In considering the idea of culture and travel the questions…may be considered as general topics for exploration.This lecture will introduce the ways in which disciplines like social anthropology and material cultures enhance our understanding of the social, cultural and historically specific meanings and practices associated with culture and place.
Visual Culture examines the relationship between things, space, and everyday practices. A culture’s use of imagery is part of the shaping of its world view. This is also known as our Cognitive Outlook. Or in other words the framework of ideas and beliefs, that distinguish that culture. This lecture provides you with some perspectives in order to engage with ideas about the production of knowledge about culture through visual realms and material culture.
Cultural PerspectivesSo if you recall form last week: Visual Culture is everything that is seen, that is produced to be seen, and the way in which it is seen and understood. It is that part of culture that communicates through visual means, a tactic for studying the functions of a world addressed through pictures, images, and visualizations, rather than through texts and words.
Cultural variations are often the cause of major and minor misunderstandings as groups come into contact with one another
Another way we might understand a place is through its heritage, this is particularly pertinent to tourism.
For most of us, answering questions about identity begins by listing details that can be found on birth certificates–name, sex, ethnicity, and family origins. And for example when we want to research our family histories we locate the birth certificates of known family members because these documents provide essential information about the identities of ancestors. The importance of birth certificates might suggest that identity is basically fixed and stable from the time of birth.
The final step in the construction of Alterity is to institutionalize these prejudices in our laws and customs. When laws, group culture, educational values, and social custom operate as if prejudices were truths, then we have racism, sexism, classism, anti-semitism, and so on. Racism is institutionalized racial prejudice; it has the weight of the entire society to enforce it. Sexism is institutionalized gender prejudice. Classism is institutionalized class prejudice.
The creation of binary opposition structures the way we view others. One of the oppositional terms is always privileged, controlling and dominating the other.Most commonly, another person or group of people who are defined as different or even sub-human to consolidate a group's identity. For example, the Nazi's internal cohesion depended in part on how they defined themselves against (strove to maintain distinctions from) their image of the Jews. In this sense, "The other" is the devalued half of a binary opposition when it is applied to groups of people.
Although both anthropology and art often have different criteria, methods and techniques, both share the ambition to reflect on the human condition and to give meaning to existence.
Some of the main cultural phenomena studied in cultural geography include language, religion, different economic and governmental structures, art, music, and other cultural aspects that explain how and/or why people function as they do in the areas in which they live.
Material Culture is concerned with the relationship between artefacts and social relation.Material Culture Studies aims to systematically explore the linkage between the construction of social identities and the production and use of culture.
Spaces where political ideologies are played out in the context of everyday practices such as consumption, appropriation and societal organisation.The physical placement, or framing of an object can change the objects meaning.Historical connotations, economic value, symbolic meaning and value
Culture and Travel“Who arewe?”, “Whereare we going?”and “Why do wedo what we do?” Tracey Moffat Adventure Series (2003)
Cognitive Outlook Examine the relationship between things, space, and everyday practices.
Cultural Perspectives Visual Culture involves exploring, analyzing, and critiquing the relationship between culture and visuality, from a range of diverse theoretical perspectives. It important to understand howBob and Roberta Smith societies construct their visualCulture Bashing is Book perspectives throughBurning knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, l(2012) aws, and customs, amongst other things.
CultureA specific set oflearnedbehaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, andideals that arecharacteristic of aparticular society orpopulation. Boyle Family Earth Pieces (1960-present)
Culture and HeritageHeritage is:• NOT history• A carefully selective engagement with the past• A way of making the past coherent, manageable and meaningful for the present• A comparatively recent form of leisure pursuit and culture• Material: listed buildings, protected landscapes, art, and design etc.• Conceptual: shared memory, myth, beliefs about the past etc.• Also, officially defined, policed and protected national construct (e.g. National Trusts)
Culture and IdentityWho do you think you are? For most of us, answering questions about identity begins by listing details that can be found on birth certificates– name, sex, ethnicity, and family origins. David Shrigley
EnculturationCultures are learned through the process of enculturation. Culture is learned and passed down from previous generations. It is not something an individual is born with. Learning culture is continuous processCultures involve the use of language andsymbols - things that stand for something else.
Nature/Culture Things that strike us as „natural‟ or „normal‟ or „common sense‟ or „human nature‟ are often cultural. Bruce Nauman Human Nature/Knows Doesnt Know (1983/6)
On the RoadDisplacement Belonging Home Difference Museum and display Travel Diaspora TerritoryParticipation Identities Material culture Nations Heritage Visual anthropology GlobalizationEthnocentrism Ethnography Observation
We can explore other cultures by, studying behavior, customs, material culture(artifacts, tools, technology), language, etc. Ilya Kabakov The Man Who Flew into Space from His Apartment (1984)
Culture is…• Learned. Process of learning ones culture is called enculturation.• Shared by the members of a society. There is no „culture of one‟.• Patterned. People in a society live and think in ways that form definite patterns.• Mutually constructed through a constant process of social interaction.• Symbolic. Culture, language and thought are based on symbols and symbolic meanings.• Arbitrary. Not based on „natural laws‟ external to humans, but created by humans according to the needs and preferences of the group e.g. standards of beauty.• Internalized. Habitual. Taken-for-granted. Perceived as „natural.‟
Ethnocentrism The idea that one persons culture is superior to other cultures. It is important ensure that attitudes such as this do not pollute the interpretations of any culture being studied.
Colonialism/Postcolonialism Yinka Shonibare Gallantry and Criminal Conversation (Parasol) 2002
Alterity/OthernessAlterity is not the same thing as prejudices (for example, racism, sexism, classism), although it leads to them.First we construct some group as Other.Next we project onto it those qualities we reject, fear, ordisown in ourselves.Then we assign qualities to variable human individuals on thebasis of their inclusion in this constructed Alterity.Once we take this step in our construction of Alterity, then, atlast, we have also created prejudice and stereotyping.
Binary oppositions Rational - Irrational/emotional White - Black Male - FemaleHeterosexual - Homosexual Order - Chaos Mind - Body Active - Passive Town - Country Cowboys - Indians Civilised - Primitive Rational - Irrational Culture - Nature David Shrigley
Cultural ImperialismCultural imperialismrefers to the spread ofone culture at theexpense of othersusually because ofdifferential economicor political influence.
Culture and PowerRepresentationis not neutral. Ellen Gallagher DeLux (2004-5)
The Location of Culture Many people never acknowledge how their day- to-day behaviors have been shaped by cultural norms and values and reinforced by families, peers, and social institutions. How one defines „family‟, identifies desirable life goals, views problems, and even says hello are all influenced by the culture in which one functions.
Artist as EthnographerEthnographic aesthetics: theintersection between art andanthropology.Artists, likeethnographers, train theireyes to see things otherpeople don‟t see. They try topresent what they see so thatwe, the audience, can glimpsesomething where we havelooked a thousand times andfailed to find anything Simon Starling Infestation Piecenoteworthy. (Musseled Moore) (2012)
AnthropologyAnthropology is a tool forunderstanding what makespeople and cultures differentand what makes them thesame.Studying and going to „other‟cultures provides us withcomparative perspectives ofthe world. Roderick Buchanan Mixed Marriage (2007)
Artist as Anthropologist Artists and anthropologists share a set of common practices that raise similar ethical issues.David Shrigley
Culture and Place Places are created by cultural practices. Places are never finished.Yinka ShonibareGallantry and Criminal Conversation (Parasol)(2002)
Cultural GeographyCultural geographers study the cultural aspects that explain howand/or why people function as they do in the areas in which they livee.g. language, religion, different economic and governmentalstructures, art, and music. Berlin from above Berlin in partsFrom: Odd Things Happen When You Chop Up Cities And Stack Them Sideways
Globalisation Globalisation is also becoming increasingly important to this field as it is allowing these specific aspects of culture to easily travel across the globe.N55Walking House(2008)
Material Culture Material Culture is concerned with the relationship between artefacts and social relation. Material Culture Studies aims to systematically explore the linkage between the construction of social identities and the production and use ofBob and Roberta Smith culture.Everything is Made(2012)
MuseologyMuseology is the science ofcollecting and arrangingobjects for museums.The meaning of objects shiftand change according tothe variousphysical, temporal, socialand cultural contexts inwhich they are used anddisplayed.