3 talks in one
• Evolution of homes as structures
• Change in society with the development of homes
• Change in house design as new materials were developed
Housing changed our society
• Nomadic tribes of extended families
• Settled tribes with the beginning of agriculture and animal husbandry
• Protection and safety
• Land ownership
• Development of towns and cities
• Urban sprawl
Nomadic extended family groups
• Humans lived in groups gathering and hunting food and sharing
it in a home base.
• The women collected roots, fruits and vegetables while the men
wenthunting for meat. This allowed them to exploit many
different types of food.
• It also encouraged the development if tools for hunting and
transporting and cutting up food.
• Division of labour allowed a longer childhood period, increasing the
opportunity for cultural knowledge to be passed on.
• Dmestication of animals occurred before plants because nomadic life was more common.
• The first animal to be domesticated was the dog, occurring 12,000 years ago (safety).
• Sheep and goats were domesticated in the Middle East 9,000 years ago (food).
• Camel, Cow and Horse (lift, drag, carry)
• providing a steady income from as a source of milk or hair
• animals became a source of wealth
• Shelter, along with food and
clothing, is one of the most essential necessities.
• Materials such straw or animal hides supported by wood or
bones which could be quickly be erected and taken down.
• Provide Shelter
• protects people from the weather,
• shields them against wild animals and insects,
• provides a place to rest
• Can move with the animal migrations and seasons.
Plant domestication and agriculture
• Wheat and barley were domesticated 10,000 years ago.
• Plant domestication probably occurred in two stages;
1. weeding out competing species from naturally growing wild cereals;
2. collecting seeds and growing them.
• crops could be traded
• populations became settled and towns and cities developed.
• Land ownership
Development of Towns
• Larger social groupings developed, not just extended families
• Occupations developed to support food production
e.g carpentry, clothing, art, medicine;
• opened up new technological opportunities e.g pottery- to store food and carry water,smelting for
• Development of social ‘rules’, how to behave, cooperation with others (not your family)
• Development of town planning – roads
• Wider genetic mixing
• Common services, water supply, rubbish disposal
• Bartering services for food
Development of cities
• Further specialisation of trades and services (good and bad)
• Hard laws and rules
• Complex social organisation
Roman housing 340 BC to 250 AD
• The Romans improved upon the techniques of the
• Most houses were built around atriums, or a central
court, with rooms off the court.
• They introduced the concept of central heating using
suspended floors with fires to create hot air circulation.
• Rural poor people live in simple wooden huts.
• But in Rome poor people lived in blocks of flats called
• Most were at least five stories high. However they were
often badly built.
Early Middle ages
• When the Roman Empire collapsed around AD 400 and Europe was overrun
by Germans and Scandinavians and they made improvements in building
and construction techniques.
• Buildings were supported by frameworks of heavy timber and spaces
between the wood were filled with clay.
• Usually there was only one room shared by everybody.
• Poor people shared their huts with animals divided from them by a screen.
• During the winter the animalsbody heat helped keep the hut warm).
Half timber houses
• Europeans began building half- timbered houses,
with stone or brick foundations. Tree trunks are
placed at corners of the houses, and strong wooden
beams were used to support the house.
• By 1580, glass windows were becoming common.
So are chimneys. However poor people continue
to live in simple huts.
• By 1630, brick or stone houses were becoming
common. They are replacing wooden ones.
• Nearly 2.4 billion people (about 40 per cent of the world’s
population) live within 100 km (60 miles) of the coast.
• Three-quarters of the world's mega-cities are by the sea.
• More than 600 million people (around 10 per cent of the
world’s population) live in coastal areas that are less than 10
meters above sea level.
Perachori and Vathi,
• By 1900, about 90% of the population
rented their home.
• However home ownership became more
common. By 1939 about 27% of the
population owned their own house.
• The first council houses were built before
the First World War. More were built in the
1920s and 1930s. After 1945 many more
were built and they became common.
• In the early 1950s many homes in Britain still
did not have bathrooms and only had outside
lavatories. The situation greatly improved in
the late 1950s and 1960s.
2 up 2 down
• By the early 1900s, the working class homes had two
rooms downstairs. The front room and the back
• The front room was kept for best and children were
not allowed to play there. In the front room the
family kept their best furniture and ornaments.
• The back room was the kitchen and it was where the
family spent most of their time.
• Most families cooked on a coal- fired stove
called a range, which also heated the room.
• Suburbs developed with the
spread of the first urban settlements.
• Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller
villages grew up in a
symbiotic relationship with the market town.
• In cities like London and Manchestersuburban districts sprung up
around the city centre to accommodate those who wanted to
escape the squalid conditions of the industrial town.
• The first prefabricated homes and movable
structures were invented in 16th century in India
• In the UK ‘prefab’ is often associated with the
Airey houses built in large numbers after the
Second World War as a temporary replacement
for housing that had been destroyed by bombs,
particularly in London.
• However many remained inhabited for years
and even decades after the end of the war.
• A small number are still in use in the 21st
century, Airey houses
• An Eco-house (or eco-home) is an environmentally low-impact home designed and built
using materials and technology that reduces its carbon footprint and lowers its energy
• Heating from renewable resources (such as solar, heat pump or biomass)
• Photovoltaic panels, small wind turbine or electricity from a ‘green’ supplier
• Natural materials — avoidance of PVCu and other plastics
• Rainwater harvesting
• Greywater collection
• Composting toilet
• A vegetable patch outside the house for some food
Housing trends - ubanisation
• Today,around 55 percent of the
world's population is thought to be
living in an urban area or city,
• By 2050 UN predict that it will to rise
to 68 percent
Bathroom ca. 1930
Bathroom in the 1900s
CURRENT CHALLENGES IN HOUSING SECTOR IN INDIA
• Shelter is the basic human requirement. Even after 57 years of independence, the country is still
grappling with the growing shelter problem, especially of the poor. The problem has further been
compounded by the rapid increase in urban population. Constant migration of rural population to
cities in search of jobs is causing unbearable strain on urban housing and basic services.
• There is a severe housing shortage in the urban areas with demand – supply gap increasing day-by-
day. The National Building Organization (NBO) had estimated the 1991 urban housing shortage at
8.23 million, and had expected the absolute shortage to decline progressively to 7.57 million in 1997
and 6.64 million in 2001.
• In some small towns in India, the problem is not the lack of housing facilities but the lack of adequate
• Here, there is a surplus of houses when compared with households but these houses are unfit to reside.
• The people who are most likely to become homeless are those who have least resources as providing
housing is a profit-oriented industry. They cannot purchase houses nor can they afford high rent, so
they live in unfit accommodation, as the rents demanded for such an accommodation is much low.
Some very poor people prefer to squat rather than even rent an accommodation, thus leading to the
growth of slums.
i) Shortages of housing:
If there are not enough places for people to live, then someone has to go without and those who are
excluded are generally the poorest people.
(ii)Entitlement to land:
People erect temporary shelters rather than be homeless. Squatters usually build temporary shelters at first,
but over time these settlements are given concrete shape and become more established.
(iii)Entitlement to housing:
If people are not entitled to use the houses which exist, they may be homeless, even when there is no
apparent shortage. Some people are excluded because of their circumstances—street children are an
example. The main reason for exclusion, however, is financial—homeless people are those who cannot afford
the housing which is available.
(iv)Personal situation of homeless people:
Homelessness is often attributed to the characteristics of the homeless person, such as alcoholism and
psychiatric illness; or to the social situation of homeless people, such as unemployment and marital
breakdown (this condition mostly happens with women in India). People in these situations only become
homeless if they are excluded from housing, or do not have enough resources to secure alternative housing.
Homelessness is a complex problem; the circumstances of homeless people vary greatly. Homelessness is
sometimes a product of shortage of houses, but in some cases homelessness is caused due to other
reasons also. Four main issues are found to be the causes for homelessness
• Many households in urban areas have to
cope with increasingly crowded conditions,
although this is certainly not true for
everyone. The housing conditions improve
when people build high buildings,
sometimes more than five storeys, to
increase the number of houses. Many urban
centres have very high population
densities. The house owners therefore rent
out numerous rooms to migrants. Poor
migrants live under the most crowded
conditions. They do not have access to
ancestral residential land.
• Therefore, they depend on the rented
accommodation, which they often share with
many others to save money. Some poor
households of the original population also
live in very crowded dwellings for two other
reasons. First, many families expand and split
up into multiple households, while the land
available for construction becomes
unaffordable. They are thus forced to fit
more people into the same space or house
or else to split up the existing plots and
dwellings to accommodate a new
household. Second, in the absence of
sufficient income from other sources, some
households are inclined to rent out a portion
of their living space or sheds to tenants.
CONSEQUENCES OF CONGESTION
• According to official estimates, the present shortage of houses is about 7 million in urban areas. About 19
per cent of the Indian families live in less than 10 square metres of space leading to congestion. For
example, about 44 per cent of families in the urban areas live in one room only.
• The economics and health costsof congestion and haphazard movement of traffic are very heavy, besides
exposing commuters and pedestrians to a high risk of accidents.Urban environment also suffers from
degradation caused due to overpopulation. The dust load in the air in these cities isvery high.
• Crowding (higher density of population) and peoples apathy to other persons’ problems isanother
problem growing out of city life. Some homes (which consistof one single room) are soovercrowded that
five to six persons live in one room. Overcrowding hasvery deleterious effects. It encourages deviant
behaviour, spreads diseasesand creates conditions for mental illness,alcoholism and riots.
• One effect of dense urban living ispeople’s apathy and indifference. Most of the city dwellers do not
want to get involved in others affairs even if others are involved in accidents, or are molested, assaulted,
abducted and sometimes even murdered.
MEANS TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEM
• Subsidized industrial housing scheme
• LIG housing schemes
• Slum clearance and improvement scheme
• Middle-income group housing scheme
• Rental housing scheme
• Land acquisition and development scheme
• Subsidized industrial housing scheme:
• This scheme was started in September 1952, to provide houses to the labourers who worked before
1948 and 1952. The Government of India gave loans to extent of 65 per cent to various industries,
state government, legal housing construction societies and cooperative societies to construct houses
for the labourers. The labourers could purchase these houses according to the rules framed by the
government.But these houses could not be sold or alienated prior permission of the government. But
this scheme did not succeed much because of the lack of cooperation of mill owners. In the third Five-
Year-Plan, it made obligatory for mill owners to provide housing facilities to their labourers. In the
fourth Five-Year-Plan, a provision of Rs. 45 crore was made for this purpose. The fifth plan also
included similar provisions. Apart from the central government, state governments have also formed
various Housing Boards implemented societies and various schemes.
• LIG housing schemes:
• This scheme was started in 1954. Persons who have income less than Rs. 600 per annum could get a
loan up to 80 per cent. Local and cooperative bodies given such loans.
Slum clearance and improvement scheme:
• This scheme was started in the year 1956 to give financial assistance to the state governments
and local bodies for improving the slum areas. It was
• then that about 12 lakh houses were not fit for dwelling. Hence, the long-term and short-term
schemes were started. But as it was not possible to provide houses to all the people living in
slum areas, this scheme could not progress satisfactorily.
• Middle-income group housing scheme:
• Under this scheme, the people of middle-income group are given loans for constructing the
houses. The state government also gives loans on low rates of interest.
• Rental housing schemes:
• This scheme was started in 1959 to provide houses on rent to the state government
• Land acquisition and development scheme:
• The government felt that the LIG and middle-income group people could construct houses if
land was made available to them on a reasonable price. For purpose, a plan was set up
under which the state governments could acquire land and plots at suitable places, develop
them and give them away to the people.
The government has now started focusing on providing housing facilities but has not thought much
about solving problems that are connected with human settlements, such asthe problems of
• Improving and managing the
• Civic Services
• Constructing Inexpensive Houses
• Conserving Energy And Recycling Waste
• Lack Of Proper Water Supply And Sanitation Facilities For Drainage System
• Garbage Disposal Are Major Problems In Most Of The Modern Urban Centres Of Today.
DESCRIBE INDIAN STATE/CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
INTERVENTION & INITIATIVES FOR HOUSING SECTOR
• Elimination of slums and providing affordable housing for the residents is a crucial
part of the development schemes in India.
• The central government rolls out various programmes to provide housing for the
citizens, from time to time.
• They have ambitious plan of providing housing for all by 2022 and making the efforts
to boost construction activities. However, some states have their own housing
Different housing schemes in India:
• Pradhan mantri awas yojana (PMAY)
• Rajiv awas yojana
• Tamil nadu housing scheme
• DDA housing scheme
• NTR housing scheme
• Maharashtra housing and area development
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)
• PMAY was launched in 2015 under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Its goal is to provide
20 million houses by March 2022. It is divided into two parts: PMAY Gramin and PMAY urban. As the name
suggests, there are separate housing schemes for urban and rural areas of the country under PMAY. Unde
this scheme, the beneficiaries will get subsidies on home loan interest rates of up to 6.5% for purchasing o
constructing their first house.
• Rajiv Awas Yojana
• Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY), named after the former prime minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi, was launched to
provide affordable housing to slum-dwellers. It aimed at providing legalised alternatives to slums-dwellers
in the form of comfortable houses. RAY also provided basic civic amenities and infrastructure in the
existing slums to improve the quality of life of the people. With a vision of “Slum Free India”, RAY
encourages people of lower-income groups to leave slums and shift in legal habitations.
• Some state run schemes include:
• Tamil Nadu Housing scheme
• Tamil Nadu Housing Board Scheme started in 1961 to provide shelter to various income groups. Under
this scheme, the residents of Tamil Nadu can get affordable good quality homes. The beneficiaries can
get the ownership by paying initial deposit and furnishing application form.
• DDA housing scheme
• This affordable housing scheme is offered by the Delhi development authority (DDA). Delhi was the first
state to have its own housing scheme with the DDA housing scheme. This housing scheme provides
apartments to homebuyers of low, medium and high-income brackets within city limits. It provides
affordable housing to the economically weaker section (EWS). Houses under this scheme are available in
areas like Dwarka, Vasant Kunj, Jasola, Rohini, Manglapuri, Narela, etc.
• To be eligible for this scheme, you must be an Indian resident and have a PAN card. You must be at least
18 years old.
• NTR Housing scheme
• This housing scheme is for the residents of Andhra Pradesh. Under the NTR housing scheme, the
beneficiaries would only need to pay one-third of the home loan principal amount. The remaining two-
thirds amount would be borne by the state and central government. To be eligible for this scheme, you
should be a resident of Andhra Pradesh, should not own any plot or pucca house under any government
schemes, and should have a ration card of below poverty line (BPL) card.
• MAHARASHTRA HOUSING AND AREA DEVELOPMENT
• It is a lottery scheme for residents of Maharashtra wherein affordable homes are allotted to various
income groups based on the draw. You can apply for this scheme by submitting an online application.
• With these housing schemes, it is easy to get your own house at affordable rates. If you are looking for
competitive home loan interest rates and better features, you can apply for a home loan with Kotak
Mahindra Bank today.