Fms arun.k and santhosh.k


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Fms arun.k and santhosh.k

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Flexibility <ul><li>The capability of the manufacturing system to adapt successfully to changing environmental conditions and process requirements. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of FMS <ul><li>A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is an arrangement of machines.... interconnected by a transport system. The transporter carries work to the machines on pallets or other interface units so that work-machine registration is accurate, rapid and automatic. A central computer controls both machines and transport system... </li></ul><ul><li>It is a computer controlled process technology suitable for producing a moderate variety of products in moderate volumes. </li></ul>
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Characteristics of an FMS <ul><li>All products are variations of a stable basic design. </li></ul><ul><li>All products utilize the same family of components. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of components is only moderate. </li></ul><ul><li>The volume of each component is moderate. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Requirements for FMS with Automation <ul><li>Machine Attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Design (CAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics and Robots </li></ul><ul><li>Group Technology </li></ul><ul><li>N/C Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Quality Control Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Assembly Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Process Control </li></ul>
  7. 7. Machine Attachments <ul><li>Attachments or inexpensive add-ons to machines that reduce human effort and time required to perform operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Magazine feed attachments, quick cutting and grasping devices for lathes, strip feeders for stamping machines etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Numerically Controlled (N/C) Machines <ul><li>Machines with control systems that read instructions and translate them into machine operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Lathes, boring mills, curing machines, weaving machines etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Robotics <ul><li>Robot is a programmable machine that is capable of moving materials and performing routine, repetitive tasks which have manipulators and possess human like physiological characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics is the science of selecting Robots to various applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Machines that weld, paint, assemble, inspect for quality, grasp, transport and store. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Automated QC Inspection <ul><li>Automated machines that perform part or all of the inspection process. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Electronic circuit checks, computer driven function checks, weighting robots, flexible inspection etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) <ul><li>Technologies used in automatic acquisition of product data for entry into a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Bar-Coding systems, inventory counting, data entry for shop floor control etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Automated Process Controls <ul><li>Computer Systems that receive data on the production process and send adjustments to process settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Control Systems for rolling mills in manufacturing etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CAD/CAM <ul><li>Computer Aided Design are the Computer software programs that allow a designer to carry out geometric transformations rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) are the Manufacturing systems utilizing computer software programs that control the actual machine on the shop floor. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems <ul><li>ASRS are the systems meant for receiving orders for materials from anywhere in operations, collecting materials from locations within a warehouse and delivering the materials to work stations in operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Three major elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer and communication Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Material handling and Delivery Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage and Retrieval Systems in warehouse </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Computer Integrated Manufacturing <ul><li>Computer Information Systems utilizing a shared manufacturing database for engineering design, manufacturing engineering, factory production, and information management. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Group Technology <ul><li>A way of organizing and using data for components that have similar properties and manufacturing requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>GT results in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced item handling and movement times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Change over times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced idle wait time of items at the machine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced work in process. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Advantages <ul><li>Increased output and enhanced productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved and uniform quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer accidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Better production control. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost Prerogatives gained. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous and unpleasant tasks. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Advantages Contd… <ul><li>Reduced Inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Greater operating flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced lead time and scrap </li></ul><ul><li>Improved reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Design freedom </li></ul>
  19. 19. Disadvantages <ul><li>Heavy capital investment </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit of employee suggestion lost </li></ul><ul><li>Tighter specification may be needed </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of supply failure increases </li></ul><ul><li>Slack season would be disastrous </li></ul><ul><li>Dehumanization </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of developing countries </li></ul>
  20. 20. Flexibility Without Automation <ul><li>It is usually referred to as “attaining the effect of automation </li></ul><ul><li>without the expense” </li></ul><ul><li>Preautomation </li></ul><ul><li>Modular Design </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization </li></ul>
  21. 21. Preautomation <ul><li>This attacks one of the Shingo’s 7 wastes, the waste of processing itself. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes no sense in automating a stage of production process when that stage adds no value to the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Preautomation studies reveal unneeded equipment and activities that can be eliminated rather than automated. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Modular Design: </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of products from some combination of basic, preexisting subsystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization: </li></ul><ul><li>Use of uniform standardized components in the products. Eg: screws, spark plugs, nuts & bolts etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Industrial Examples <ul><li>The General Motors Fairfax plant in Kansas city, Missouri, produces Pontiac Grand Prixs. </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier, for producing cars with different colours it took time for shutting down the painting area so that it could be cleared of dust and scrubbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Today GM has reduced the production line delays by using Technologies such as airtight chambers and high powdered vacuum suctions. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Industrial Examples Contd… <ul><li>General Motors, in a joint venture with Toyota at the NUMMI (New United Motors Manufacturing Inc.) plant outside San Francisco. </li></ul><ul><li>NUMMI has installed a new press line with Exchange of die techniques like IED, OED, SMED and OTED. </li></ul><ul><li>It has reduced the time taken for die exchange from hours/days to minutes. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>Factories of the future will have stress on high product quality, greater emphasis on flexibility, fast delivery of customer orders, extensive use of CAD/CAM for product design, structural changes etc. </li></ul><ul><li>To fulfill all these requirements Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) has to play a very important role… </li></ul>