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Why do we eat


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This is for biology students..on the topic WHY DO WE EAT. ?

Any one can see it..really its useful and knowledgable for everyone.

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Why do we eat

  1. 1. Why do we eat ????
  2. 2. <ul><li>Type </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><li>Long term energy </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting organs and long term energy store </li></ul><ul><li>Making muscle, enzymes, skin, hair </li></ul><ul><li>Fast energy </li></ul>Food
  3. 3. <ul><li>Food type </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>Test </li></ul><ul><li>Biuret turns purple if protein is present </li></ul><ul><li>Benedicts turns from blue to red/brown if sugar is present </li></ul><ul><li>Greaseproof paper gets an oily residue </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine turns blue/black if starch is present </li></ul>Food tests
  4. 4. <ul><li>Only eats meat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Spider, lion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Its survival is dependent on finding and catching prey </li></ul>Top predator – Nothing eats him! Carnivore
  5. 5. Carnivore Teeth Adaptation
  6. 6. <ul><li>Only eats plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Cow, aphid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depends on a large supply of plant matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Longer gut as less energy available in their food. </li></ul>Herbivore
  7. 7. Herbivore Teeth Adaptation
  8. 8. <ul><li>Eats a mixture of plants and animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Pigs, humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased chance of survival as they are not restricted to one diet. </li></ul>Omnivore
  9. 9. <ul><li>Breaks down and recycles dead material. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Bacteria, fungi </li></ul></ul>Decomposers
  10. 10. <ul><li>Plants can make their own food using </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are all the consumers and producers linked? </li></ul>Primary Producers (Plants)
  11. 11. <ul><li>Trophic level </li></ul><ul><li>Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer </li></ul>– feeding group in food chain (eg Herbivore) – makes own food – eats other organisms for food Definitions
  12. 12. Phytoplankton Zooplankton Fish Shark Label the trophic levels as herbivore, carnivore, producer, top predator. Indicate which are consumers. Top Predator Carnivore Herbivore Producer Consumers Food Chain
  13. 14. <ul><li>Food chains describe how organisms gain______ from eating each other in a community. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are called _______ because they make glucose using energy from the ______ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ must eat other organisms for their _______ and nutrients. </li></ul>Producers Sun Consumers Energy Food Food Chains
  14. 15. Only about 10% of energy passed on between trophic levels Few Carnivores More Herbivores All supported by energy from producers Most is lost through the organisms living processes Energy Pyramids
  15. 16. <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Oesophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Small Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Large Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Gall Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Anus </li></ul>Let’s find out what happened to your breakfast today! (Breaking food down into smaller pieces) The Digestive System
  16. 17. <ul><li>Teeth </li></ul><ul><li>(mechanical breakdown) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incisors used for cutting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canines used for stabbing and holding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molars large surface area used for grinding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saliva </li></ul><ul><li>(chemical breakdown) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme (speeds up reactions in the body) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down carbohydrate </li></ul></ul>Mouth
  17. 18. <ul><li>Approximately 25cm long </li></ul><ul><li>Moves food from the throat to the stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle movement called peristalsis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If acid from the stomach gets in here that’s heartburn. </li></ul>Oesophagus
  18. 19. <ul><li>Stores the food you eat </li></ul><ul><li>Chemically breaks it down into tiny pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Mixes food with digestive juices </li></ul><ul><li>Acid in the stomach kills bacteria </li></ul>Stomach
  19. 20. <ul><li>Small intestines are roughly 6 metres long. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes and bile are added. </li></ul><ul><li>Villi increase the surface area to help absorbtion . </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls. </li></ul>Small Intestine
  20. 21. <ul><li>Directly affects digestion by producing bile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bile is an enzyme that helps dissolve fat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes nutrients in the blood, filters out toxins and waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Is often called the body’s energy factory </li></ul>Liver
  21. 22. <ul><li>Stores bile from the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers bile when food is digested </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty diets can cause gallstones </li></ul>Gall Bladder
  22. 23. <ul><li>Produces compounds to digest fats and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralizes acids that enter small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin </li></ul>Pancreas
  23. 24. <ul><li>About 1.5 metres long </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs water and minerals from the waste matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption means taking into the body via the blood stream. </li></ul>Large Intestine
  24. 25. <ul><li>Rectum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 15cm long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores waste before egestion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular ring that controls egestion. </li></ul></ul>Rectum and Anus
  25. 26. Write the name of each colored organ: <ul><li>Green: </li></ul><ul><li>Red: </li></ul><ul><li>Pink: </li></ul><ul><li>Brown: </li></ul><ul><li>Purple: </li></ul><ul><li>Green: </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow: </li></ul>
  26. 27. Answers <ul><li>Green: Oesophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Red: Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Pink: Small Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Brown: Large Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Purple: Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Green: Gall Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow: Pancreas </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Cells are the building blocks of life </li></ul><ul><li>All cells have the following in common: </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells also have a cell wall and chloroplasts </li></ul>Cells
  28. 29. <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>largest organelle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions for the whole body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the entry and exit of material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid containing cell parts and nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerhouse (burns energy from food) </li></ul></ul>Function of cell organelles
  29. 30. ENERGY C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + <ul><li>Respiration is the conversion of glucose into energy </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is “burnt” with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>It takes place in the Mitochondria </li></ul>Glucose Oxygen ENERGY Carbon Dioxide Water Turning food into energy
  30. 31. What is it for ? We need 2 pumps because 1 would not have enough energy to push blood through the lungs and then around the body. Circulatory System
  31. 32. <ul><li>Oxygenated blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LHS thicker </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxygenated blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To the lungs </li></ul></ul>Anatomy of the Heart
  32. 33. Blood Vessels
  33. 34. <ul><li>Oxygenated blood leaving heart </li></ul><ul><li>High pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Thick muscular walls </li></ul>Structure of Arteries
  34. 35. <ul><li>Carry blood to cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single file r.b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>Very thin walls (single cell thick) </li></ul>Structure of Capillaries
  35. 36. <ul><li>Deoxygenated blood returning to heart </li></ul><ul><li>Thin walls </li></ul><ul><li>Low pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Valves – allow flow of blood in one direction </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul>Structure of Veins
  36. 37. <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid carries other components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste like carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Red Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry oxygen and carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clotting </li></ul></ul>Blood