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Unix - An Introduction


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This slide explores the basics of UNIX operating system - What's UNIX? What are different types of UNIX OS? What is difference between UNIX and Linux? and much more..

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Unix - An Introduction

  1. 1. UNIX Operating System An Introduction By: Deepanshu Gahlaut Web and Social Media Enthusiastic
  2. 2. Let’s Start With Basics ...
  3. 3. What is Operating System? The Operating System is the System S/W which acts as an interface between user and computer’s H/W. It acts as the brain of computer system which controls all other component of computer system.
  4. 4. Most Popular OS
  5. 5. Getting Started
  6. 6. Unix is a multiuser, multitasking OS from AT & T that runs on a wide variety of computer system from micro to super computers. UNIX was developed in 1969 by Ken Thompson & Dennis Ritchie. Unix was written in C language. What is UNIX?
  7. 7. We use the term "Unix" in a collective sense to refer to Unix, Unix-derived, and Unix-like systems.
  8. 8. Image credit - tdrnetworks
  9. 9. UNIX Categories There are three kinds of Unix System - Genetic UNIX Trademark or Branded UNIX Functional UNIX
  10. 10. Those systems with a historical connection to the AT&T codebase. For example - BSD systems. #1. Genetic UNIX
  11. 11. Systems such as Linux or Minix that behave similarly to a UNIX system but have no genetic or trademark connection to the AT&T code base. #2. Functional UNIX
  12. 12. These systems—largely commercial in nature—have been determined by the Open Group and are allowed to carry the UNIX name. For ex- System V , Apple Mac OS X 10.5 #3. Trademark or Branded UNIX
  13. 13. There are more than fifty flavors of UNIX in use today. Brands and versions of UNIX that are in common use are: AIX from IBM Solaris from SUN Microsystems HP-UX and Tru64 from Hewlett Packard UnixWare from Caldera Linux and FreeBSD, which are open source UNIX Historical Implementation
  14. 14. UNIX Features Portability Multi-user Capability Multitasking Capability Security Built-in Networking Programming Facility The UNIX Toolkit
  15. 15. UNIX Structure
  16. 16. The architecture of UNIX can be divided into three levels of functionality- The lowest level is the kernel is the core of OS & communicates directly to H/w.  The next level is the shell, which acts as the interface b/w user & kernel. Kernel is represented by file /stand/unix or /unix The highest level is utilities, or application programs which provides utility functions. The shell is represented by sh(Bourne Shell), csh(C shell), ksh(Korn Shell), bash(Bash shell). To know running shell use echo $shell
  17. 17. UNIX has a large family of powerful commands. Some major commands are: date, mkdir, cd, pwd, rmdir, ls, cp, mv, rm, cat, cal, who, tput clear, man, passwd, path, ps, chmod, chown, more etc. UNIX Commands
  18. 18. date: displays the date and time. ex: $ date [enter] wed march 31 16: 22:40 IST 2005 cal: displays the calendar of any specific month or year. ex: $ cal 2004 [enter] who: displays the list of users that are currently logged into system. ex: $ who [enter] Deepanshu console may 9 09:31 John pts/4 may 9 09:31 cat: creates a file. ex: $ cat>filename [enter]
  19. 19. ls: displays the list of files and directories. ex: $ date [enter] wed march 31 16: 22:40 IST 2005 mkdir: creates directories. ex: $ mkdir abc [enter] rmdir: removes directories. ex: $ rmdir abc [enter] mv: perform two functions. 1. Renames a file or directory. 2. Moves a group of files to different directory. ex: $ mv c1 b1 [enter] renames c1 to b1 $ mv c1 c2 abc[enter] moves c1, c2 to directory abc
  20. 20. cp: for copying one or more files. ex: $ cp sourcefilename destinationfilename [enter] rm: deletes one or more files. ex: $ rm c1 c2 c3 [enter] cat: display contents of file on screen. ex: $ cat filename [enter] tput clear: clears the screen. ex: $ tput clear [enter] pwd: display path of your present working directory. ex: $ pwd [enter] /home/sharma cd: change the current working directory to another. ex: $ cd ram [enter] $pwd /home/sharma/ram
  21. 21. Unix provides various general purpose utilities having diverse functionality . Some of them are: cal, date, echo, bc, printf, passwd, man, whatis, mailx etc. General Purpose Utilities
  22. 22. bc: is the text based calculator. ex: $ bc [enter] 12+5 [enter] 17 [ctrl+d] echo: is used to print messages. ex: $ echo Deepanshu [enter] printf: is an alternative to echo. ex: $ printf “Deepanshu” [enter] mailx: is the universal mailer to send or receive mails. Ex. $mailx Deepanshu [enter] subject: Attention call me now [ctrl-d] Will send the mail to Deepanshu.
  23. 23. passwd: for changing password. ex: $ passwd [enter] (Current) UNIX password: ***** (12345) New password: ***** (56789) Re-enter: ***** (56789) passwd(SYSTEM): password successfully changed. man: is the help facility. ex: $ man bc [enter] Will give a page having complete documentation about bc command including options, descriptions, usage etc.
  24. 24. UNIX File System
  25. 25. The UNIX file system contains following directories within the different system files resides. /bin: contains all commonly UNIX commands. /etc: contains configuration files of system. /dev: contains all device files. /lib: contains all library files in binary form. /home: different users are housed here. /tmp: contains all temporary files. /var: is the variable part of the system. Contains all your print job, incoming & outgoing mails. /stand: holds the commands usable only by System Administrator.
  26. 26. Administrator is the person who grants you the authority to use the system. It is the super user that has vast powers having access to everything. The job of System Administration includes: Maintaining Security by: passwd & set user id(SUID) User Management by: groupadd, useradd & Userdel Startup & Shutdown Managing Disk Space by: df & du Backup & Restore by: cpio & cpio-i System Administration
  27. 27. Linux is a full UNIX clone created by Linus Torvalds when he was a student at the university of Helsinki in 1991.It is the free operating system based on UNIX. It is written in C language. Primary Advantages of Linux: 1. Its initial price is free. 2. Help is always available on internet. 3. It is portable to any Hardware platform. 4. It is scalable and secure. Popular Linux Distribution : Red Hat Enterprise Edition, Fedora Core, Debian, SuSE Linux Linux’s Root in UNIX
  28. 28. The best thing about UNIX are:  UNIX has greater built-in security and permissions features than Windows.  Mostly free or inexpensive open-source operating systems, such as Linux and BSD.  Multitasking & Multi-user Features.  The Community & online support.  Unix is more flexible and portable and can be installed on many different types of machines. Why UNIX?
  29. 29.  Today UNIX has joined the desktop market.  On the server side, provides database and trading services for companies.  In creation of movies such as "Titanic", "Shrek" and others.  In real time environments such as flight management, weapon control etc. Applications of UNIX
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  31. 31. References Introduction To UNIX Operating System Roundup – Top 50 UNIX Commands Every User Must Know What is Unix Shell and What Does It Do?