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  1. 1. www.a2zmba.com
  2. 2. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT A Definition <ul><li>TQM is an integrated organizational approach in delighting customers (both external and internal) by meeting their expectations on a continuous basis through everyone involved with the organizational working on continuous improvement in all products/processes along with proper problem solving methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>“ TO DELIVER HIGHEST VALUE AT LOWEST COST” </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  3. 3. Key contributors to quality management <ul><li>Q : Quest for excellence </li></ul><ul><li>U : Understanding customer’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>A : action to achieve customer’s appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>L : Leadership- determination to be a leader </li></ul><ul><li>I : Involving all people </li></ul><ul><li>T : Team spirit to work for a common goal and </li></ul><ul><li>Y : Yardstick to measure progress. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com contributor Key contributions <ul><li>DEMMING </li></ul><ul><li>JURAN </li></ul><ul><li>FEIGENBAUM </li></ul><ul><li>CROSBY </li></ul><ul><li>ISHIKAWA </li></ul><ul><li>TAGUCHI </li></ul>14 Points, special versus common cause of variation. Quality is fitness-for-use , quality trilogy. Quality is a total field, the customer defines quality. Quality is free , zero defects. Cause and Effect diagrams and quality circles Taguchi loss function.
  4. 4. MEANING OF QUALITY www.a2zmba.com Fitness for Consumer Use Producer’s Perspective Consumer’s Perspective Quality of Conformance <ul><li>Conformance to specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>Quality of Design <ul><li>Quality characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul>Marketing Production Meaning of Quality
  5. 5. Elements of TQM Concept www.a2zmba.com Continuous improvement Customer focus Prevention Of defects Universal responsibility For quality TQM
  6. 6. Deming Wheel: PDCA Cycle www.a2zmba.com 1. Plan Identify problem and develop plan for improvement. 2. Do Implement plan on a test basis. 3. Study/Check Assess plan; is it working? 4. Act Institutionalize improvement; continue cycle.
  7. 7. TQM TOOLS <ul><li>a) Tools for Generating Ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check Sheet, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scatter Diagram, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect Diagram, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b) Tools to Organize the Data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pareto Charts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow Charts (Process Diagram), and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c) Tools for Identifying Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Histogram, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Process Control Chart </li></ul></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  8. 8. TQM tools <ul><li>Scatter diagram: Its used to determine whether a relationship exists between two variables </li></ul><ul><li>Flow chart/ process map: </li></ul><ul><li>These diagram show the flow of the process and services. </li></ul><ul><li>It answers the question “Who is the next Customer?” </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement can be accomplished by changing,reducing,combination, or eliminating steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized symbols are used by industrial engineers. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  9. 9. TQM tools continued.. <ul><li>3. Histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies . </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cause and effect diagram/fishbone diagram: It was originated by Kaoru Ishikawa. </li></ul><ul><li>It is simply a tree or hierarchy, showing how causes have causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Its main use is to discover potential causes of unwanted problems. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  10. 10. TQM tools continued.. <ul><li>5. Pareto chart: “ Vital few Trivial Many ” </li></ul><ul><li>It was first evolved by Italian Economist Vilfredo Pareto. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a technique of ordering causes to problems from the most to the least significant. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Stratification: It is a technique used to divide data into sub category or classification to provide useful insight into the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Control charts: They are on line process control and is a type of run chart used for studying process performance over time in order to understand and reduce variation. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  11. 11. Costs of Quality <ul><li>PREVENTION COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>APPRAISAL COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL FAILURE COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL FAILURE COSTS </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  12. 12. TQM benefits <ul><li>Image of organization improves. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter lead time in design, manufacturing, procurement service etc., </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality cost % to turnover reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower manufacturing cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in deviation. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Drastic reduction in defectives and number of defects. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  13. 13. TQM GURUS <ul><li>Edward </li></ul><ul><li>Deming </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph M. Juran </li></ul><ul><li>Walter A. </li></ul><ul><li>Stewart </li></ul><ul><li>Armand V.Feigenbaum </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com Karou Ishikawa
  14. 14. Edward Deming’s <ul><li>14 PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Create Constancy of purpose for continual improvement of product and service. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the acceptable levels of poor quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Cease dependence on Inspection to achieve quality. </li></ul><ul><li>End the Practice of awarding Business on Price tag alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve constantly and for ever the system of production and service. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  15. 15. 14 PRINCIPLES Continued: <ul><li>6. Institute training on the job </li></ul><ul><li>7. Adopt and Institute modern methods of supervision and Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>8. Drive out fear </li></ul><ul><li>9. Break down barriers between departments and individuals </li></ul><ul><li>10. Eliminate the use of slogans, posters and exhortations </li></ul><ul><li>11. Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  16. 16. 14 PRINCIPLES Continued: <ul><li>12. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of the right to pride in workmanship </li></ul><ul><li>13. Institute a vigorous program of education of and retraining </li></ul><ul><li>14. Define top management’s permanent commitment top ever improving quality and productivity. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  17. 17. CROSBY’S FOURTEEN STEPS TO QUALITY IMPROVEMNET <ul><li>Management Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>The quality improvement Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of quality </li></ul><ul><li>Quality awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective Action </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Defect planning </li></ul><ul><li>Employee education </li></ul><ul><li>Zero defects day </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  18. 18. CROSBY’S FOURTEEN STEPS TO QUALITY IMPROVEMENT Contd . <ul><li>Goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Error cause removal </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Quality council </li></ul><ul><li>Do it all over again </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  19. 19. ELEMENTS OF TQM <ul><li>Top management commitment and involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Customer involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Design products for quality </li></ul><ul><li>Design production processes for quality </li></ul><ul><li>Developing supplier partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service, distribution, and installation </li></ul><ul><li>Building teams of empowered employees </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking and continuous improvement </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  20. 20. QUALITY MANAGEMENT RECOGNITION <ul><li>Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award </li></ul><ul><li>Deming Prize </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9000 </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  21. 21. APPLYING TQM TO B-SCHOOL <ul><li>Synergistic relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement and self-evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>A system of ongoing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  22. 22. TQM @ S.R.N ADARSH COLLEGE <ul><li>Established in 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Started their PG Courses in 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>They offer courses like MBA and PGDBM. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an ISO 9001: 2000 certified college. </li></ul><ul><li>They have applied for NAAC accreditation. </li></ul><ul><li>They have also started Adarsh Business School. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  23. 23. Quality objectives :- <ul><li>Providing modern courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the existing amenities. </li></ul><ul><li>To upgrade the skills of teaching staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Invite specialists in various fields and organize </li></ul><ul><li>seminars and lectures to provide additional knowledge to the students. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve good results in both UG and PG course at the university level examinations. </li></ul><ul><li>To develop library as one of the best information resource centers. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  24. 24. Quality management strategy <ul><li>Quality manual </li></ul><ul><li>i) Quality systems manual. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Quality procedure manual. </li></ul><ul><li>Apex meetings once in every 4 months to review the quality manual. </li></ul><ul><li>Both internal as well as external audit. </li></ul><ul><li>They hold at least 1 National conference every year. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  25. 25. Contd… <ul><li>They have recorded 100% pass percentage in PG courses. </li></ul><ul><li>They have formed 9 sub-committees to look into the quality maintenance cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Books and research papers have been often published by the management. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  26. 26. Areas for improvement <ul><li>All departments and process should be computerized by implementing ERP systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The placement cell should improve its efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>The college should provide good infrastructure to facilitate the students. </li></ul><ul><li>The feedback forms from the students as well as the faculty should be considered seriously. </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars and guest lectures should be conducted on a regular basis. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  27. 27. SYNERGISTIC RELATIONSHIPS <ul><li>Teachers are the suppliers and students are the customers in management institution </li></ul><ul><li>Good relationship between suppliers and customer </li></ul><ul><li>Talent and experience is used for the efficient performance and production. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and schools- learn and communicate in quality ways </li></ul><ul><li>Invest to maximize the growth opportunities </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  28. 28. LEADERSHIP <ul><li>The success of TQM is the responsibility of top management. </li></ul><ul><li>The context should be such that students can best achieve their potential through the continuous improvement that results from teachers and students working together. </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  29. 29. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT AND SELF-EVALUATION <ul><li>Everyone in the organization must be dedicated to continuous improvement, personally and collectively . </li></ul><ul><li>Within a Total Quality school setting, administrators work collaboratively with their customers . </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  30. 30. A SYSTEM OF ONGOING PROCESS <ul><li>Must be viewed as a system, and the work people do within the system must be seen as ongoing processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality speaks to working on the system, which must be examined to identify and eliminate the flawed processes that allow its participants to fail </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  31. 31. A QUALITY B-SCHOOL <ul><li>A well established system </li></ul><ul><li>Good administrative setup </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty with experience and industrial exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management and practical application </li></ul><ul><li>Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>students </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com
  32. 32. ADVANTAGES OF APPLIYING TQM IN EDUCATION <ul><li>Great relationship between teachers and students </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent placement opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive and continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances relationship between management and faculty </li></ul><ul><li>World class management school </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge based education </li></ul>www.a2zmba.com