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Adjustment disorder
DEEPTI
MSW
Loyola
1
contents
• Introduction
• Prevalence
• Types of AD
• Etiology
• Symptoms of AD
• Diagnostic criteria
• Treatment
• Conclusion
2
Introduction to AD
Adjustment disorder are conceived of as
developing in response to a variety of casual
stressful events, the symptoms representing
an adaptation to these stressors or to their
continuing effects.
3
Adjustment Disorder
A maladaptive reaction to an identifiable
psychosocial stressor that occurs within 3
months after onset of the stressor. The
individual shows impairment in social and
occupational functioning, that are in excess of
a expectable reaction to the stressor.
4
Prevalence
• Very common disorder
• In a study conducted in US , 10% had AD
• Male to female ratio is 1:2
• Outcome of depression international network
(ODIN) study (18) found a prevalence of only
1% for AD in five European countries.
5
• Studies have also found a higher rate of AD
among persons exhibiting suicidal behavior,
mainly adolescents and young adults.
• AD has been reported to be almost three
times as common as major depressions.
• Studies of soldiers psychiatrically evacuated
from Iraq over a three year period found that
AD wad the most common diagnosis made in
40% of evacuees.
6
Types
1. AD with depressed mood
2. AD with anxiety
3. AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood
4. AD with disturbance of conduct
5. AD with mixed disturbance of emotions and
conduct
6. AD unspecified
7
Etiology
Interaction
The stressor The individual
8
• Death of family member or friend
• Relationship issues or divorce
• Major life changes
• Illness or health issue
• Moving to a new house or place
• Sudden disasters
• Money troubles or fears
9
Causes in children and teenagers
• Family fights or problems
• Problems in school
• Anxiety over sexuality
10
1. Psychological vulnerability
2. Theory of associative network formation
3. Contemporary psychodynamic theory
4. Biological theories
11
Symptoms
• Acting rebellious or impulsive
• Acting anxious
• Withdrawn attitude
• Feeling sad and hopeless
• Withdrawn attitude
• Suicidal thoughts
• Loss of self esteem
• Crying
12
Diagnostic criteria
• DSM 5
• ICD 10
13
Treatment
• Therapy
- psychotherapy
- crisis intervention
- family and group therapies
- support groups
- cognitive behavioral therapy
- interpersonal psychotherapy
14
• Medication
- benzodiazepines
- nonbenzodiazepines
- SSRI and SNRI
15
Conclusion
• Developing a strong network of people to
support
• Living healthfully
• Establishing good self esteem.
16
Reference
• Ahuja Niraj.A Short Textbook of Psychiatry7th
edtn(Page,112)
• Townsend C.Mary . Psychiatric Mental Health
Nursing,(Page,620)
• www.healthline.com/health / adjustment -
disorder
17

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Adjustment disorder

  • 2. contents • Introduction • Prevalence • Types of AD • Etiology • Symptoms of AD • Diagnostic criteria • Treatment • Conclusion 2
  • 3. Introduction to AD Adjustment disorder are conceived of as developing in response to a variety of casual stressful events, the symptoms representing an adaptation to these stressors or to their continuing effects. 3
  • 4. Adjustment Disorder A maladaptive reaction to an identifiable psychosocial stressor that occurs within 3 months after onset of the stressor. The individual shows impairment in social and occupational functioning, that are in excess of a expectable reaction to the stressor. 4
  • 5. Prevalence • Very common disorder • In a study conducted in US , 10% had AD • Male to female ratio is 1:2 • Outcome of depression international network (ODIN) study (18) found a prevalence of only 1% for AD in five European countries. 5
  • 6. • Studies have also found a higher rate of AD among persons exhibiting suicidal behavior, mainly adolescents and young adults. • AD has been reported to be almost three times as common as major depressions. • Studies of soldiers psychiatrically evacuated from Iraq over a three year period found that AD wad the most common diagnosis made in 40% of evacuees. 6
  • 7. Types 1. AD with depressed mood 2. AD with anxiety 3. AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood 4. AD with disturbance of conduct 5. AD with mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct 6. AD unspecified 7
  • 9. • Death of family member or friend • Relationship issues or divorce • Major life changes • Illness or health issue • Moving to a new house or place • Sudden disasters • Money troubles or fears 9
  • 10. Causes in children and teenagers • Family fights or problems • Problems in school • Anxiety over sexuality 10
  • 11. 1. Psychological vulnerability 2. Theory of associative network formation 3. Contemporary psychodynamic theory 4. Biological theories 11
  • 12. Symptoms • Acting rebellious or impulsive • Acting anxious • Withdrawn attitude • Feeling sad and hopeless • Withdrawn attitude • Suicidal thoughts • Loss of self esteem • Crying 12
  • 13. Diagnostic criteria • DSM 5 • ICD 10 13
  • 14. Treatment • Therapy - psychotherapy - crisis intervention - family and group therapies - support groups - cognitive behavioral therapy - interpersonal psychotherapy 14
  • 15. • Medication - benzodiazepines - nonbenzodiazepines - SSRI and SNRI 15
  • 16. Conclusion • Developing a strong network of people to support • Living healthfully • Establishing good self esteem. 16
  • 17. Reference • Ahuja Niraj.A Short Textbook of Psychiatry7th edtn(Page,112) • Townsend C.Mary . Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing,(Page,620) • www.healthline.com/health / adjustment - disorder 17