Neuroplasticity and related concepts in Cognition


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This presentation is about Neuroplasticity, its types and introduction to how memory is built and one Cognition disorder with Plasticity, Synesthesia

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Neuroplasticity and related concepts in Cognition

  1. 1. Plasticity:
  2. 2. PlasticityNeuroplasticity is a non-specific neuroscience term referring to theability of the brain and nervous system in all species to changestructurally and functionally as a result of input from theenvironment. Plasticity occurs on a variety of levels, ranging fromcellular changes involved in learning, to large-scale changes involvedin cortical remapping in response to injury. The most widelyrecognized forms of plasticity are learning, memory, and recoveryfrom brain damage. (Wikipedia)
  3. 3. The period of susceptibility to thephysiological effects of unilateral eyeclosure in kittensD. H. Hubel and T. N. WieselHubel and Wiesel had demonstrated thatocular dominance columns in the lowestneocortical visual area, V1, were largelyimmutable after the critical period indevelopment
  4. 4. Synaptic PlasticityIn neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of the connection,or synapse, between two neurons to change in strength inresponse to either use or disuse of transmission over synapticpathways. Plastic change also results from the alteration of thenumber of receptors located on a synapse. There are severalunderlying mechanisms that cooperate to achieve synapticplasticity, including changes in the quantity of neurotransmittersreleased into a synapse and changes in how effectively cellsrespond to those neurotransmitters. Synaptic plasticity in bothexcitatory and inhibitory synapses has been found to bedependent upon calcium. Since memories are postulated to berepresented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in thebrain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemicalfoundations of learning and memory (Wikipedia)
  5. 5. MetaplasticityMetaplasticity is a term originally coined by W.C. Abraham and M.F.Bear to refer to the plasticity of synaptic plasticity. Until that timesynaptic plasticity had referred to the plastic nature of individualsynapses. However this new form referred to the plasticity of theplasticity itself, thus the term meta-plasticity. The idea is that thesynapses previous history of activity determines its currentplasticity. This may play a role in some of the underlyingmechanisms thought to be important in memory and learning suchas Long-term potentiation (LTP), Long-term Depression (LTD) and soforth. (Wikipedia)
  6. 6. Another beliefA third school of thought exists which beliefs that structures are notexistent and created with experience.It encompasses neuronal formations in adulthood(??) andformations of new connections against existent belief of activationof inactive synapses.
  7. 7. Relations between ThoughtsConcepts: Water, lake, building, tree,park, public, nation, tax, researchgrant, 1,2-dimethyl hydrazineAbstractions: Happiness, Sleep,Hallucination, Victory, Virtual,Research, Relationship
  8. 8. So, How memory solves this?
  9. 9. But these?
  10. 10. The act of relating pictures, sounds andclips in the memory to emotions,expressions and inputs are central toCognition.Thus, a child psychology is differentfrom adult psychology.
  11. 11. Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiaeor synaesthesiae), from the ancient Greek σύν (syn), "together," andαἴσθησις (aisthēsis), "sensation," is a neurologically based condition inwhich stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic,involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. Peoplewho report such experiences are known as synesthetes.Why and when?Synesthesia runs strongly in families, but the precise mode of inheritancehas yet to be ascertained. Synesthesia is also sometimes reported byindividuals under the influence of psychedelic drugs, after a stroke, during atemporal lobe epilepsy seizure, or as a result of blindness or deafness.Synesthesia that arises from such non-genetic events is referred to as"adventitious synesthesia" to distinguish it from the more commoncongenital forms of synesthesia. Adventitious synesthesia involving drugs orstroke (but not blindness or deafness) apparently only involves sensorylinkings such as sound → vision or touch → hearing; there are few, if any,reported cases involving culture-based, learned sets such as graphemes,lexemes, days of the week, or months of the year.(Wikipedia)
  12. 12. Types of SynesthesiaIn one common form of synesthesia, known as grapheme → colorsynesthesia or color-graphemic synesthesia, letters or numbers areperceived as inherently colored, while in ordinal linguistic personification,numbers, days of the week and months of the year evoke personalities. Inspatial-sequence, or number form synesthesia, numbers, months of theyear, and/or days of the week elicit precise locations in space (for example,1980 may be "farther away" than 1990), or may have a (three-dimensional)view of a year as a map (clockwise or counterclockwise). Yet anotherrecently identified type, visual motion → sound synesthesia, involveshearing sounds in response to visual motion and flicker. Over 60 types ofsynesthesia have been reported, but only a fraction have been evaluated byscientific research. Even within one type, synesthetic perceptions vary inintensity and people vary in awareness of their synesthetic perceptions.(Wikipedia)
  13. 13. Thinking question:Whether the braincorrelates involuntarily oris formation of newrelationship is faulty?