Jinghuan Shi 史静寰
Institute of Education, 教育研究院
Tsinghua University 清华大学
Higher Education Quality
Changing Context Globally
• Knowledge-based society and knowledge-
driven” growth model;
• world village and global citizen;
• (higher) education becomes more crucial
for any countries .
•Three major trends of HE ：
massification, marketization, globalization
•Three major themes in HE ：
equitability, excellence, efficiency
China is strongly influenced by all the global
trends and issues in higher education.
Concepts of globalization and internationalization of HE
“ 全球化”与”国 化”的概念际
• Globalization: refer to economic, political, and societal forces
pushing higher education toward greater international
• Internationalization: include policies and practices
undertaken by academic systems, institutions—and even
individuals—to cope with the global academic environment.
Philip G. Altbach and Jane Knight. The Internationalization of Higher Education: Motivations and Realities
Journal of Studies in International Education (2007) 11: 290-305
The explosive growth of the Chinese economy in the
past 30 years has made China:
•the second largest economic entity;
•the second largest country in the field of international
•the second largest power in scientific and technology;
•the second largest country in comprehensive
China’s changing role in the world
China is trying to change its role from the largest
"workshop of the world” to an innovation-driven platform.
The combination of four worlds, “4C”:
• Communism(political revolution)
• Commercialization (economic reform)
• Computers(modern technology)
The complexity exists in education, too
China’s land and population scope
China’s attitude and policy in global time
• China's economic development has
entered a new normal. The country is
in a crucial period.
• We need to develop twin engines to
drive development: popular
entrepreneurship and innovation,
paired with increased supplies of
public goods and services, achieving a
better-quality, more efficient,
• China (NPC 2015): Promoting the equitable development of education
and improving its quality. Enabling people change their fate through
education. - Government Work Report2015-
Rising importanceRising importance
Of HEOf HE
Key decisions in HEKey decisions in HE
How to see globalization and internationalization of HE in China?
How to deal with the two tendencies?
Increase higher education enrollment
Build world-class universities
Ensure the quality of future workforce
Carry out cutting-edge research
Develop the national capacity
Changing context of higher education in ChinaChanging context of higher education in China
Schwarzman College and Scholar Program starts in 2016
Youth Leadership Forum （ 2016-7-7 ）Schwarzman scholars （ 2016-9-10 ）
“Schwarzman Scholarhip” in Tsinghua
• The target ： select 200 best undergraduates (45% from the US, 20%
from China and the rests from other parts of the world ) annually
from the world top universities for 1 year master degree studies in
Tsinghua focusing on three areas: international relations, economy
and public policies. 每年在世界顶尖大学选拔 200 名本科生（美国 45% ，中国
20% ，世界其他国家 35% ）到清华进行一年的硕士学习，专业方向为经济、国关、公共
• The goal: cultivate future leaders with a global vision, understand
Chinese culture and society, gear to promoting the world peace and
human civilizations. 培养具有宽广国际视野、优秀综合素质和卓越的领导能力，同
• Courses and training methods: integrating global vision with China’s
perspective, having a better understanding of the world future
through deep investigations to the complexity of the Chinese society.
Global students: First cohort of Schwarzman
Scholars start at Tsinghua in 2016
• More than 3,000 among 9000 applications
were first reviewed by a distinguished
team of readers from around the world,
with 300 semi-finalists invited for in-
person interviews in Beijing, Bangkok,
London or New York before international
• 111 students were selected finally through
a rigorous application process designed to
evaluate proven intellectual and academic
ability, as well as leadership potential,
strength of character, ability to anticipate
emerging trends, and desire to understand
other cultures, perspectives and positions.
MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses and
• MOOCs: a new type of college class
based on Internet.
• Udacity ， Jan. 2012 (Stanford)
Coursera ， April 2012 (Stanford)
• edX ， May 2012 (MIT+Harvard)
• Over ten millions of students
take courses online, 70% of
them are outside of the US.
• Tsinghua joined the EdX in
May and developed the
Chinese platform called
“XuetangX” （ www.xuetantX.
com ） in mid Oct which is the
first online learning platform
in Chinese. 清华 13 年 5 月加入
edX, 10 月清华“学堂在线”正式投入
使用 , 是全球首个中文在线学习平台。
清 “学堂在 ”华 线
• xuetangX.com has 800 online courses
now and over 4 million students.
• Tsinghua online course“Electric Circuits”
started in Oct. 16. Over 16,000 students
registered, among which 70% from
outside the country.
• MOOC and SPOT together, big data on
learning process may change the research in
Tripled within 10 years
on the bases of 10
Tripled within 15
years on the bases of
Tripled within 8 years
on the bases of 1
Big increase of student numbers
HE expansion: Students increasing in three
countries: Sweden, France and China
China’s higher education system
• By 2014, China has
2824 HEIs, with
which takes 37% of
the cohort population
and number 1 in the
China’s higher education development
• “China is building the fastest growing system–in quality as well as
in quantity–in the world. China higher education is entering the time
of investment, growth, experimentation, and internationalization”.
• “To rise is not necessarily to lead”. The foremost global powers of
the past all offered models in the realms of culture, ideas, and
education. Are Chinese universities poised for global leadership?
-William C. Kirby
Quantitative expansion of HE? Yes, has been achieved.
Quality improvement of HE? No, a long way to go.
China’s higher education is now moving from the quantitative
expansion to the quality improvement
Students mobility internationally
Open Door Report 2013 shows:
•the total number of international students studying in
the US. is 819,644, increased by 7 % over the prior year,
at a record high.
• 29% of international students come from China, India
(12%) and Korea(9%).
•the total number of American students studying
abroad for academic credits is 283,332, grew by 3%
over the prior year, also at the record high.
•Leading destinations of US. Students are UK(12%),
Italy(11%), Spain(9%). France(6%), China (5%).
Quality of education is a multi-level and dimensional concept.
• quality as excellence ：
• quality as fitness for purposes:
• quality as responsiveness:
• quality as improvement or enhancement:
• quality as satisfaction: students
The second round nation-wide evaluation of
undergraduate education in China started in 2012
emphasized the items in red.
Howe to identify quality of HE?
• International standard or benchmarks based on the “substantial
equivalence” principal, like “Bologna Process”in Europe and
“Washington Accord” in engineering.
• Student learning centered: emphasizing student learning process
• Evidence based and value added: based on the student’s
performance and learning outcomes.
• Improvement focused: using assessment as a tool of improvement.
How to evaluate HE: major trends
Evaluation (assessment) itself is not the purpose. It is for the
Evaluation of qualification and
Evaluation of teaching
Evaluation of overall levels of
of every five years
National outline of educational
reform and development ()
MOE, Temporary regulation of evaluation
in regular higher education institutions
Brief review of HE evaluation in China
Basic Structure of the Evaluation System
Ministry of Education (MOE)
Department of HE, MOE
Evaluation, Regular HEIs
National Expert Panel of
Higher Education Institutions
Ministry of Education (MOE)
Higher Education, MOE
HE Evaluation Center of
National Expert Commission,
Regular HEIs of MOE
National Expert Panel
Higher Education Institutions
National Evaluation System in China
with Five Forms of Activities
Institutions are the major
actors for the QA and QI
Third party evaluation is a
crucial factors influencing
the evaluation process.
Routine data and every
day experience work in
based on international
standards is a new
element in building.
University(colleges) and faculties are the major actors in quality improvement.
Three types of quality increasing strategies
• State － led ： with a clear national goal, strongly supported by
the state and directly under the supervision of the government.
• University （ institution) － led ： directly target institutional
needs, with more academic autonomy and deeper cooperation
within the university.
• Government/ university cooperation: integrate the goals of both
state and institutions, balance the interests of the two sides.
With joint efforts from the governments, universities and other relevant forces,
China is building a new quality governance system with the feature of
• global vision-oriented,
• student learning-centered,
• modern technology- supported
• process improvement-focused.
TEQSA’s Evidence-based approach to regulation | Slide 24CAE-TSINGHUA CENTER FOR ENGINEERING EDUCTION | Slide 24
Tsinghua Global Vision Lectures
Meeting with global leading figures
“The world is globalising quickly --
exchanges have never been so rich, nor
connections so deep.”
— Ms. Irina Bokova at Tsinghua in June, 2014
the Establishment of Global Innovation Exchange
Institute (GIX) in the US
With $40 million in foundational support from Microsoft, Tsinghua University
and University of Washington create groundbreaking partnership with launch
of the Global Innovation Exchange Institute (GIX) in Oct. 18, 2015 in Seattle ,
providing master’s degree in technology innovation. GIX marks the first
time a Chinese research university has established a physical
presence in the US. Chinese President Xi Jinping Presents Gift to
GIX in Sep. 24, 2015.
Student learning centered education
• Do you really know your students (their
• What is the situation of college student learning
in China influenced by the macro social trends
and modern technology, especially in a rapid
expanded system with an increasing diversity of
institutions and personal characteristics?
• “Students now do not study as hard as the old
days”. How to asses student learning and what
factors affecting student learning?
• Student learning-centered, behavior evidence-
based, process improvement-oriented.
In and out
Learning to be
of first generation college students in China,
2012 data of CCSS
“GOOD” student based on the tradition.
Less communicating less presentation or question
spend a more time on playing game or online
CONSTRAIN themselves in a small social circle
LESS support from other important people
LESS extracurricular activities easily to be
Governing the quality: a long journey
• “Governance” and “quality” are wicked
problems in higher education policy. They are
almost impossible to resolve.
• Student learning must be positioned as a core
objective within institutional and system-level
governance arrangements. Enhancing quality
must be a key objective of governance reform.
-Glen A. Jones :” Governing Quality: Positioning Student Learning as a Core
Objective of Institutional and System-Level Governance”