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Management development

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Management development

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
  2. 2. MEANING • It is an educational process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. • It is mainly designed to induce behavioral changes in individuals by cultivating their mental and inherent qualities through the acquisition, understanding and use of knowledge, insights and skills as they are needed for effective management. • The management process consists of: – Assessing the company’s strategic needs – Appraising managers current performance – Developing the managers( and future managers)
  3. 3. SUCESSION PLANNING • A process through which senior level openings are planned for and eventually filled • For example: GE spent several years developing, testing, and watching potential replacements for CEO before finally choosing JEFFERY IMMELT. • The new MBA’s may join Ford’s management development program and rotate through various assignments and educational experiences. The dual aims are identifying their management potential and giving them breadth of experience(in say, production or finance). The firm may then slot the superior candidates onto a “fast track,” a development program that prepares them more quickly for senior level commands.
  4. 4. NATURE OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT • • • • Organized process of learning A long term process On going exercise rather than ‘Oneshot’ affair Aims at preparing managers for better performance • It is nothing but guided self development
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT • Principle of individual difference • Provision of incentive • Provision of applying the content of training on the job • Active participation of trainer and trainee • Feedback about the trainee’s progress in the training and development programme should be shared with him/her
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT • To bring current performance of the managerial personnel up to the highest attainable level • To ensure availability of qualified managerial manpower • To ensure managerial capabilities • To aid in encouraging and achieving self development and self confidence • To provide opportunities for managers to update their knowledge and skill
  7. 7. IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT • Management developmental efforts are required: – Due to rapid changes in technology – To understand the behavior of people in changing socio cultural environment – To meet the needs of the customer – To understand the social responsibility of business – To have harmony and peace in the organization – To impart knowledge on the latest management principles, techniques and practices
  8. 8. SYSTEMS/TECHNIQUES OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT ON-THE-JOB METHOD • Coaching • Understudy • Multiple management • Committee assignment OFF-THE –JOB METHOD • Role playing • Sensitivity training • Conference training • Programmed instructions • Simulation techniques like: – Business games – In basket – Case study
  9. 9. PURPOSE OF MANAGEMENT DEVLOPMENT PURPOSE METHODS/TECHNIQUES JOB KNOWLEDGE ON THE JOB EXPERIENCE COACHING UNDERSTUDY ORGANISATIONAL KNOWLEDGE JOB ROTATION MULTIPLE MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING SKILLS IN BASKET BUSINESS GAMES CASE STUDY INTERPERSONAL SKILLS AND TEAMWORK ROLE PLAYING SENSITIVITY TRAINING SPECIFIC INDIVIDUAL NEEDS JUNIOR BOARD COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENT PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONS
  10. 10. On-the-job coaching • On the job coaching: – In this method, the immediate supervisor guides the subordinates about various ways and methods and skills to do the job. He only acts as a guide and not as a teacher – Periodic feedback and evaluation are also part of the coaching activity – Advantages: • It provides real and practical job experience • It increases motivation of trainee • It leads to minimization of problem of transferring learning from theory to practice – Disadvantages: • The man cannot develop beyond the limit’s of his own boss’s abilities
  11. 11. Understudy • Understudy: – In this case an executive is developed to perform the work or fill the position of his supervisor – In understudy only one candidate is selected by department manager from his department. – Department manager then guides him to learn his job and grapple with the problems that confront the manager daily. – Advantages: • It ensures ready supply of competent people whenever the vacancy arises • This method has built in motivation because it itself is step towards the promotion of trainee
  12. 12. Multiple management method • In this method, the organization makes a permanent advisory committee of executives/managers. The advisory committee solves the problem of the organization and makes recommendation to the top management • In some cases board of directors constitute a junior board to train the junior executives • Advantages: – Organization gets productive ideas from advisory/junior board – Inexpensive method – Develops teamwork and group discussion and makes everyone learn to respect the view of others – Widens the knowledge and participation of the advisory board/junior board
  13. 13. Committee management • A committee is a group of executives appointed to investigate, take action, make recommendations regarding some matter relating to the organization • The committee studies the problem or issue in accordance with the terms of reference. Committee promotes mutual sharing and discussions of interest by many individuals to arrive at a consensus of opinions • Advantages: – Widens the knowledge of the trainee through discussions and deliberations in the committee meeting – Speeds up the development of the executive – Develops teamwork and group discussions and trainees learn to respect the view of others
  14. 14. Role playing • It may be described as a technique of creating a life situation, usually one involving conflict between people, and then having persons in a group to play the parts or roles of specific personalities. • Two or more trainees in a group are given role to play. • Advantages: – It helps the trainees to become aware of the problems and the prospective of others with whom they deal – Experimental form of learning – Helps in improving inter personal competence of the executives
  15. 15. Sensitivity training • It was originally developed by Kurt Lewin. It is also called as laboratory training, t-group or group dynamic training • The sensitivity training technique works on the assumption that changes in behavior cannot come by knowledge alone, and hence practice in human relations creates an atmosphere for change in attitudes and approaches • This is achieved by focusing during the session on aspects such as the ability to listen to others, ability to communicate, ability to diagnose human problems correctly, learning to give and receive constructive feedback and understanding the complexities of group dynamics • It is informal and unstructured • The organizations which practices sensitivity training feel that this method increases managerial sensitivity and trust and enhances respect for the contribution of others
  16. 16. Contd… • Objectives: – – – – Have an understanding of others Gain insight into the group process Develop scientific behavioral skills Make participants learn how to work more effectively as a group or a team member and perform leadership roles • Advantages: – Increases insight of one’s own behavior and how others perceive it – Focuses on exploring the nature of interpersonal relationships – Helps in accepting criticism • Disadvantages: – Laboratory testing is conducted in controlled situations which may not have bearing on the actual life – Leads to psychological reactions due to frank and free criticism – Expensive – Involves small number of trainees at one time
  17. 17. Conference training • A conference is group meeting conducted according to an organized plan in which the participants seek to develop the knowledge and understanding by obtaining considerable amount of oral participation • The trainees learn to respect of viewpoint of others and to realize that there is more than one workable approach • Advantages: – Participants play active role – Learning is facilitated through building upon ideas – Best method for reducing dogmatism employed in supervisory and development training program • Drawback: – Progress at the conference is often slow because all those desiring to speak on a point are allowed to do so – Sometimes, irrelevant issues may creep in and the main issue is lost in the progress
  18. 18. Programmed instructions • It is the application of the science of learning to the task of education and training • Key features: – Trainees learn at their own pace – Instructors are not key part of the learning – The material to be learnt is broken down into very small units or stages – Each step is logically builds upon those that have preceded it – The student is given immediate knowledge of results for each answer he gives – There is active participation by learner • It includes elaborate teaching machines, films, sound tapes, programmed books, illustrations, printed material, diagrams • Computer assisted learning is often used to provide practice to help students learn material that is well structured such as grammar and mathematics
  19. 19. Simulation techniques • The basic idea is to create or construct a situation which closely represents the actual one. In order to conduct a trial or test run, it is conducted in a controlled environment • Business games: – Business games are classroom simulation exercises which are designed to be representative of the real life condition – The participants of business game learn by analyzing the problem and making trial and error decisions and participants are given another chance in these games. The feedback is very prompt – Advantages: • Useful for developing team cohesion and skills • Gets the experience in analyzing problems and taking decisions
  20. 20. In basket training • The participant is given all the material in basket which will help them to solve the problems. The participants is also given all the information and materials required such as reports, mail etc. • The participant is then asked to play the role of manager who is responsible for solving the problem • The participant by using his experience takes the appropriate decision.
  21. 21. Case study method • It was developed by Christopher C Langdell. In this method, the facts of the case that needs to be solved or has already occurred in the organization are given for analysis and decision-making to a group of participants • The group studies the problem, analyses it, find alternatives and give suggestions. • Case studies are commonly used in teaching law, HRM and marketing management by the management educational institutions • Advantages: – Active involvement of the participant – Develop analytical thinking among the participants – Give the participants an opportunity to apply their knowledge to find the solution for a realistic problem – Help the participants have greater respect and consideration towards others’ thinking and opinion – Improve the decision making skills of executives
  22. 22. Transactional analysis(TA) • It is training technique used for analyzing and understanding interpersonal behavior. When people interact, then there is a social transaction i.e. exchange of messages. The study of these transactions is called as TA • It teaches people to send messages that are clear and responsible and to give responses that are natural and reasonable • The TA training method makes use of two concepts: – The ego state • When two people interact, they face each other with three of the ego states predominating which are: – Parent – Adult – Child – The transactions • These ego states in turn leads to three possible transactions: – Crossed ( the two persons operating in different ego states) – Complementary( ego state match, both person are operating in same way)
  23. 23. Ego states • The three active elements are called ego states. Berne defined ego as ‘a consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to corresponding consistent pattern of behavior • The parent ego state is like providing guidelines, regulations and discipline for others • The adult ego state is our dispassionate and objective side. It uses facts, information and analysis to reach the best decisions • The child ego state reflects the natural impulses, attitudes and activities that are learnt from childhood experiences. This ego state can range from listening and responding to hostility
  24. 24. Transactions

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