; • (12) Lifelong Learning: • An ability to recognize the need and prepare for independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change
  65. 65. 3.3--The Education-Evaluation • A--Goal and Criteria of Evaluation • B--Evaluation of International EE • C--Contrast and Balance • D--Evaluation and Accreditation of EE
  66. 66. --Goal and Criteria of Evaluation • University Evaluation-- ( Program;Discipline;Faculty's promotion....) • To improve the quality of Engineering Education or:-------------------------------------------------------- a—Academic rating and ranking; b—Management and controlling; c– Providing information for stakeholders; d--Others
  67. 67. The comparing different categories of Evaluation (1) Recognition Evaluation— Government Accountability; Positivism (2) Certification Evaluation— Pass or not; (3) Social evaluation--- Social Accountability; Constructivism Graduy Bogue, 2003; Zhou GL,Mo JF,2014
  68. 68. Different goal Vs different criteria and weigh factor of Evaluation • (a)For quality assurance of Eng. Education— Focus on --learning outcome, Also for CQI It is different as (b) and (c) ! --------------------------------------------------------- (b)For Academic research— Focus on – paper; citation; funding ; Awards ; Faculties,…..; (c) For management---Must keeping balance between R (research) and E (education)
  69. 69. --Evaluation of International EE • Some examples in international evaluation for the rating and ranking for the disciplines and Universities • Comparing three examples: (1) US News—From Thomson Ruters-”in Cites” (2) Times –http:/www.indexedu.com/learn/edu/14308.html (3) QS ( Quacquarelli Symonds )
  70. 70. US-news ( Int. version) • Raputation-25%--global 12.5%;region 12.5% • Paper-------------------------------65% Total number------------------- 12.5% normalized impact factor -----10% Total citation number A--------10% higher citation number B-----12.5% B/A---------------------------------10% International collaboration—10% Authored Dr. Degree number—10% International and National---different weight factor
  71. 71. Times • Education—------------------------------------------30% Reputation----------------------------------15%; Ratio Faculties/Students-------------- 4.5%; average Dr. degree/Bachler ---------2.25%; Disciplines number-----------------------6%; income of University/faculty ----------6% Research--------------------------------------------------30% Citation if paper-----------------------------------------30% Internationalization-------------------------------------8% Income from enterprises------------------- -----------2%
  72. 72. QS • Assessment from academic peer--------40% • Global employee evaluation--------------10% • Ratio of number of faculties/students—20% • Average paper citation/ faculties----------20% • Ratio of international students------------5% • Ratio of international teacher-------------5% Then we can find different ranking results
  73. 73. --Contrast and Balance • Education----Research ( Big R and normal E ??? ) • Input---Outcome ( Outcome based ) • Quality assurance---Ranking and rating . Hand the “ Baton”--not only for University,but also for teacher promotion • Undergraduate—Graduate • Evaluation criteria of EE—for Programs/Disciplines/University and institutions
  74. 74. 3.4—Input or Outcome • (1) Input—Resources, Outlook • (2) Outcome—Concept of value; Increment • (3) Comprehensive approach– Balance of both but oriented one. To excite input or satisfy the need of stakeholders It can be approximately expressed as formula considering—goal; needs ; historical evolution --Data collection ;evidence based; justification
  75. 75. Input and output • For some professional institutions of "qualified" assessment, under the specific internal conditions, it is necessary to pay attention to its "input" appropriately to regulate its "access" conditions and should keep appropriate balance with the evaluation of “output”, but the focus is “output” not the “input”.
  76. 76. --Input---Outcome To determine– criteria; index ; weigh factor Important as the “ baton” of Symphony orchestra qualitatively or quantitatively (Focus on Students learning outcome)     N i N i iii uUU 1 1 
  77. 77. 3.5 DIVERSITY need- Industry and Students • We can use the two dimensional map • The emission lines started from the origin represent the tropism of different schools -- degrees. • The threshold curve represents the lowest standard for its degree. • The multiple tropism choice of talent with different degree • engineering education in a nation are expressed in this two dimensional plane.
  78. 78. • Only when the talent market exhibits this multiple requirement, the society accepted the multiple training approach of talent, • government promoted the implementation of multiple talents foster foresightedly, restrict the minimum threshold of their entry criteria for different cultivation approach and ensured on the system and mechanism, • the whole engineering education will be able to exuberant, Great talents appear successively, developed harmoniously and matched with proper complexion. • “One may distinguish himself in any trade”
  79. 79. 3 D (Time evolution evaluation model) research combined mode application Time
  80. 80. Diversity of the needs of human resource and students' development • --Balance between globalization and localization • --Quality assurance of higher engineering education—The needs of human resources and Students : • According to the needs for international level and local economic region also for students' development
  81. 81. 3.6--Building a powerful country of human resource • In China, which is really the great nation of Higher Engineering Education, there are ~34 million college students studying in school, nearly 1/3 of which is Polytechnic students nowadays If we want to become a powerful country of higher education ;Another knowledge consider that every person could be talent with diversity, they can do invention from different angle and stage,
  82. 82. • So that the community can get the most innovative burst strength, reservoir of creative energy that have the greatest combination. • The learning achievement under the fully excited state some times will be unforgettable. If educators can bring the students into such a “burning” learning state, • The most successful of educators or colleges was to provide the learning environment as fine as possible and excite the maximum learning energy of students, and then the education will be successful.
  83. 83. If there is N grades of such young peoples, • the total energy of the human resource of young peoples in the whole society could be calculated by the formula iii uU  10  i     N i N i iii uUU 1 1 
  84. 84. The Principle of Max. release of Energy
  85. 85. Two approach---red one, -->1i
  86. 86. approach to one. • The advantage of China as a powerful nation of human resource will emerge. • This was the most important “mine” of China in the international. • Then, the undoubted human resource was assured for the purpose of achieving the goal i
  87. 87. 3-7 Strategy of development of EE • (1)—Road map and strategy • (2)--Classification and Stratification (3)--The Stratification based on the Classification
  88. 88. —Road map and strategy • In the environment of economic globalization, China has become one of major power of engineering education. We must hold the policy of “walking on two legs”. • The engineering education should serve the cutting edge engineering • Large construction projects ;Also the processing and manufacturing engineering needs labor-intensive.
  89. 89. --The development trend of international engineering education showed the following characteristics throughout: – First, engineering development towards the direction of comprehensive and systematic large project. – Second, nanometer, information and biotechnology were inevitably combined with engineering technique due to its fast develop the engineering education strategy A/B/C A---some developed country used was to “occupy” the innovative persons training in the high-end,
  90. 90. • B--The manufacture and the engineering need large labor input were transformed or “outsourcing” to other countries; • C--We must “walking on two legs”, not only possess innovative engineering but also served to manufacture engineering which need large number of labors but will combined with IT ; • Third, projects are developing towards two ends: part of it developed to cutting-edge and fine, the other part developed to systematic, complex and large
  91. 91. • Some developed countries have aware their problems and proposed the “return to engineering” .changing after financial crisis; • The goal of our country is “Toward innovation” , The engineering education in China must hold the need of country, achieve the balance between “globalization” and “localization” ; • Establish the engineering education not only have Chinese characteristics but also adapt to the development of the global.
  92. 92. --Classification and Stratification • Three strategies 1--—Stratification—Strategy I—Evaluation for Excellent education in University ; Ranking of disciplines 2--—Classification—strategy II-- Programs Accreditation, Qualified disciplines 3-—Strategy III—Stratification based on classification
  93. 93. Three different approach 1--—Stratification—Strategy I 2--—Classification—Strategy II 3--—Strategy III—Stratification based on classification
  94. 94. 1)—Stratification—Strategy I----”pyramid” mode
  95. 95. 2)—Total Classification—strategy II
  96. 96. 3)—Strategy III—Stratification based on classification
  97. 97. • Topics: Team work; Organized leadership; Communication skill; Multi-culture; Social duties; Specialized practice; Business environment All can be strengthen in the projects: Master of Engineering; PETOE; Accreditation of EE; CDIO; The Main-Line: Enhance the students learning outcome— Strengthen the linking between Academy and Industry
  98. 98. 3-8—Main task of University • --What is a “university” ? • In the speech of Mr. Cai Yuanpei when he was appointed as the president of Peking University, he has said a paragraph, which was quoted as below “University was the place for researching esoteric knowledge. ……If you not cultivate the foundation and study assiduously at this time, then you will delay the study of students when you take a job as a teacher and you will bugle the country when you take a job as an officer. ” • (Cai Yuanpei: The inaugural speech of appointing the president of Peking University, 4.1917)
  99. 99. • The research of advanced knowledge, which is explain as cultivate the foundation and study assiduously, is different from the “science research” we usually talk. • The fact of the spirit in the paragraph of Mr. Cai is that the university cultivates the basis of students, who may be a good teacher or officer in the future, via researching the advanced research. • The original mean of Mr. Cai is that according to the route of "research" to achieve the object of "education".
  100. 100. • The former president of Tsinghua university Mr. Mei Yiqi said that: “The so-called university is not because of the big buildings but great masters.” • “ Not only the intelligence of us depend on the teach of teachers but also the spiritual cultivation. “ • The inaugural speech of Mr. Mei Yiqi, the president of Tsinghua University, the school publication of Tsinghua university, No. 341, 12/14/1931
  101. 101. • We fulfill the sentence above as: “The so-called university is not because of the big buildings but the place where great masters educate talents.” • This renew at first emphasize the resource of masters and second require the masters to teach talents , and students learning, implement the education. • But the most important aspect for university is the “output”, the production of talents cultivation. But it is difficulties to indentify in a short term evaluation! • The common mission of teachers and masters is talents cultivation.
  102. 102. 4—Discussion and Concluding Remarks • Status—CHINESE---E E system • Reform and case study Linking University –Industry • Rethinking –Strategy and education concept University/ Students/Teacher/--Global competency
  103. 103. Keeping Balances • Training of Talents--- • Undergraduates ------Graduates • Knowledge------ Skill,Ability,Attribute • Basic Knowledge --- Professional • Learning ---------- Hand-on • Social Science------- Science , Engng. • Theory -------- Practice
  104. 104. Skillful at Keeping Balance • Idealism ---- Utilitarianism BE ALERT TO CHANGES MAKING COMPREHENSIVE DECISIONS- INTEGRATION SKILLFUL AT KEEPING BALANCE ! GO TO INNOVATION
  105. 105. Historical Evolution • Four Units G,U,I,I-Government, University, Industry, Intermediary • -------------------------------- • Only when we understand the characteristics (size, capability, connotation and energy) of each unit in different country and region • The interaction force between each unit and its historical variation process • See Time evolution flow—Different country, nation,region is located in different stage
  106. 106. Four Units G,U,I,I-Government, University, Industry, Intermediary 大学 企业 政府 中介方
  107. 107. New Features of the modern engineering education in China • We can use the sketch style to outline the characteristics of the higher education of China different from other countries (including developed and developing countries): • We can exchanging and learning each other, but we need to consider the local characteristics
  108. 108. • To building an EE system with “ harmony- cooperation ,total capacity” characteristics. • We can exchanging and learning each other for the young generation in the global village! • Thank you!

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