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  1. 1. Picasso‟s Exorcism: Fear of „Primitives‟ and „Prostitutes‟ Week
  2. 2. Aims of the lecture• Give you an understanding of the prevailing attitudes towards other cultures before and during the 19th century.• Provide an account of the background for „primitivism‟ in art• Develop a nuanced, critical reading of Picasso‟s Les Demoiselles D’Avignon.
  3. 3. Modernism is also partially a response to mass dislocations of population due to war, empire, and immigration. Thisdislocation resulted in the unprecedentedclose quartering of different classes and ethnicities in rapidly expanding cities.
  4. 4. Paul Cézanne Pablo PicassoStill Life with Fruit Dish The Reservoir, Horta de (1879–80) Ebro (1909)
  5. 5. Cezanne‟s early style was the complete opposite of the official, academic styleCezanneA ModernOlympia 
c.1873-74 William-Adolphe BouguereauCezanne The Birth ofThe Venus (1879)Abduction(1867)
  6. 6. Cezanne PissarroThe Bridge at Maincy Small Bridge (1879-80) (1875)
  7. 7. Impressionism Monet RenoirWater-Lily Pond Lakeside Landscape (1897) (1889)
  8. 8. Cezannes great contribution was that heinvented a new kind of space in painting.Previously space in painting wasRenaissance space - which was illusionalspace, linear perspective, trying to depictthe illusion of space on a two-dimensionalsurface.
  9. 9. CezanneApples and Oranges (1882)
  10. 10. Cubism - the first style of abstract art Cubism gave rise to Abstract art, which removed the object from painting all together Braque PicassoViolin and Candlestick L‟Aficionado (1910) (1912)
  11. 11. The Influence of Cézanne on Cubism Cézanne 
Bibemus Quarry (1895)
  12. 12. PicassoLes DemoisellesdAvignon(1907)
  13. 13. PrimitivismPicassos African-influencedPeriod - 1907 to 1909 Picasso Dan Mask 
Head of a Woman (1907)
  14. 14. Gauguin: Maker of MythReinforcing the idealism of his view of „the Other‟ Paul Gauguin Nave, Nave Moe (Miraculous Source) 
  15. 15. Colonisation: a key feature of modernity“Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act ofaccumulation and acquisition… Out ofimperialism, notions about culture wereclassified, reinforced, criticised or rejected.”Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism Pitt Rivers Museum
  16. 16. Progress and evolution“Charles Darwin‟s theory of evolution lies behindmany early anthropological and sociologicaldefinitions of the primative. It is significanthowever, that what were originally essentiallymecanistic principles of biological transformationswere quickly translated into philisophical proof fornew versions of the medieval idea of a verticallyorientated „Great Chain of Being‟ […] a „ladder‟ onwhich men were arranged in ascending order ofimportance according to „race‟ (and often class).” (Rhodes 1994, p. 14)
  17. 17. Modernity and Colonialism“There had been, from the beginning of classicalspeculation, two contrasting opinions about the naturalstate of man [...] One view, termed "soft" primitivism [...]conceives of primitive life as a golden age ofplenty, innocence, and happiness -- in other words, ascivilized life purged of its vices. The other, "hard" form ofprimitivism conceives of primitive life as an almostsubhuman existence full of terrible hardships and devoidof all comforts -- in other words, as civilized life strippedof its virtues.” (Panofsky...)
  18. 18. “Many people neveracknowledge how theirday-to-day behaviorshave been shaped bycultural norms and valuesand reinforced byfamilies, peers, and socialinstitutions. How onedefines „family‟, identifiesdesirable life goals, viewsproblems, and even sayshello are all influenced bythe culture in which onefunctions”(Cross, 1988, p.2)
  19. 19. Otherness – binary oppositions in the 19th Century world view. Culture > Nature Rationality > Irrationality (emotion) Western > Non-Western Man > Woman Civilized > Primitive
  20. 20. The “discovery” of primitive art by Picasso and Co.around the turn of the 20th century
  21. 21. Picasso‟s appropriation of the African mask is one example of hybridforms of expression that beg, borrow and steal from elsewhere. In doingso they raise the question about the significance of power relations indoing so. Picasso Mask from Anonymous Picasso Sitting Nude Baule in Ivory artist, South Woman with (1908) Coast Africa Joined Hands (1906)
  22. 22. Woman‟s Head Woman in an Negro Dancer (1909) Armchair (1909-1910) (1937)
  23. 23. “Primitivism in Modern Art is predominantly aboutmaking the familiar strange or about maintaining thestrangeness of unfamiliar experiences as a meansof questioning the experiences as a means ofquestioning the recieved wisdom of WesternCulture. This contrasts with the general trend inEuropean Art since the Renaissance, which hassought to render the experiences of new cultures ina visual language that contains and neutralises thethreat of the unkown by absorbing it into recognisedsystems of representation.” (Rhodes 1994, p.75)
  24. 24. The poet Guillaume Apollinairein Picasso‟s atelier, 1910 – byPicasso
  25. 25. Correspondences between Cubism and early cinema Picasso and Braque Go to the Movies (Dir. Arne Glimcher, 2010) proposes that: •Cubism, the revolutionary abstract painting and collage style pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, grew out of a reaction to cinema •the neutral tones and deconstructed forms that defined Cubist painting were an attempt to convey motion in the manner of a film‟s rolling celluloid
  26. 26. Correspondences between Cubism and early cinema Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon The serpentine dance of (1907) Loïe Fuller (1896)
  27. 27.