Roseveare recognising non formal and informal learning policy considerations for japan

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Roseveare recognising non formal and informal learning policy considerations for japan

  1. 1. Recognising non-formal and informal learning Policy considerations for Japan Deborah Roseveare OECD 6 March 2011
  2. 2. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 2
  3. 3. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 3
  4. 4. Key principlesFormal learning• learning through a programme of instruction in: – An educational institution – Adult training centre – Workplace learning centre that usually results in a qualification of certificate 4
  5. 5. Key principlesNon-formal learning• Learning through a programme that is not usually evaluated and does not lead to a qualification of certificateInformal learning• Learning resulting from daily work-related, family or leisure activities 5
  6. 6. Key principles• RNFIL is a competence-based approach. Competence means being able to do something to a defined standard• RNFIL focuses on what a person can do not how they learnt to do it• RNFIL provides independent verification of what a person can do 6
  7. 7. Key principles• RNFIL is concerned with practice, not theory (or with practice in applying theory)• Someone may know the theory of electricity but can they change a light bulb safely? 7
  8. 8. Key principles• RNFIL is not concerned with how competency is acquiredChef A learns to cook at a cooking schoolChef B learns to cook from his or her motherAll that matters to the diners is whether the chef can cook! 8
  9. 9. Key principles• RNFIL is concerned with verifying what people can do – Assessing competencies – Providing a valid certification of competencies 9
  10. 10. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 10
  11. 11. Benefits• RNFIL generates economic benefits – It reduces the direct and the opportunity cost of formal learning by allowing people to: • progress more rapidly through education • avoid wasting time on courses already mastered • move more easily across education pathways – It encourages people to learn in most cost-effective ways – It makes it easier for employers to see what job applicants are able to do and help workers to show what they can do – It can facilitate structural adjustment and better job/skill matching, especially for displaced workers 11
  12. 12. Benefits• RNFIL generates educational benefits – It makes learning more visible – It assists people in identifying current strengths and weaknesses and valuing what they can already do – It fosters individual responsibility for career development and progression by encouraging people to gain competencies through experience – It makes it more attractive to firms and individuals to invest in training – It underpins lifelong learning 12
  13. 13. Benefits• RNFIL generates social benefits – It improves equity and strengthens access to: • further education • the labour market – It can be especially relevant for: • disadvantaged groups (e.g. minorities, immigrants) • disaffected youth • older workers (who usually have a lot of experience but also fewer formal qualifications than younger workers) 13
  14. 14. Benefits• RNFIL generates psychological benefits – It improves well-being by: • making individuals aware of their capabilities • validating their worth • boosting their self-confidence 14
  15. 15. Benefits• To deliver these benefits, RNFIL processes must be well- designed and implemented properly• Benefits only realised if society accepts RNFIL certifications• RNFIL generates benefits but also has costs – need careful assessment of benefits and costs and comparison with formal education alternatives – focus on competencies with high labour market value – ensure procedures do not produce misleading information about competencies 15
  16. 16. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 16
  17. 17. Key elements for success• Embed RNFIL policies within broader economic strategy and policy framework: – integrate with lifelong learning policies – encourage emphasis on learning outcomes and competencies across all education settings – integrate with labour market policy settings 17
  18. 18. Key elements for success• Clarify main purpose(s) and priorities of RNFIL system – improving access to further formal education – better matching of people and jobs in the labour market – assisting specific groups• Identify which instruments are appropriate for which purpose, e.g. – general competency assessment – specific competencies that can be recognised – alternative route to obtaining national qualifications 18
  19. 19. Key elements for success• Supporting national qualifications framework (NQF) – National qualifications frameworks are designed to: • facilitate progression through education and training • provide horizontal equivalence • provide information to labour market participants (employers and employees) – Ideally would specify competencies for qualifications but often input based (e.g. number of class hours) – Importance depends on labour market arrangements – NQFs can improve transparency about qualifications, but it depends on good design and implementation 19
  20. 20. Key elements for success• Improve information about RNFIL so that: – Individuals know that the option is available – Employers and society understand the competency principles that underpin RNFIL – information about qualifications that can be obtained by RNFIL is easy to find• Provide information through services dealing with those most likely to benefit (job seekers, career guidance, counselling services, etc.) 20
  21. 21. Key elements for success• Develop high quality, robust assessment systems that are: – valid – transparent – consistent• Use appropriate techniques for assessing competencies• Develop rigorous quality assurance of assessment centres• Use competent evaluators, well-trained in: – assessment design and development – carrying out assessments 21
  22. 22. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 22
  23. 23. Current challenges in Japan• Demographics - shrinking, ageing population• Women’s labour market participation relatively low• Slow growth, intensified global competition and downsizing of some industries• Segmented labour markets and rising share of non-regular workers. Non-regular workers: – receive less firm-based training – significant wage gap – precarious employment – less social safety net coverage 23
  24. 24. Current challenges in Japan Profile of workers 2007 % Regular Non- regular Age Under 30 15.0 16.8 30 to 59 82.1 66.7 Over 60 2.9 16.4 Gender Male 76.3 23.7 Female 42.2 57.8 Education Middle school 3.5 7.8 High school 39.7 57.3 University 36.7 11.8Source: MHLW General Survey of Diversified Types of Employment 2007 24
  25. 25. Current challenges in Japan Profile of workers 2007 % Regular Non- regularBy size of company 5 to 29 62.3 37.7(number employees) 30 to 999 61.8 38.2 More than 1 000 74.2 25.8Tenure Less than 1 year 3.9 21.5 1 to 10 years 45.8 65.5 More than 10 years 49.4 13.0Source: MHLW General Survey of Diversified Types of Employment 2007 25
  26. 26. Current challenges in Japan Reasons firms hire non-regular workers 2007 % of respondents Part- Dispatch Temp (multiple responses possible) timeReduce wage costs 41.1 18.8 28.3Cut non-wage costs 21.3 16.6 8.1Cope with daily or weekly fluctuations in demand 37.2 13.1 4.5Hire work-ready and experienced workers 11.6 35.2 38.3Work on skilled tasks 12.7 20.2 43.6Difficulty in finding regular workers 17.6 26.0 18.2Facilitate adjustment to business fluctuations 18.0 25.7 15.6Cope with long business hours 21.7 3.4 6.4Re-employ older workers 7.9 2.6 11.0Specialise regular workers in key tasks 15.3 20.4 10.6Source: MHLW General Survey of Diversified Types of Employment 2007 26
  27. 27. Current challenges in Japan Reasons workers choose non-regular employment 2007 % of respondents Part- Dispatch Temp (multiple responses possible) timeWork at convenient times 55.9 17.7 13.5Support family budget 42.4 16.1 18.5Balance family and other activities 32.0 15.9 11.3Reduce commuting time 19.2 8.8 9.3Obtain discretionary money 22.7 17.4 13.5Cannot find regular employment 12.2 37.3 31.5Reduce working time 19.2 8.8 9.3Make use of professional qualifications and skills 9.0 18.5 37.0Work on easy and less responsible tasks 8.6 12.4 6.2Avoid being tied down by the company 5.8 12.3 7.0Easy to adjust hours and earnings 7.1 1.6 2.1 Source: MHLW General Survey of Diversified Types of Employment 2007 27
  28. 28. Current challenges in Japan• Around 10% make transition from non-regular to regular work More likely Less likely • Temp, dispatched workers • Part-time workers • Younger workers • Older workers (over 40) • Short spell as non-regular • Long spell as non-regular • University education • Middle school education • Health, education sectors • Manufacturing • Public sector • Private sector Source: Genda Y. (2010), No dignity for Humans – The 2000s Labour Market, Minerva Publishing Kyoto. 28
  29. 29. Current challenges in Japan Labour force participation and share of non-regular workers by age and genderSource: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Labour Force Survey, and LabourForce Survey (Detailed Tabulation) in OECD (2011) Economic Survey Japan, forthcoming 29
  30. 30. Outline1. Key principles2. Benefits of recognising learning3. Key elements for successful RNFIL systems4. Current challenges in Japan5. Policy options 30
  31. 31. Policy optionsQualifications• Develop a national qualifications system – especially for vocational education and other job-relevant competencies• Design national qualifications system with full involvement of employers and employee representatives to strengthen relevance, credibility and acceptance• Anchor RNFIL within the national qualifications system• Develop assessment procedures for awarding national qualifications through recognition 31
  32. 32. Policy optionsJob Card system• Expand the Job Card tool to include independent assessment of competencies• Expand access to Job Card system to cover a wider range of individuals and not only as a tool for job-seekers 32
  33. 33. Assessment, evaluation and quality assurance• Strengthen capacities to assess and evaluate competencies, – develop well-designed, valid, transparent and reliable instruments – train sufficient evaluators to match demand• Provide quality assurance mechanisms to underpin assessment and evaluation processes and strengthen credibility 33
  34. 34. Thank you!www.oecd.org/edu/recognitiondeborah.roseveare@oecd.org 34

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