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- DR DEEPIKA SINGH
DEPT OF PSYCHIATRY,
Powerpoint Templates
Page
SETH GSMC & KEMH 1
For many individuals, the passage from youth to
old age is mirrored by a shift from the pursuit of
wealth to the maintenan...
Old age, usually refers to the stage of the life
cycle that begins at age 65. Gerontologists
divide older adults into 3 gr...
Developmental Tasks of Late Adulthood
-To maintain the body image and physical integrity
-To conduct the life review
-To m...
DEMOGRAPHICS
-The number of individuals over age 65 is rapidly
expanding.
-In 1900, for example, 4 percent of the U.S.
pop...
BIOLOGY OF AGING
The aging process, or senescence (from the Latin
senescere, to grow old), is characterized by a
gradual d...
BIOLOGICAL CHANGES
ASSOCIATED WITH AGING
--Cellular Level
Change in cellular DNA and RNA structures:
intracellular organel...
MUSCULOSKELETAL

-Decrease in height because of shortening of
spinal column (2-inch loss in both men and
women from the 2n...
Genitourinary and Reproductive
Decreased glomerular filtration rate and renal
blood flow
Decreased hardness of erection, d...
Endocrine
-Estrogen levels decrease in women
-Testosterone production declines in men
- Increase in follicle-stimulating h...
Special Senses
-Thickening of optic lens, reduced
peripheral vision
-Inability to accommodate (presbyopia)
-High-frequency...
Neuropsychiatric
Takes longer to learn new material, but
complete learning still occurs
Intelligence quotient (IQ) remains...
PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF AGING
SOCIAL ACTIVITY
-Healthy older persons usually maintain a level
of social activity that is o...
-Growing evidence indicates that
maintaining social activities is valuable for
physical and emotional well-being.
-Old per...
AGEISM
Ageism, a term coined by Robert Butler,
refers to discrimination toward old persons
and to the negative stereotypes...
SOCIOECONOMICS
The economics of old
age is of paramount
importance to older
persons themselves
and to society at large.
-T...
RETIREMENT
For many, retirement is a time for the pursuit of
leisure and for freedom from responsibility.
For others, it i...
SEXUAL ACTIVITY
-The frequency of orgasm, from coitus or
masturbation, decreases with age
-factors determining the level o...
LONG-TERM CARE

-Many older persons require institutional care
-Although only 5 percent are institutionalized
in nursing h...
MENTAL DISORDERS OF OLD AGE
The most common mental disorders of old age are
depressive disorders, cognitive disorders, pho...
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psychology of old age

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psychology of old age

  1. 1. - DR DEEPIKA SINGH DEPT OF PSYCHIATRY, Powerpoint Templates Page SETH GSMC & KEMH 1
  2. 2. For many individuals, the passage from youth to old age is mirrored by a shift from the pursuit of wealth to the maintenance of health. In late adulthood, the aging body increasingly becomes a central concern, replacing the midlife preoccupations with career and relationships. This is so because of normal diminution in function, altered physical appearance, and the increased incidence of physical illness Powerpoint Templates Page 2
  3. 3. Old age, usually refers to the stage of the life cycle that begins at age 65. Gerontologists divide older adults into 3 groups: young-old: ages 65 to 74; old-old : ages 75 to 84 & oldest old: age more than 85. Older adults can also be described as well-old (persons who are healthy) & sick-old (persons who have an infirmity that interferes with functioning and requires medical or psychiatric attention). Powerpoint Templates Page 3
  4. 4. Developmental Tasks of Late Adulthood -To maintain the body image and physical integrity -To conduct the life review -To maintain sexual interests and activities -To deal with the death of significant loved ones -To accept the implications of retirement -To accept the genetically programmed failure of organ systems -To divest oneself of the attachment to possessions -To accept changes in the relationship with grandchildren Powerpoint Templates Page 4
  5. 5. DEMOGRAPHICS -The number of individuals over age 65 is rapidly expanding. -In 1900, for example, 4 percent of the U.S. population was older than 65 years -By 2003 it was 12.4 percent, and by 2030, it is projected to be 20 percent Powerpoint Templates Page 5
  6. 6. BIOLOGY OF AGING The aging process, or senescence (from the Latin senescere, to grow old), is characterized by a gradual decline in the functioning of all the body's systems cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, endocrine, and immune, among others. But the belief that old age is invariably associated with profound intellectual and physical infirmity is a myth. Many older persons retain their cognitive abilities and physical capacities to a remarkable degree Powerpoint Templates Page 6
  7. 7. BIOLOGICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH AGING --Cellular Level Change in cellular DNA and RNA structures: intracellular organelle degeneration Neuronal degeneration in CNS --Immune System Increased susceptibility to infection Powerpoint Templates Page 7
  8. 8. MUSCULOSKELETAL -Decrease in height because of shortening of spinal column (2-inch loss in both men and women from the 2nd to the 7th decade) -Reduction in lean muscle mass and muscle strength. -Loss of bone matrix,leading to osteoporosis -Degeneration of joint surfaces may produce osteoarthritis -Risk of hip fracture is 10%-25% by age 90 -Graying of hair results from decreased melanin production in hair follicles Powerpoint Templates Page 8
  9. 9. Genitourinary and Reproductive Decreased glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow Decreased hardness of erection, diminished ejaculatory spurt Decreased vaginal lubrication Enlargement of prostate Incontinence Cardiovascular Decreased elasticity of heart valves Increased susceptibility to arrhythmias Altered homeostasis of blood pressure Gastrointestinal (GI) System Altered absorption from GI tract (at risk for malabsorption Templates and avitaminosis) syndrome Powerpoint Page 9 Constipation
  10. 10. Endocrine -Estrogen levels decrease in women -Testosterone production declines in men - Increase in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in postmenopausal women Respiratory Decreased vital capacity Diminished cough reflex Brain Widened sulci, smaller convolutions, gyral atrophy Ventricles enlarge Powerpoint Templates Page 10
  11. 11. Special Senses -Thickening of optic lens, reduced peripheral vision -Inability to accommodate (presbyopia) -High-frequency sound hearing loss (presbyacusis)25% show loss by age 60, 65% by age 80 -Reduced acuity of taste, smell, and touch -Decreased light-dark adaption Powerpoint Templates Page 11
  12. 12. Neuropsychiatric Takes longer to learn new material, but complete learning still occurs Intelligence quotient (IQ) remains stable until age 80 Verbal ability maintained with age Psychomotor speed declines Memory Tasks requiring shifting attentions performed with difficulty Encoding ability diminishes (transfer of short-term to long-term memory and vice versa) Powerpoint Templates Page 12
  13. 13. PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF AGING SOCIAL ACTIVITY -Healthy older persons usually maintain a level of social activity that is only slightly changed from that of earlier years. -In some cases, however, physical illness or the death of friends and relatives may preclude continued social interaction. -Moreover, as persons experience an increased sense of isolation, they may become vulnerable to depression. Powerpoint Templates Page 13
  14. 14. -Growing evidence indicates that maintaining social activities is valuable for physical and emotional well-being. -Old persons can pass on cultural values and provide care services to the younger generation and thereby maintain a sense of usefulness that contributes to self-esteem Powerpoint Templates Page 14
  15. 15. AGEISM Ageism, a term coined by Robert Butler, refers to discrimination toward old persons and to the negative stereotypes about old age that are held by younger adults. Old persons may themselves resent and fear other old persons and discriminate against them. In Butler's scheme, persons often associate old age with loneliness, poor health, senility, and general weakness or infirmity Powerpoint Templates Page 15
  16. 16. SOCIOECONOMICS The economics of old age is of paramount importance to older persons themselves and to society at large. -The past 30 years has Seen a dramatic decline in the proportion of the U.S. elderly population who are poor, primarily as a result of Medicare, Social Security, and private pensions Powerpoint Templates Page 16
  17. 17. RETIREMENT For many, retirement is a time for the pursuit of leisure and for freedom from responsibility. For others, it is a time of stress, especially when retirement results in economic problems or a loss of self-esteem. Most of those who retire voluntarily reenter the work force within 2 years, for a variety of reasons, Including negative reactions to being retired, feelings of being unproductive, economic hardship, Powerpoint and loneliness. Templates Page 17
  18. 18. SEXUAL ACTIVITY -The frequency of orgasm, from coitus or masturbation, decreases with age -factors determining the level of sexual activity with age are the health and survival of the spouse, one's own health & the level of past sexual activity. -Although some degree of declining sexual interest and function is inevitable with age, social and cultural factors appear to be more responsible for the sexual changes observed than the psychological changes of aging per se. Powerpoint Templates Page 18
  19. 19. LONG-TERM CARE -Many older persons require institutional care -Although only 5 percent are institutionalized in nursing homes at any one time, about 35 percent of older persons require care in a long-term facility at some time during their lives Powerpoint Templates Page 19
  20. 20. MENTAL DISORDERS OF OLD AGE The most common mental disorders of old age are depressive disorders, cognitive disorders, phobias, and alcohol use disorders. Older adults also have a high risk for suicide and drug-induced psychiatric symptoms. Many mental disorders of old age can be prevented, ameliorated, or even reversed. Of special importance are the reversible causes of delirium and dementia; if not diagnosed accurately and treated these conditions can progress to an irreversible state. Powerpoint Templates Page 20
  21. 21. Powerpoint Templates Page 21

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