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Landfill - Basics


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Landfill - Basics

  1. 1. Presented By Debashree Dutta (Environmental Engineer) Sri Sai Manasa Nature Tech. Pvt. Ltd.
  2. 2.  Sources of Solid waste  Types of Solid waste  Solid Waste Management System  Techniques of Solid Waste Disposal  What is Landfill ?  Difference between dump and Landfill  Essential components of Landfill  Why Landfill are important ?  What happens to the waste in Landfill ?  Reactions Occurring in Landfill  Advantages and disadvantages of Landfill  Environmental Concerns, consideration and requirements  Landfill Classification, Types and Methods  Landfill Site Selection  Design Considerations Table of Contents
  3. 3.  Sources of Solid Waste
  4. 4.  Types of Solid Waste Plastic waste Agricultural waste Biomedical waste Construction waste E- waste Domestic/ Household waste Hazardous waste
  5. 5.  Functional Elements of Solid Waste Management System Waste disposal is one of the major problems being faced over the world and India is no exception.
  6. 6.  Techniques for Solid Waste Disposal Landfill Incineration Deep Sea Dumping RecycleComposting Energy
  7. 7.  An engineered site where waste is isolated from the environment below the ground or on top until it is safe and completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically. What is a Landfill..????
  8. 8.   A dump is an open hole in the ground where trash is buried and where animals often swarm. They offer no environmental protection and are not regulated. Difference between Dump and Landfill  A landfill is a carefully designed and monitored structure that isolates trash from the surrounding environment (e.g., groundwater, air, rain). This isolation is accomplished with the use of a bottom liner and daily covering of soil.
  9. 9.  Essential Components of Landfill
  10. 10.  To prevent contamination of waste into the surrounding environment, especially groundwater due to open dumping.  Some materials can not be recycled, used for energy or composted.  Increasing population resulting in increase in waste Why Landfills are important..????
  11. 11.  Designed to bury waste in layers of soil  Compacting the layers to reduce volume  Slowdown of waste decomposition with minimal amounts of oxygen and moisture  Finally covering them with soil each day so as to minimize human health and environmental problems.  And for careful filling, monitoring and maintenance while they are active and for up to 30 years after they are closed What happens to the waste in Landfill…???
  12. 12.   Biological – Aerobic and Anaerobic Decomposition  Chemical – Dissolution, Evaporation, Adsorption, Decomposition, Oxidation, Reduction  Physical – Movement and settlement of leachate and gas Reactions Occurring in Landfill
  13. 13.  Burying can produce energy by the conversion of landfill gas i.e. methane & CO2  Landfill byproducts can be used as direct/ indirect fuel for combustion.  Easy Monitoring due to specific location  Can be reclaimed and it can be used as parks or farming land.  All recyclable materials can be used before closing.  Organic material can also be separated and used for compost or production of natural gas.  Relatively Cheap Advantages of Landfilling
  14. 14.  Problems faced when poorly designed or operated.  Areas surrounding the landfills become heavily polluted.  Dangerous chemicals can seep into the ground water system.  Many insects and rodents are attracted to landfills and can result in dangerous diseases. Disadvantages of Landfilling
  15. 15. Concerns  Availability of Land  Uncontrolled release of gases  Uncontrolled release of leachate  Disease vectors breeding  Ground water contamination  Bird Menace  Odour Environmental Concerns, Requirements Requirements  ONLY for non-biodegradable, inert waste and other waste that are not suitable either for recycling or for biological processing  Residues of waste processing facilities  Avoid landfilling mixed waste
  16. 16.  Environmental Consideration Considerations  Good Compaction of cover material Good house keeping Daily covering of SW Proper control of vectors (flies, fires and rodents)  Accidental Fires Extinguished immediately using earth, water or chemicals Ventilation or recovery of methane  Cover quickly and carefully Sealing any cracks that may develop in cover  Liner quality  Sinkage
  17. 17.  Sanitary Landfills - landfill that uses a clay liner to isolate the trash from the environment  Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills - uses a synthetic (plastic) liner to isolate the trash from the environment  Construction and demolition waste landfills - consist of the debris generated during the construction, renovation, and demolition of buildings, roads, and bridges.  Industrial Waste Landfills- consists of nonhazardous waste associated with manufacturing and other industrial activities  Secure Landfills - landfills for the disposal of hazardous waste. Landfill Classification, Types and Methods
  18. 18. Classification  Class I – for solid Hazardous waste only  Class II – for solid non – hazardous waste only  Class III - for inert waste only  LF for commingled MSW  LF for shredded SW  LF for individual waste constitutes/monofills (designated waste) Landfill Classification, Types and Methods
  19. 19. Other types of LF LF designated to maximize gas production LF as integrated treatment units Methods Area Method Trench Method Slope Method Depression Method Ramp Method Landfill Classification, Types and Methods
  20. 20.  Area Method (Above Ground level) • Used on flat ground or terrain is unsuitable for the excavation of trenches. • Before actual land filling, an earthen levee is constructed against which wastes are placed in thin layers and compacted. • Thickness of layer reaches a height of 200 to 300 cm. • Cover material of 15 to 30 cm thickness is placed after each layer. • A completed lift including the cover is called a cell. • This method is used to dispose of large amounts of solid waste.
  21. 21.  Trench Method (Below Ground Level) • Used where adequate cover material is available at site and the water table is well below the surface. • Waste are placed in trench and compacted in thin layers. • After layer’s compacted height reaches design height, cover material is placed over the compacted layer. • Same trench is then continued and filled similarly. • Good in areas where there is relatively little • Waste.
  22. 22.  Depression/Valley Method Used where natural or artificial depressions exist and these are used for land filling. Depends on the geometry of the site, hydrology and geology of the site, and access to site. The normal practice is to place such that water does not accumulate behind the landfill.
  23. 23.  Slope Method • In hilly regions it is usually not possible to find flat ground for land filling. • Waste is placed along the sides of existing hill slope. • Control of inflowing water from hill side slopes is a critical factor in design of such landfills.
  24. 24.  Ramp Method • Used in the case of flat or slightly undulating areas. • Modification of both the area and the trench method and utilizes certain technique of both
  25. 25. Potential landfill site is selected on the basis of  Responsibility of Development Authorities to identify the landfill sites and hand over the sites to the concerned municipal authority for development, operation and maintenance.  Near by waste processing facility.  Soil Conditions and topography  Surface water Hydrology  Large enough to last for 20-25 years.  A buffer zone of no-development shall be maintained around landfill site.  Temporary storage facility for solid waste shall be established in each landfill site. Criteria for Site Selection
  26. 26.  Typical Restrictions to be observed during siting Place Distance Parameters Lake or pond • Max distance 200 m • Water monitoring system should be installed if a landfill is sited less than 200 m of a lake or pond. • Sites falling within wetlands are avoided. River • Max distance 100 m • The distance may be reduced in some instance for non-meandering rivers but a minimum of 30 m should be maintained. Flood plain • No landfill should be constructed within a 100 year-flood plain. Highway • Max distance 200 m Habitation • Max distance 200 m of a notified habituated area. • Sites falling within forest areas and national parks are avoided • A distance of 100 m must maintained from the residential areas. Public parks • Max distance 200 m Ground water table • No landfill should be constructed in areas where water table is less than 2 m below ground surface. Airport • A distance of 20 km from nearby airport must be maintained. • Can set up between 10 km – 20 km by obtaining NOC from the civil aviation authority/ Air force
  27. 27.  Place Distance Parameters Water Supply Well • Max Distance 200 m • Locational restriction be abided by at least for down gradient wells. • Permission from the regulatory agency may be needed if a landfill is to be sited within the restricted area Coastal Regulation Zone: • A landfill should not be sited in a coastal regulation zone Unstable Zone • A landfill should not be located in potentially unstable zones such as landslide prone areas, fault zone etc Source : Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 Published In the Gazette of India, Part-II, Section-3, Sub-section (i) Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change New Delhi, the 8th April, 2016
  28. 28. Final Selection of site  Results of preliminary surveys  Results of engineering design  Results of cost analysis  Results of EIA studies  Geological and seismic investigation Criteria for Site Selection
  29. 29.  Infrastructural Facilities  Landfill Capacity and Life  Development of Operational Plan  Bottom and side Liner System  Cover System  Leachate Collection and Management  Gas Collection and Management  Surface Water Drainage  Slope Stability  Closure Plan  Environmental Quality Monitoring  Post Closure Maintenance Design Consideration of Landfill Site
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