Cloud computing


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A comprehensive analysis of Cloud computing technologies and applications for libraries & information organisations

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  • The services deliver by the providers to the consumers.Software as service (SaaS)- operating environment with application, management and the user interface. everything from the application down to the infrastructure is the providers responsibility. The consumers do not have access to the infrstucture,but access only the application.exampleYoutubeFacebookGoogle applicationsTwitterFlickrSerial solutionsLibguidesWord pressPlatform as a service(PaaS)- Provides a platform in the cloud, upon which applications can be developed and executed.the service provider manages the cloud infrstructure,the operating systems and the enabling software.programming languagesBibliographic toolsCatalog and Databases OCLC web servicesGoogle app engineInfrastructure as a service(IaaS)-providers offer computing power and storage space on demand.theIaaS service provider manages all the infrastructure.hardware as a service and metered pricingLibrary of congressTroveLibraries AustraliaBritish LibraryTePuna Libraries
  • Community cloud –this type cloud has been organised to serve a common function or may be for one or serveralorganisations.Hybrid cloud- It’s combained multiple clouds such as private, community and public and where those clouds retain their unique identifier.Privatecloud-Cloud services are provided solely for an organization and are managed by the organization or a third party.Public cloud-Cloud services are available to the public and owned by an organization selling cloud services.
  • Cost savingReduce information technology supportConstant maintenance of hardware expenses are much lower than running traditional computingShared data useRenting external data centerPay as you go- Monthly subscription fees instead of large upfront software and installation costs can reduce costs. The monthly fee typically covers all updates and new versions.Implementation can be undertaken remotely Reduced software costInstant software updatesData storageallows unlimited data stored remotelyAdditional security methods such as password encryption with storageOnline backup storage Scalabilityprovide a scalable standard environment for network centric application development, testing and deployment.IT resources can be expanded or reduced according to the needs of the organization.Device independence:With access available through a web browser on any computing device--small or large.Usabilitylarge pool of easily usable and accessible virtualized resourcesOpen and flexible and efficiencyuser interaction interfaceEasy to upgradeEasyto deployCollaborationAccess from anywhere at any time- collaboration between many partners Share data and services with other libraries & partners in a controlled way provide an online community to engage with customers and organization dynamicallyDocuments stored on a cloud can be accessed by multiple users at the same time.Easy Online document sharing and collaborationSocial networking sites- Facebook, NingSocial bookmarking- Diigo,, google bookmarksSocial wikis- PB works,, WetpaintSocial calendars- Google calendarsUniversal document access
  • services and support to a wide range of users.A wide-range of course materials and academic support tools to instructors, teachers, professors, and other educators and staff.Research level computational systems and services in support of the research mission of the university libraries. resource utilization depending on different user demandsVariety of diverse service environmentsOperating cloud infrastructure as an economically viable model
  • Centralized database and sharing catalog records between libraries as a cloudConnecting people to knowledge through world libraryShared virtual resourcesShare the metadata of the collection by adding the records or holdings to WorldCatShare the resources through OCLC world share platformShare the expertise(knowledge) through the global virtual reference servicesReduce costs by cooperation in cataloguing, resource sharing ,reference and othre services
  • Cataloguing and metadata servicesResource sharing and deliveryReference and discoveryCollection management
  • Usabilitycatalog 449.9 million items online and via batchloadadd 38.9 million records to the WorldCat database arrange 9.6 million interlibrary loans perform 58 million end-user reference searches on the OCLC FirstSearch service perform 160.7 million click-through from partner sites on the Web to the landing page add 12.4 million records to WorldCat for digital objects via the WorldCat Digital Collection Gateway.
  • Serials Solutions provides leading technology solutions for libraries worldwide. The company makes the complexities of today’s libraries work by providing innovative, practical Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) solutions for discovery and management.Services such as Summon web scale discoveryIntotaUlrich’sAquaBrowser360 Core360 Counter360 Link360 Resource Manager360 SearchKnowledgeWorks
  • At June 30, 2011, the collective collection of the holdings of institutions in the OCLC cooperative accessible through and WorldCat Local comprised approximately 2 billion items, including:
  • Single search across multiple libraries Search service- ANBD and external databases search 24 hours a day and 7 days a weekaccess to World cat and Overseas libraries databases for cataloguing and searchinterlibrary loan functionality through enhanced requestingRequests can be created on the ANBD , Te Puna and InfotrieveAlerts for acquisitions Access to Save records & queriesAccess to Web Cataloguing module 
  • The Australian National Bibliographic Database (ANBD) is Australia’s largest single bibliographic resource.The Bibliographic records are loaded from following agencies to support the Australian libraries create the record.National Library of Australia British National Bibliography New Zealand Bibliographic Network New Zealand National Bibliography Singapore National Bibliography Vietnamese National Bibliography Library of Congress OCLCBlackwell’s Table of ContentsSerials Solutions
  • Trove -Trove is a powerful tool facilitating access by end users to Australian collections.
  • HathiTrust Digital Library is a digital preservation repository and highly functional access platform. It provides long-term preservation and access services for public domain and in copyright content from a variety of sources, including Google, the Internet Archive, Microsoft, and in-house partner institution initiatives. Mission- to contribute to the common good by collecting, organizing, preserving, communicating and sharing the record of human knowledgeCost effective preservation and access servicesHathi trust's current cost model is based solely on storage costs for content deposited with Hathi trust.Hati trust partners areCommittee on institutional cooperation-the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) is a consortium of the Big Ten universities plus the University of ChicagoTriangle research libraries network- University of California
  • Cloud computing

    1. 1. Cloud computing
    2. 2. Agenda Cloud -Definitions Cloud types An overview Characteristics of Cloud computing -Benefits Analysis - Cloud @ Libraries Analysis -Cloud @ Information Organization Reference
    3. 3. What is cloud computing?A style of computing in which scalable and elastic IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as aservice to external customers using Internet technologies (Gartner Group, 2012).Wikipedia defines cloud computing as an "Internet-based (cloud) development and use ofcomputer technology (computing)."
    4. 4. The National Institute of Standards and Technology defines cloud computing as “a model for enablingconvenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configuration computing resources that can berapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.”The Australian Government Cloud Computing Strategic Direction paper describes;1.“Cloud computing is a new way of delivering computing resources, not a new technology”2.“Agencies may choose cloud-based services where they demonstrate value for money and adequatesecurity.” computing
    5. 5. Cloud types
    6. 6. Characteristics of Cloud computingBenefits Cost saving Data storage Scalability Usability Collaboration
    8. 8. Cloud computing @ LibrariesCloud computing has a significant place in libraries and information organisations as a computingtool and powerful platform that can enhance experience and engage library clients. It is beneficialfor academic libraries as cloud models offer a cheaper way to acquire IT services. Economy ofscale; paying for the platform only when it is used; and greater flexibility in adopting innovativetechnology ideas enable agility of solutions development and deployment (Waggener, 2010).Userscan reach into the cloud for resources as they need from anywhere at anytime. For thisreason, cloud computing has also been described as “on-demand computing”.OCLC WorldShare platform 72,000 libraries worldwide Over 470 languages 23,082 user-contributed reviews 77,959 tags contributed 464,531 user profiles created 260,496 lists created 658,659,871 Clickthroughs to (2010) 36,168,684 Clickthroughs from to Libraries(2010)
    9. 9. WorldCat Today 270,733,301 Records 1,832,488,454 Holdings Every 4 seconds a request Every 10 seconds is filled through WorldCat a record is added Resource sharing
    10. 10. OCLC 12.4 Million records to WorldCat 449.9 Million items Batch load 9.6 Million ILL 58 Million 170 Million Click- Reference search through
    11. 11. Serials Solutions Provides simple, easy, fast discovery and access to library resources, and most customizable and configurable for libraries Libraries can easily brand these services to meet their needs and match their library look and feel. search boxes can be embedded in any library web page. A user-friendly and intuitive experience for clients Fully hosted off-site and available 24x7, 365 days a year Cost-efficient administration and maintenance of the Discovery Service Full integration with IT environments more than 800 million records indexed so far to access More than 400 libraries in 40 countries size of the Summon index in perspectiveMassive collections such as the Library of Congress catalogue or PubMed make up just a small sliver of the total items in the Summonindex.
    12. 12.  “Today’s tools have forced librarians to create too many redundant processes to manage the entirety of their collection. Serials Solutions’ approach to managing library resources provides needed relief by helping librarians to integrate these same processes, which will allow them to focus on fulfilling the library’s mission to its patrons.” ( Kline, 2007). “Serials Solutions has demonstrated remarkable commitment to ongoing development and maintaining a reliable schedule of compelling enhancements. Through these releases, we’ve seen amazing and continuing growth of content, as well as responsiveness to customer requests for new functionality,”(Prestamo, Garrison & Rodriguez, 2012).
    13. 13. Data storageOCLC 268,512,063 bibliographic records 1.7 billion holdings 417 databases 531 million article records 35 million institutional repository records 15 million archival records 8 million records from Google, HathiTrust 1,830,720,827 Number of holdings 170 Countries and territories with library holdings a record is added in every 10 seconds a request is filled through in every 4 seconds
    14. 14. Libraries Australia 1200 Australian libraries 48 million holdings Links to 1,433,733 online resources 14.97m Searches 12.3m Database searches(2010/11 ) Cataloguing Document delivery- 296,000 requested 736 LADD customers in Australia(As at June 2011) 300 in New Zealand
    15. 15. ANBD48 million holdings.
    16. 16. Picture Australia 1.8 million images to accessMusic Australia 260,000Australian Research Online 550,000 299,114,232 Australian and online items (17/05/2012) The full text of 68522551 historic Australian newspaper articles Tags from Wikipedia
    17. 17. Library of Congress 147,093,357 items in the collection includes; 22,194,656 cataloged books 3,116,691 audio materials 64,591,135 manuscripts 5,415,134 maps 16,502,298 microforms 6,112,543 pieces of printed sheet music 14,646,373 visual materials 1.7 million onsite visitors 527,466 reference services 77 million Website visits 581.1 million page views on the Library’s website.
    18. 18. The New York Public Library90 locations include four research centers50 million itemsCollaboration through Social media16 million patrons annually28 million website visits annuallymore than 200 countries visits the site.
    19. 19. Hathi Trust Digital  BooksLibrary  Serials  Other Launched 2008 10,210,506 total volumes 5,422,375 book titles 269,179 serial titles 3,573,677,100 pages 2,902,669 volumes(~28% of total) in the public domain 150,000 new titles each month 1.9 million titles in June 2009 and 3.64 million in June 2010.
    20. 20.  The top 10 languages make up ~86% of all content. Arabic Latin 2% 1% Remaining Italian Languages Japanese 3% 14% 3% English Russian 48% 4% Chinese French 4% 7% German 9% Spanish 5%
    21. 21. British Library and Microsoft partnership-100,000 out of copyright books in the library collection can be accessed by people all over the world through the Cloud. (Drake, 2007)In 2008, The Z. Smith Reynolds Library at the Wake Forest University, US migrated their resources through the cloud based environment. Initially they used 20GB of storage space server. Through this experience In 2009 they migrated to Amazon EC2 which facilitated a number of other options including:- automatic load balancing, connection with campus networks via virtual private cloud and auction-style access to server time scalable server solutions easy to use management controlsLibrary Thing provides a service, which allows people to contribute information and recommendations about books, andto connect with one another to share interests. The site also contributes web services that enables libraries to draw on thevast database of recommendations and other services available in Library Thing. It stores over 35 million books, withmetadata entirely contributed by the user population
    22. 22. Information organisation@ cloudAccording to Morgan Stanley Research (2011) in 2013, 7.0% of workloads will run in SaaS environments, as compared with3.2% today, and we estimate that in 2013,6.3 million workloads will run in a SaaS environment, as compared with 1.8 million today. This leads to an estimated 1.3- 1.7million incremental workloads in SaaS environments for each of the next three years.McKinsey & Company’s (2011) estimates of cloud computing’s size show the combined market for public and private cloudservices growing from about $11 billion in 2010 to between $65 billion and $85 billion by 2015.The latest study done by the International Data Corporation (IDC) predicts that by the year 2020, the world’s stored data willreach an astonishing 35 ZB. (Zettabite= 1 trillion gigabytes)The Digital Universe holds 1.8 trillion gigabytes in 500 quadrillion files.“In 2012, 80% of new commercial enterprise apps will be deployed on cloud platforms” (International Data Corporation)“At year-end 2016, more than 50 percent of Global 1000 companies will have stored customer-sensitive data in the publiccloud” (Gartner Research)By 2020 the world will generate 50 times the amount of information and 75 times the number of “information containers”while IT staff to manage it will grow less than 1.5 times.
    23. 23. Currently 43% of Australian enterprises use cloud computing in some form.Up to 80 per cent of Australian organisations believe functions such as email and collaboration tools will beoperating within a public cloud environment by 2014.(DC: Australian Cloud Services 2011-2015 )Australian government(ACT 1997)- $4.3 billion per annum on information and communicationtechnology.costs of $1 billion could be avoided by developing a cloud data center strategy for the next 15years.The Australian Taxation Office: The successful eTax, Electronic Lodgment System (ELS) and Tax Agent Boardadministrative support systems are all supported by cloud-based servicesThe Australian Bureau of Statistics: Implementation of virtualization software as part of a transition to a privatecloud infrastructureTreasury: Standard Business Reporting (SBR) and Business Names projects have made use of private cloudcapabilitiesDept. of Immigration and Citizenship: Adoption of a cloud computing proof-of-concept to investigate provision of anend-to-end online client lodgment process.
    24. 24. Cloud LandscapesTelstra cloud services have helped Australian business and communities during times of natural disaster. In January2011, Telstra together with Microsoft® and local partner Productive, provided free and instant communications to businessesthat had their email server damaged or destroyed by the Queensland floods.2009 bushfires, Telstra worked with the Victorian Government to create a cloud-based emergency warning system thatactivates mass outbound calling to direct citizens in imminent danger to safer ground. Telstra’s Emergency Warning System(EWS)is a government private cloud providing citizen centric services. The EWS enables emergency services organisations to sendtargeted communications to individuals in danger zones. is the world’s largest encoding/transcoding service and uses cloud infrastructure to convert audio and videofiles in multiple file formats. The conversions are done in the cloud when users upload file and then can be downloaded tothe users desktop.Internet Radio - more than 60 million people listen every week through the cloud. In moving to the Cloud, the travel website invested in an application performance management platform(CloudTweaks, 2012). The owner of the company said that “entrepreneurs can now harness the same level of processingpower and technology platforms for approximately $1,000, courtesy of low-cost cloud computing providers such as Dell, Intuitand Amazon. The game has absolutely changed in our ability to leverage technology and the ability to access terabytes atalmost zero cost by lowering the cost of entry”.
    25. 25. Traditionally, the risk to businesses has been either allocating too few hardward resources for a cost-saving initiative, thenencountering a customer satisfaction problem, or wasting money by over-provisioning.Recent survey by IDC (2012), IT managers listed their top application infrastructure objectives:-1. Reliability2. Performance;3. Ability to meet service level agreements;4. Need to reduce cost & complexity. Virtualization creates software layers that allocate and manage pooled resources like memory and storage in a way that the application never sees. Cloud computing provides virtualization principles on a large scale. In a Cloud scenario, computing resources are centralized in an on-site or remote facility and administered as a unit, usually with a virtualized foundation. Because Cloud services are built to support many customers and applications, they provide superior economies of scale, often at a low unit cost. With appropriate background support, Cloud services maintain reliability and performance within a climate of increased business uncertainty (CloudTweaks, 2012).
    26. 26. Telecommunication CLOUDHas capability to run cell phone applications and web services and to store data remotely.ITC world telecommunication estimated 640 million mobile and 490 million fixed broadband connections. In June 2011, Telstra announced it would invest more than $800 million during the next five years in response to increasing customer demand for domestically based cloud services. TELSTRA and OPTUS provide the access to appropriate infrastructure, Software, Applications and Services across Australia and have the largest communications network. Coverage to 99% of Australians and connections to the world through the Telstra Next G® network, which is fully integrated with the Telstra Next IP® network. This extends cloud services to mobile staff, customers and suppliers across Australia and the world. Customers can order virtual servers at pay-as-you-go (on demand) pricing, or via a range of subscription plans, and combine them with a broad range of additional features. Service desk support on 24/7 Scalable service- self-service portal allows administrators to create, manage and use Virtual machines, catalogues, users and groups. Designed to give customers the flexibility, agility- control to scale their IT services up and down in real time to support business requirements and fluctuations, without having to maintain their own infrastructure. Flexibility to manage their IT requirements based on a switch on, switch off basis.
    27. 27. Healthcare CLOUD The cloud infrastructure helps some of the most serious issues facing the health care industry today such as dismal quality of health care provided, shortage of drugs, equipment, trained personnel and specialist medical care in remote areas. An increase in the number of hospitals adapting e-health records and exchanging medical images and health information data between hospitals, due to Cloud services.For example:In India the cloud enabled infrastructure of the "Micro Health Centre" solution by Hewlett Packard provides accessto specialist medical consultation at affordable cost and provides support for disease surveillance by trackingdisease patterns and risk factors,such as:- Data storage and transfer to an expert centre; Video conferencing with medical experts; Medical Equipment Connectivity: Equipment with sensors; Automated reminder of vaccination and TB drug administration; Monitoring of the patient visit, doctor and medical staff attendance; Centralised health record management .Cloud computing has benefits in many contexts, and it is with an alteration in business methodology that full advantage can be realised on many levels over the long term.
    28. 28. ReferencesAustralian Government. (2011). Raft cloud computing strategy. Retrieved from, D.W. & Smith, D.M.(2012). Five cloud computing trends that will affect your cloud strategy through 2015. Gartner Research.Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from computing. (2012). What cloud computing means to you. Retrieved from Retrieved from (2012, February 8). Cloud computing start-ups raise big money: Update 8 [Web log post.] Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from puts price on VCE cloud. Retrieved from, M. A.(2007).Defining the library of the 21st century: the British Library, Searcher,15(2),p30. Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from (2012). collaborates with the AOL on Network for scalable, Cloud-based encoding. Retrieved 1stJune, 2012 from Trust. (2012). Hath trust digital library home. Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from Data Corporation.(2011).The 2011 digital universe study: extracting value from chaos. Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from Data Corporation. (2012). IT Cloud decision economics. Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from
    29. 29. Kline, V. (2007). A tale of three (federated) searches. Paper presented at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Conferences 18th January, 2007Retrieved from Australia. (2011). Retrieved from Australia. (2011).Recent statistics. Retrieved from Australia. (2011). Annual report2010/2011. Retrieved from of Congress (2010). Annual report. Retrieved from Stanley Research. (2011). Measuring Cloud Impacts: The Coming Server Squeeze .Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from, K. & Sprague, K. (2011). Getting ahead in the cloud. McKinsey & Company Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from NYL.(2012). History of the New York Public Library. Retrieved 1stMay, 2012 from Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from, A., Garrison, S. & Rodriguez, C. (2012). Planning and implementing resource discovery tools in academic libraries. IGIGlobal. Retrieved 1st May from Solution.(2012). Serials Solutions® Summon® Service Continues Its Mission of Returning Researchers to the Library. Retrieved1st May, 2012 from (2010). Cloud computing use cases white paper. Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from
    30. 30. Sosinsky,B.(2011). Cloud computing bible. Indianapolis.Ind:Wiley Publishing.Telstra. (2012). Moving to cloud. Retrieved 1st May from (2012). Retrieved 1st May from (2012). Retrieved 1st May from Gartner Group (2009). Gartner highlights five attributes of cloud computing. Retrieved 3rd April, 2012 from National Institute of Standards and Technology (2011). The NIST definition of cloud computing. NIST Special Publication 800-145, U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 3rd April, 2012 from 145/SP800-145.pdfUllman, D.F. & Haggerty, B. (2010). Embracing the cloud: six ways to look at the shift to cloud computing. Educause Quarterly Magazine, 33 (2). Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from, S. (2010). Cloud computing. Educause Quarterly Magazine, 33(2). Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from (2012). Cloud computing. Retrieved 3rd April, 2012 from Reynolds Library (2012). Finding ways to combine cloud computing and open source software. Retrieved 1st May, 2012 from