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Higher education quality in China


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By Jinghuan Shi, Institute of Education, Tsinghua University

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Higher education quality in China

  1. 1. Jinghuan Shi  史静寰 Institute of Education, 教育研究院 Tsinghua University  清华大学 1 Higher Education Quality in China
  2. 2. Changing Context Globally • Knowledge-based society and knowledge- driven” growth model; • world village and global citizen; • (higher) education becomes more crucial for any countries . •Three major trends of HE : massification, marketization, globalization •Three major themes in HE : equitability, excellence, efficiency China is strongly influenced by all the global trends and issues in higher education.
  3. 3. Concepts of globalization and internationalization of HE “ 全球化”与”国 化”的概念际 • Globalization: refer to economic, political, and societal forces pushing higher education toward greater international involvement.  在优势资本和现代信息网络压力下形成 的经济日益一体的客观世界变化。 • Internationalization: include policies and practices undertaken by academic systems, institutions—and even individuals—to cope with the global academic environment.  系统、机构或个人为应对客观世界变化而采取的主 动行为策略。 Philip G. Altbach and Jane Knight. The Internationalization of Higher Education: Motivations and Realities Journal of Studies in International Education (2007) 11: 290-305
  4. 4. The explosive growth of the Chinese economy in the past 30 years has made China: •the second largest economic entity;   •the second largest country in the field of international trades;    •the second largest power in scientific and technology; •the second largest country in comprehensive competitiveness.   China’s changing role in the world   China is trying to change its role from the largest "workshop of the world” to an innovation-driven platform.
  5. 5. Understanding China’s Complexity The combination of four worlds, “4C”: •Confucianism(ancient culture) • Communism(political revolution) • Commercialization (economic reform) • Computers(modern technology) The complexity exists in education, too
  6. 6. China’s land and population scope Hu’s Line 36% land 96% population 64% land 4% population
  7. 7. China’s attitude and policy in global time • China's economic development has entered a new normal. The country is in a crucial period. • We need to develop twin engines to drive development: popular entrepreneurship and innovation, paired with increased supplies of public goods and services, achieving a better-quality, more efficient, upgraded economy. • China (NPC 2015): Promoting the equitable development of education and improving its quality. Enabling people change their fate through education. - Government Work Report2015-
  8. 8. 8 Rising importanceRising importance Of HEOf HE 高教地位与功能高教地位与功能 Key decisions in HEKey decisions in HE 高教发展特点趋势高教发展特点趋势 How to see globalization and internationalization of HE in China? 如何理解中国高教的全球化与国际化特点与趋势? How to deal with the two tendencies? 中国高校如何应对处理全球化与国际化的挑战? Increase higher education enrollment Build world-class universities Ensure the quality of future workforce Carry out cutting-edge research Develop the national capacity Changing context of higher education in ChinaChanging context of higher education in China 化中的高等教育:中国情景变化中的高等教育:中国情景变
  9. 9. Schwarzman College and Scholar Program starts in 2016 Youth Leadership Forum ( 2016-7-7 )Schwarzman scholars ( 2016-9-10 )
  10. 10. “Schwarzman Scholarhip” in Tsinghua • The target : select 200 best undergraduates (45% from the US, 20% from China and the rests from other parts of the world ) annually from the world top universities for 1 year master degree studies in Tsinghua focusing on three areas: international relations, economy and public policies. 每年在世界顶尖大学选拔 200 名本科生(美国 45% ,中国 20% ,世界其他国家 35% )到清华进行一年的硕士学习,专业方向为经济、国关、公共 政策。  • The goal: cultivate future leaders with a global vision, understand Chinese culture and society, gear to promoting the world peace and human civilizations. 培养具有宽广国际视野、优秀综合素质和卓越的领导能力,同 时了解中国社会、理解中国文化,有志于为促进人类文明与进步、世界和平与发展贡献聪 明才智的未来领导者, • Courses and training methods: integrating global vision with China’s perspective, having a better understanding of the world future through deep investigations to the complexity of the Chinese society. 突出全球视野和中国视角,通过深度考察中国社会,理解全球化背景下中国的变化,探讨 世界发展的共性问题和现实挑战。
  11. 11. Global students: First cohort of Schwarzman Scholars start at Tsinghua in 2016 • More than 3,000 among 9000 applications were first reviewed by a distinguished team of readers from around the world, with 300 semi-finalists invited for in- person interviews in Beijing, Bangkok, London or New York before international panels. • 111 students were selected finally through a rigorous application process designed to evaluate proven intellectual and academic ability, as well as leadership potential, strength of character, ability to anticipate emerging trends, and desire to understand other cultures, perspectives and positions.
  12. 12. MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses   and boundless education • MOOCs: a new type of college class based on Internet. • Udacity , Jan. 2012 (Stanford) Coursera , April 2012 (Stanford) • edX , May 2012 (MIT+Harvard) • Over ten millions of students take courses online, 70% of them are outside of the US. • Tsinghua joined the EdX in May and developed the Chinese platform called “XuetangX” ( www.xuetantX. com ) in mid Oct which is the first online learning platform in Chinese. 清华 13 年 5 月加入 edX, 10 月清华“学堂在线”正式投入 使用 , 是全球首个中文在线学习平台。
  13. 13. “”online courses 清 “学堂在 ”华 线 《中国建筑史》 《文物精品与文化中国 》 • has 800 online courses now and over 4 million students. • Tsinghua online course“Electric Circuits” started in Oct. 16. Over 16,000 students registered, among which 70% from outside the country. • MOOC and SPOT together, big data on learning process may change the research in education.
  14. 14. Sweden 1960: 35,000 1965: 70,000 1971:150,000 Tripled within 10 years on the bases of 10 thousand. France 1960: 200,000 1965: 400,000 1975: 800,000. Tripled within 15 years on the bases of 100 thousand. China 1998: 6,430,000; 2002: 16,000,000 2005: 23,000,000 Tripled within 8 years on the bases of 1 million. Big increase of student numbers HE expansion: Students increasing in three countries: Sweden, France and China
  15. 15. China’s higher education system • By 2014, China has 2824 HEIs, with 35,590,000 students which takes 37% of the cohort population and number 1 in the world. 15
  16. 16. China’s higher education development • “China is building the fastest growing system–in quality as well as in quantity–in the world. China higher education is entering the time of investment, growth, experimentation, and internationalization”. • “To rise is not necessarily to lead”. The foremost global powers of the past all offered models in the realms of culture, ideas, and education. Are Chinese universities poised for global leadership? -William C. Kirby Quantitative expansion of HE? Yes, has been achieved. Quality improvement of HE? No, a long way to go. China’s higher education is now moving from the quantitative expansion to the quality improvement 16
  17. 17. Students mobility internationally Open Door Report 2013 shows: •the total number of international students studying in the US. is 819,644, increased by 7 % over the prior year, at a record high. • 29% of international students come from China, India (12%) and Korea(9%). •the total number of American students studying abroad for academic credits is 283,332, grew by 3% over the prior year, also at the record high. •Leading destinations of US. Students are UK(12%), Italy(11%), Spain(9%). France(6%), China (5%).
  18. 18. Quality of education is a multi-level and dimensional concept. • quality as excellence : • quality as fitness for purposes: • quality as responsiveness: • quality as improvement or enhancement: • quality as satisfaction: students The second round nation-wide evaluation of undergraduate education in China started in 2012 emphasized the items in red. Howe to identify quality of HE?
  19. 19. • International standard or benchmarks based on the “substantial equivalence” principal, like “Bologna Process”in Europe and “Washington Accord” in engineering. • Student learning centered: emphasizing student learning process and experience. • Evidence based and value added: based on the student’s performance and learning outcomes. • Improvement focused: using assessment as a tool of improvement. How to evaluate HE: major trends Evaluation (assessment) itself is not the purpose. It is for the quality improvement.
  20. 20. 20 Evaluation Starts in engineering Evaluation of qualification and excellence Evaluation of teaching levels randomly Evaluation of overall levels of undergraduate education Evaluation system of every five years National outline of educational reform and development () MOE, Temporary regulation of evaluation in regular higher education institutions Late 80s 1990 1994-95 1999 2002 2003 2011 2012- 16 Brief review of HE evaluation in China 1980-2015 2nd round national evaluation of undergraduate edu.
  21. 21. 21 Basic Structure of the Evaluation System in China Ministry of Education (MOE) Department of HE, MOE National Expert Commission of Evaluation, Regular HEIs of MOE National Expert Panel of Evaluation Higher Education Institutions Ministry of Education (MOE) Department of Higher Education, MOE HE Evaluation Center of MOE National Expert Commission, Regular HEIs of MOE National Expert Panel Higher Education Institutions
  22. 22. National Evaluation System in China with Five Forms of Activities Integration Institutions are the major actors for the QA and QI Third party evaluation is a crucial factors influencing the evaluation process. Routine data and every day experience work in the evidence-based evaluation. Program accreditation based on international standards is a new element in building. University(colleges) and faculties are the major actors in quality improvement.
  23. 23. Three types of quality increasing strategies • State - led : with a clear national goal, strongly supported by the state and directly under the supervision of the government. • University ( institution) - led : directly target institutional needs, with more academic autonomy and deeper cooperation within the university. • Government/ university cooperation: integrate the goals of both state and institutions, balance the interests of the two sides.   With joint efforts from the governments, universities and other relevant forces, China is building a new quality governance system with the feature of • global vision-oriented, • student learning-centered, • modern technology- supported • process improvement-focused.
  24. 24. TEQSA’s Evidence-based approach to regulation | Slide 24CAE-TSINGHUA CENTER FOR ENGINEERING EDUCTION | Slide 24 Tsinghua Global Vision Lectures Meeting with global leading figures “The world is globalising quickly -- exchanges have never been so rich, nor connections so deep.” — Ms. Irina Bokova at Tsinghua in June, 2014
  25. 25. the Establishment of Global Innovation Exchange Institute (GIX) in the US With $40 million in foundational support from Microsoft, Tsinghua University and University of Washington create groundbreaking partnership with launch of the Global Innovation Exchange Institute (GIX) in Oct. 18, 2015 in Seattle , providing master’s degree in technology innovation. GIX marks the first time a Chinese research university has established a physical presence in the US. Chinese President Xi Jinping Presents Gift to GIX in Sep. 24, 2015.
  26. 26. Student learning centered education • Do you really know your students (their changing characteristics)? • What is the situation of college student learning in China influenced by the macro social trends and modern technology, especially in a rapid expanded system with an increasing diversity of institutions and personal characteristics? • “Students now do not study as hard as the old days”. How to asses student learning and what factors affecting student learning? • Student learning-centered, behavior evidence- based, process improvement-oriented. Student engagement
  27. 27. Student learning learning behaviors Interaction with people and environment Student learning learning behaviors Interaction with people and environment Vision Academic Network Social Economic Status(SES) Pre-College experience Recruitment Knowledge Ability Skill Satisfaction In and out Classroom learning The macro context and concept framework Going global, Learning to be innovative. Institutional initiatives
  28. 28. Issues Learning Features of first generation college students in China, 2012 data of CCSS 75.6% “GOOD” student based on the tradition. Less communicating less presentation or question spend a more time on playing game or online videos CONSTRAIN themselves in a small social circle LESS support from other important people LESS extracurricular activities easily to be IGNORED
  29. 29. Quality education can make a difference…
  30. 30. Governing the quality: a long journey • “Governance” and “quality” are wicked problems in higher education policy. They are almost impossible to resolve. • Student learning must be positioned as a core objective within institutional and system-level governance arrangements. Enhancing quality must be a key objective of governance reform. -Glen A. Jones :” Governing Quality: Positioning Student Learning as a Core Objective of Institutional and System-Level Governance”
  31. 31. 31 Thanks and welcome to Tsinghua University