Department of BBA
Kristu Jayanti College
A Credit rating evaluates the credit worthiness of a debtor,
especially a business (company) or a government. It is an evaluation
made by a credit rating agency of the debtor's ability to pay back the
debt and the likelihood of default.
Credit ratings are determined by credit ratings agencies like CRISIL,
CARE and S&P.
It is the rating agency's opinion on the likelihood of a rated debt
obligation being repaid in full and on time
A simple alphanumeric symbol is normally used to convey a credit
Credit ratings are not based on mathematical formulas. Instead,
credit rating agencies use their judgment and experience in
determining what public and private information should be
considered in giving a rating to a particular company or
A poor credit rating indicates a credit rating agency's opinion that
the company or government has a high risk of defaulting, based on
the agency's analysis of the entity's history and analysis of long
term economic prospects.
OBJECTIVES OF CREDIT RATING
The main objective is to provide superior and low cost info to investors for
taking a decision regarding risk return trade off, but it also helps to market
participants in the following ways:
Encourages greater information disclosure, better accounting standards and
improved financial information (helps in investors protection),
May reduce interest costs for highly rated companies
Acts as a marketing tool
Improves a healthy discipline on borrowers
Facilitates formulation of public guidelines on institutional investments
Helps merchant bankers, brokers, regulatory authorities, etc., in discharging
their functions related to debt issues
Credit Rating Agencies in
Fitch Ratings India Private Ltd.
Credit Analysis & Research Ltd. (CARE)
Brickwork Ratings India Private Limited
SME Rating Agency of India Ltd. (SMERA)
Credit Information Bureau India Limited -
CRISIL, India's first credit rating agency, promoted by the ICICI Ltd, along
with UTI and other financial institutions was incorporated in the year
1987 And commenced its operation in the year 1988
A CRISIL rating reflects CRISIL's current opinion on the relative
likelihood of timely payment of interest and principal on the rated
It is an unbiased, objective, and independent opinion as to the issuer's
capacity to meet its financial obligations.
So far, CRISIL has rated 30,000 debt instruments, covering the entire
The debt obligations rated by CRISIL include:
◦ Non-convertible debentures/bonds/preference shares
◦ Commercial papers/certificates of deposits/short-term debt
◦ Fixed deposits
◦ Structured debt
CRISIL Ratings' clientele includes all the industry majors - 23 of the
BSE Sensex constituent companies and 39 of the NSE Nifty
constituent companies, accounting for 80 per cent of the equity
CRISIL Rating scale for
(Highest Safety) - Instruments with this rating are considered to have
the highest degree of safety regarding timely servicing of financial
obligations. Such instruments carry lowest credit risk.
(High Safety) - Instruments with this rating are considered to have
high degree of safety regarding timely servicing of financial
obligations. Such instruments carry very low credit risk.
(Adequate Safety) - Instruments with this rating are considered to
have adequate degree of safety regarding timely servicing of
financial obligations. Such instruments carry low credit risk.
(Moderate Safety) - Instruments with this rating are considered to
have moderate degree of safety regarding timely servicing of
financial obligations. Such instruments carry moderate credit risk.
(Moderate Risk) - Instruments with this rating are considered
to have moderate risk of default regarding timely servicing of
(High Risk) - Instruments with this rating are considered to
have high risk of default regarding timely servicing of financial
(Very High Risk) - Instruments with this rating are considered
to have very high risk of default regarding timely servicing of
Default - Instruments with this rating are in default or are
expected to be in default soon.
CRISIL Rating Scale for
CRISIL A1 - very strong degree of safety regarding timely payment of
financial obligations & carry lowest credit risk.
CRISIL A2 - strong degree of safety regarding timely payment of financial
obligations & carry low credit risk.
CRISIL A3 - moderate degree of safety regarding timely payment of
financial obligations & higher credit risk
CRISIL A4 - minimal degree of safety regarding timely payment of
financial obligations & very high credit risk and are susceptible to
CRISIL D - default or expected to be in default on maturity.
ICRA Limited was set up in 1991
Today ICRA is a Public Limited Company, with its shares
listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock
Alliance with Moody’s Investors Service - The international
Credit Rating Agency Moody’s Investors Service is ICRA’s
ICRA’s credit ratings are symbolic representations of its
current opinion on the relative credit risks associated with the
rated debt obligations/issues.
CARE Ratings commenced operations in April 1993 and
over nearly two decades, it has established itself as the
second-largest credit rating agency in India.
CARE Ratings provides the entire spectrum of credit
rating that helps the corporates to raise capital for their
various requirements and assists the investors to form
an informed investment decision based on the credit
risk and their own risk-return expectations.
Popular Credit Rating agencies in the
Credit rating is a highly concentrated industry, with
the "Big Three" credit rating agencies controlling
approximately 95% of the ratings business.
Moody's Investors Service and Standard &
Poor's (S&P) together control 80% of the global
market, and Fitch Ratings controls a further 15%.
BENEFITS OF CREDIT RATING
To the investors
Helps in Investment Decision : Credit rating gives an idea to the
investors about the credibility of the issuer company, and the risk factor
attached to a particular instrument. So the investors can decide whether to
invest in such companies or not. Higher the rating, the more will be the
willingness to invest in these instruments and visa-versa.
Benefits of Rating Reviews : The rating agency regularly reviews the rating
given to a particular instrument. So, the present investors can decide whether
to keep the instrument or to sell it. For e.g. if the instrument is downgraded,
then the investor may decide to sell it and if the rating is maintained or
upgraded, he may decide to keep the instrument until the next rating or
Assurance of Safety : High credit rating gives assurance to the investors about
the safety of the instrument and minimum risk of bankruptcy. The companies
which get a high rating for their instruments, will try to
maintain healthy financial discipline. This will protect them from bankruptcy.
So the investors will be safe.
BENEFITS OF CREDIT RATING
Easy Understandability of Investment Proposal : The rating agencies gives
rating symbols to the instrument, which can be easily understood by investors.
This helps them to understand the investment proposal of an issuer company.
For e.g. AAA (Triple A), given by CRISIL for debentures ensures highest
safety, whereas debentures rated D are in default or expect to default on
Saves Investor's Time and Effort : Credit ratings enable an investor to his
save time and effort in analyzing the financial strength of an issuer company.
This is because the investor can depend on the rating done by professional
rating agency, in order to take an investment decision. He need not waste his
time and effort to collect and analyse the financial information about
the credit standing of the issuer company.
BENEFITS OF CREDIT RATING
To the company
Improves Corporate Image : Credit rating helps to improve the corporate
image of a company. High credit rating creates confidence and trust in the
minds of the investors about the company. Therefore, the company enjoys a
good corporate image in the market.
Lowers Cost of Borrowing : Companies that have high credit rating for their
debt instruments will get funds at lower costs from the market. High rating will
enable the company to offer low interest rates on fixed deposits, debentures
and other debt securities. The investors will accept low interest rates because
they prefer low risk instruments. A company with high rating for its
instruments can reduce the cost of public issue to raise funds, because it need
not spend heavily on advertising for attracting investors.
BENEFITS OF CREDIT RATING
Wider Audience for Borrowing : A company with high rating for its
instruments can get a wider audience for borrowing. It can approach financial
institutions, banks, investing companies. This is because the credit ratings are
easily understood not only by the financial institutions and banks, but also by
the general public.
Good for Non-Popular Companies : Credit rating is beneficial to the non-
popular companies, such as closely-held companies. If the credit rating is
good, the public will invest in these companies, even if they do not know
Act as a Marketing Tool : Credit rating not only helps to develop a good
image of the company among the investors, but also among the
customers, dealers, suppliers, etc. High credit rating can act as a marketing
tool to develop confidence in the minds of customers, dealer, suppliers, etc.
Helps in Growth and Expansion : Credit rating enables a company to grow
and expand. This is because better credit rating will enable a company to get
finance easily for growth and expansion
DEMERITS OF CREDIT RATING
Possibility of Bias Exist : The information collected by the rating agency
may be subject to personal bias of the rating team. However, rating
agencies try their best to provide an unbiased opinion of the credit quality
of the company and/or instrument. If not, they will not be trusted.
Improper Disclosure May Happen : The company being rated may not
disclose certain material facts to the investigating team of the rating
agency. This can affect the quality of credit rating.
Impact of Changing Environment : Rating is done based on present and
past data of the company. So, it will be difficult to predict the future
financial position of the company. Many changes take place due to
changes in economic, political, social, technological, legal and other
environments. All this will affect the working of the company being rated.
Therefore, rating is not a guarantee for financial soundness of the
DEMERITS OF CREDIT RATING
Problems for New Companies : There may be problems for new
companies to collect funds from the market. This is because, a new
company may not be in a position to prove its financial soundness.
Therefore, it may receive lower credit ratings. This will make it difficult to
collect funds from the market.
Downgrading by Rating Agency : The credit-rating agencies periodically
review the ratings given to a particular instrument. If the performance of a
company is not as expected, then the rating agency will downgrade the
instrument. This will affect the image of the company.
Difference in Rating : There are cases, where different ratings are
provided by various rating agencies for the same instrument. These
differences may be due to many reasons. This will create confusion in the
minds of the investor.