1142 familiarization

2,457 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,457
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

1142 familiarization

  1. 1. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR1 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 FAMILIARIZATIONFAMILIARIZATION
  2. 2. TERMINAL PERFORMANCETERMINAL PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVEOBJECTIVE The student shall determine the minimumThe student shall determine the minimum water supply necessary to conduct live firewater supply necessary to conduct live fire training evolutions in an acquiredtraining evolutions in an acquired structure or training center burn building,structure or training center burn building, according toaccording to NFPA 1142, Standard onNFPA 1142, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural FireWater Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting.Fighting.
  3. 3. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR3 ENABLING OBJECTIVESENABLING OBJECTIVES Identify & describe the purpose of NFPA 1142.Identify & describe the purpose of NFPA 1142. Identify & describe the occupancy hazardIdentify & describe the occupancy hazard classifications found in NFPA 1142.classifications found in NFPA 1142. Identify & describe the constructionIdentify & describe the construction classification numbers found in NFPA 1142.classification numbers found in NFPA 1142. Determine minimum water supplyDetermine minimum water supply requirements, including a 50% reserve, forrequirements, including a 50% reserve, for conducting live fire training evolutions in aconducting live fire training evolutions in a structure.structure.
  4. 4. PURPOSE OF NFPA 1142PURPOSE OF NFPA 1142 NFPA 1142, Standard on WaterNFPA 1142, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and RuralSupplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting contains formulae forFire Fighting contains formulae for determining the minimum amountdetermining the minimum amount of water that must be available onof water that must be available on site when conducting structure firesite when conducting structure fire control training.control training.
  5. 5. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR5 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 WATER SUPPLYWATER SUPPLY  Instructor-in-charge shall ensure that:Instructor-in-charge shall ensure that: the onsite water meets the required orthe onsite water meets the required or needed water supply for the given structureneeded water supply for the given structure water supply meets requirements of NFPAwater supply meets requirements of NFPA 11421142 a minimum reserve of water be available fora minimum reserve of water be available for each evolutioneach evolution attack lines and backup line are feed fromattack lines and backup line are feed from separate water sourcesseparate water sources
  6. 6. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR6 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 WATER SUPPLYWATER SUPPLY  Understanding NFPA 1142 and how itUnderstanding NFPA 1142 and how it works with NFPA 1403works with NFPA 1403 What information do you need to gather toWhat information do you need to gather to determine the needed water for thedetermine the needed water for the structure?structure? Occupancy Hazard ClassificationOccupancy Hazard Classification Construction ClassificationConstruction Classification Structural DimensionsStructural Dimensions ExposuresExposures
  7. 7. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR7 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSESOCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSES  OHC 3OHC 3 Considered Severe Hazard OccupanciesConsidered Severe Hazard Occupancies These structures shall be considered anThese structures shall be considered an exposure no mater what there sizeexposure no mater what there size Includes the following occupancy types:Includes the following occupancy types: Cereal millsCereal mills Explosives manufacturing/storageExplosives manufacturing/storage Saw millsSaw mills Plastic processing facilitiesPlastic processing facilities
  8. 8. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR8 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSESOCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSES  OHC 4OHC 4 Considered High Hazard OccupanciesConsidered High Hazard Occupancies These structures shall be considered anThese structures shall be considered an exposure no mater what there sizeexposure no mater what there size Includes the following occupancy types:Includes the following occupancy types: Commercial barns and stablesCommercial barns and stables Building materials supply storageBuilding materials supply storage Department storesDepartment stores TheatersTheaters
  9. 9. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR9 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSESOCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSES  OHC 5OHC 5 Considered Moderate Hazard OccupanciesConsidered Moderate Hazard Occupancies The quantity and combustibility of contentsThe quantity and combustibility of contents develop at moderate rates.develop at moderate rates. Includes the following occupancy types:Includes the following occupancy types: Clothing manufacturingClothing manufacturing Libraries with large stock roomsLibraries with large stock rooms LaundriesLaundries Tobacco barnsTobacco barns RestaurantsRestaurants
  10. 10. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR10 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSESOCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSES  OHC 6OHC 6 Considered Low Hazard OccupanciesConsidered Low Hazard Occupancies The quantity and combustibility of contentsThe quantity and combustibility of contents develop at low ratesdevelop at low rates Includes the following occupancy types:Includes the following occupancy types: ChurchesChurches Municipal buildingsMunicipal buildings Service stationsService stations
  11. 11. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR11 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSESOCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSES  OHC 7OHC 7 Considered Light Hazard OccupanciesConsidered Light Hazard Occupancies The Quantity and Combustibility ofThe Quantity and Combustibility of contents develop at light ratescontents develop at light rates Includes the following occupancy types:Includes the following occupancy types: ApartmentsApartments DormitoriesDormitories HotelsHotels SchoolsSchools Private dwellingPrivate dwelling
  12. 12. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR12 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONCONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION  Construction Class 0.5Construction Class 0.5 This classification is closely related to NFPAThis classification is closely related to NFPA Type I ConstructionType I Construction Type I DefinedType I Defined Structural members include walls, columns,Structural members include walls, columns, girders, trusses, arches, floor, and roofs that aregirders, trusses, arches, floor, and roofs that are made of approved non-combustible or limitedmade of approved non-combustible or limited combustible materialscombustible materials
  13. 13. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR13 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONCONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION  Construction Class 0.5Construction Class 0.5 Each component has a fire rating that it mustEach component has a fire rating that it must meet:meet: Exterior Bearing Walls – 4 hour ratingExterior Bearing Walls – 4 hour rating Interior Bearing Walls – 3 to 4 hour ratingInterior Bearing Walls – 3 to 4 hour rating Beams, Girders, trusses, and Arches – 3 to 4 hourBeams, Girders, trusses, and Arches – 3 to 4 hour ratingrating Floors – 3 hour ratingFloors – 3 hour rating Roofs – 2 hour ratingRoofs – 2 hour rating
  14. 14. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR14 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONCONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION  Construction Class 0.75Construction Class 0.75 This classification is closely related to NFPAThis classification is closely related to NFPA Type II and IV (Heavy Timber) ConstructionType II and IV (Heavy Timber) Construction Type II DefinedType II Defined Structural members include walls, columns,Structural members include walls, columns, girders, trusses, arches, floor, and roofs that aregirders, trusses, arches, floor, and roofs that are made of approved non-combustible or limitedmade of approved non-combustible or limited combustible materials and shall not have a firecombustible materials and shall not have a fire resistive rating less than those specified in NFPAresistive rating less than those specified in NFPA 1142 table 6.2.21142 table 6.2.2
  15. 15. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR15 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONCONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION  Construction Class 0.75Construction Class 0.75 Type IV DefinedType IV Defined This construction is considered to beThis construction is considered to be construction in which the exterior and interiorconstruction in which the exterior and interior walls and structural members are portions ofwalls and structural members are portions of such walls that are approved non-combustible orsuch walls that are approved non-combustible or limited combustible materials. Other interiorlimited combustible materials. Other interior structural members, including columns, beams,structural members, including columns, beams, girders, trusses, arches, floors, and roofs shall begirders, trusses, arches, floors, and roofs shall be of solid or laminated wood with out concealedof solid or laminated wood with out concealed spaces.spaces.
  16. 16. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR16 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONCONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION  Construction Class 0.75Construction Class 0.75 Each Type IV component has a minimumEach Type IV component has a minimum dimension size that it must meet:dimension size that it must meet: Floor columns not less than 8” all dimensionsFloor columns not less than 8” all dimensions Roof columns not less than 6” by 8”Roof columns not less than 6” by 8” Floor beams not less than 6” by 10”Floor beams not less than 6” by 10” Roof beams not less than 4” by 6”Roof beams not less than 4” by 6”
  17. 17. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR17 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONCONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION  Construction Class 1.0Construction Class 1.0 This classification is closely related to NFPAThis classification is closely related to NFPA Type III (Ordinary) ConstructionType III (Ordinary) Construction Type III DefinedType III Defined Construction that is considered to be the typeConstruction that is considered to be the type that the exterior walls and structural members arethat the exterior walls and structural members are of approved non-combustible or limitedof approved non-combustible or limited combustible materials and interior structuralcombustible materials and interior structural members are entirely or partially of wood ofmembers are entirely or partially of wood of smaller dimensions than required for Type IVsmaller dimensions than required for Type IV constructionconstruction
  18. 18. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR18 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONCONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION  Construction Class 1.5Construction Class 1.5 This classification is closely related to NFPAThis classification is closely related to NFPA Type V ConstructionType V Construction Type V DefinedType V Defined Construction that is considered to be the typeConstruction that is considered to be the type that the exterior walls and structural members arethat the exterior walls and structural members are made of wood or other approved combustiblemade of wood or other approved combustible material smaller than the requirements for Typematerial smaller than the requirements for Type IV constructionIV construction
  19. 19. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR19 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY  To determine the water supply you haveTo determine the water supply you have to gather the following information:to gather the following information: Structural Survey (Total Volume)Structural Survey (Total Volume) Construction Class NumberConstruction Class Number Occupancy Hazard ClassOccupancy Hazard Class ExposuresExposures This will bite you really bad, especially if youThis will bite you really bad, especially if you burn down the neighbors barnburn down the neighbors barn
  20. 20. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR20 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHOUTWITHOUT EXPOSURESEXPOSURES  Total Cubic feet divided by the OHCTotal Cubic feet divided by the OHC  Multiply this by the CCNMultiply this by the CCN  Then multiply that number by 1.5 for theThen multiply that number by 1.5 for the NFPA 1403 required fifty percent reserveNFPA 1403 required fifty percent reserve  This will give you the Minimum water inThis will give you the Minimum water in gallons needed for the structure.gallons needed for the structure.  There will be no less than 2000 gallons ofThere will be no less than 2000 gallons of water on site when burning a structure.water on site when burning a structure.
  21. 21. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR21 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHOUTWITHOUT EXPOSURESEXPOSURES  50 ft X 24 ft Type V dwelling with two – 8 ft50 ft X 24 ft Type V dwelling with two – 8 ft storiesstories  Pitched roof - 8 ft from attic floor to ridge polePitched roof - 8 ft from attic floor to ridge pole  With pitched roofs use half the measured distanceWith pitched roofs use half the measured distance from the attic floor to the ridge pole.from the attic floor to the ridge pole.  4 ft would be the number for this example4 ft would be the number for this example  No exposuresNo exposures
  22. 22. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR22 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHOUTWITHOUT EXPOSURESEXPOSURES 50 x 24 x 20 = 24,000 ft.50 x 24 x 20 = 24,000 ft.33 OHC 7OHC 7 CCN 1.5CCN 1.5 24,000 ft.24,000 ft.33 / OHC 7 x CCN 1.5 x 1.5 =/ OHC 7 x CCN 1.5 x 1.5 = Gallons of water needed plus 50%Gallons of water needed plus 50% ReserveReserve
  23. 23. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR23 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHOUTWITHOUT EXPOSURESEXPOSURES 50 x 24 x 20 = 24,000 ft.50 x 24 x 20 = 24,000 ft.33 OHC 7OHC 7 CCN 1.5CCN 1.5 24,000 ft.24,000 ft.33 / OHC 7 x CCN 1.5 x 1.5 =/ OHC 7 x CCN 1.5 x 1.5 = 77147714 Gallons of water needed plus 50%Gallons of water needed plus 50% ReserveReserve
  24. 24. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR24 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHOUTWITHOUT EXPOSURESEXPOSURES PRACTICE:PRACTICE: 125 ft X 100 ft Farm Equipment Storage125 ft X 100 ft Farm Equipment Storage 1 – 14 ft story1 – 14 ft story Flat roofFlat roof Type II ConstructionType II Construction
  25. 25. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR25 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHOUTWITHOUT EXPOSURESEXPOSURES 125x 100 x 14 = 175,000 ft.125x 100 x 14 = 175,000 ft.33 OHC 5OHC 5 CCN 0.75CCN 0.75 175,000 ft.175,000 ft.33 / OHC 5 x CCN 0.75 x 1.5 =/ OHC 5 x CCN 0.75 x 1.5 = Gallons of water needed plus 50%Gallons of water needed plus 50% ReserveReserve
  26. 26. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR26 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHOUTWITHOUT EXPOSURESEXPOSURES 125x 100 x 14 = 175,000 ft.125x 100 x 14 = 175,000 ft.33 OHC 5OHC 5 CCN 0.75CCN 0.75 175,000 ft.175,000 ft.33 / OHC 5 x CCN 0.75 x 1.5 =/ OHC 5 x CCN 0.75 x 1.5 = 39,37539,375 Gallons of water needed plus 50%Gallons of water needed plus 50% ReserveReserve
  27. 27. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR27 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHWITH EXPOSURESEXPOSURES  Total Cubic feet divided by the OHCTotal Cubic feet divided by the OHC  Multiple this by the CCNMultiple this by the CCN  Then multiply that number by 1.5 for theThen multiply that number by 1.5 for the NFPA 1403 fifty percent reserve that isNFPA 1403 fifty percent reserve that is requiredrequired  This will give you the Minimum water inThis will give you the Minimum water in gallons needed for the structuregallons needed for the structure
  28. 28. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR28 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHWITH EXPOSURESEXPOSURES  Then multiply this number by 1.5Then multiply this number by 1.5  This will give you the minimum waterThis will give you the minimum water supply required for any structure withsupply required for any structure with exposures.exposures.  3000 gallons of water is the minimum3000 gallons of water is the minimum amount required for structures withamount required for structures with exposuresexposures
  29. 29. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR29 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHWITH EXPOSURESEXPOSURES  50 ft X 24 ft dwelling50 ft X 24 ft dwelling  2 – 8 ft stories2 – 8 ft stories  Pitched roof - 8 ft from attic floor to ridge polePitched roof - 8 ft from attic floor to ridge pole  With pitched roofs use half the measured distanceWith pitched roofs use half the measured distance from the attic floor to the ridge pole.from the attic floor to the ridge pole.  4 ft would be the number for this example4 ft would be the number for this example  Type V ConstructionType V Construction  25 ft X 12 ft exposure building 50’ from the C-25 ft X 12 ft exposure building 50’ from the C- sideside
  30. 30. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR30 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHWITH EXPOSURESEXPOSURES 50 x 24 x 20 = 24,000 ft.50 x 24 x 20 = 24,000 ft.33 OHC 7OHC 7 CCN 1.5CCN 1.5 24,000 ft.24,000 ft.33 / OHC 7 x CCN 1.5 x 1.5 (Reserve)/ OHC 7 x CCN 1.5 x 1.5 (Reserve) x 1.5 (Exposure)=x 1.5 (Exposure)= Gallons of Water needed plus 50% forGallons of Water needed plus 50% for Reserve and ExposureReserve and Exposure
  31. 31. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR31 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHWITH EXPOSURESEXPOSURES 50 x 24 x 20 = 24,000 ft.50 x 24 x 20 = 24,000 ft.33 OHC 7OHC 7 CCN 1.5CCN 1.5 24,000 ft.24,000 ft.33 / OHC 7 x CCN 1.5 x 1.5 (Reserve)/ OHC 7 x CCN 1.5 x 1.5 (Reserve) x 1.5 (Exposure)=x 1.5 (Exposure)= 11,57111,571 Gallons of Water needed plus 50%Gallons of Water needed plus 50% Reserve and ExposureReserve and Exposure
  32. 32. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR32 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHWITH EXPOSURESEXPOSURES PRACTICE:PRACTICE: 125 ft X 100 ft Farm Equipment Storage125 ft X 100 ft Farm Equipment Storage 1 – 14 ft story1 – 14 ft story Flat roofFlat roof Non-Combustible ConstructionNon-Combustible Construction 50ft X 25ft exposure building 25 feet from50ft X 25ft exposure building 25 feet from side Bside B
  33. 33. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR33 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHWITH EXPOSURESEXPOSURES 125x 100 x 14 = 175,000125x 100 x 14 = 175,000 ft.ft.33 OHC 5OHC 5 CCN 0.75CCN 0.75 175,000175,000 ft.ft.33 / OHC 5 x CCN 0.75 x/ OHC 5 x CCN 0.75 x 1.5 (Reserve) x 1.5 (Exposure) =1.5 (Reserve) x 1.5 (Exposure) = Gallons of water needed plus 50% reserveGallons of water needed plus 50% reserve
  34. 34. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR34 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 CALCULATING WATER SUPPLYCALCULATING WATER SUPPLY MINIMUM WATER SUPPLYMINIMUM WATER SUPPLY WITHWITH EXPOSURESEXPOSURES 125x 100 x 14 = 175,000125x 100 x 14 = 175,000 ft.ft.33 OHC 5OHC 5 CCN 0.75CCN 0.75 175,000175,000 ft.ft.33 / OHC 5 x CCN 0.75 x/ OHC 5 x CCN 0.75 x 1.5 (Reserve) x 1.5 (Exposure) =1.5 (Reserve) x 1.5 (Exposure) = 59,06259,062 Gallons of water needed plus 50% reserveGallons of water needed plus 50% reserve and exposure.and exposure.
  35. 35. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR35 NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 Pre-Calculated ValuesPre-Calculated Values  You can refer to NFPA 1142 and find theYou can refer to NFPA 1142 and find the pre-calculated numbers.pre-calculated numbers. This works great for an estimated numberThis works great for an estimated number It is still best to calculate the numbersIt is still best to calculate the numbers yourself.yourself.
  36. 36. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR36 Water Supply LayoutWater Supply Layout
  37. 37. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR37 REVIEW ENABLING OBJECTIVESREVIEW ENABLING OBJECTIVES We have identified & described the purpose ofWe have identified & described the purpose of NFPA 1142.NFPA 1142. We have identified & described the occupancyWe have identified & described the occupancy hazard classifications found in NFPA 1142.hazard classifications found in NFPA 1142. We have identified & described theWe have identified & described the construction classification numbers found inconstruction classification numbers found in NFPA 1142.NFPA 1142. We have determined minimum water supplyWe have determined minimum water supply requirements, including a 50% reserve, forrequirements, including a 50% reserve, for conducting live fire training evolutions in aconducting live fire training evolutions in a structure.structure.
  38. 38. STRUCTURE FIRE CONTROL INSTRUCTOR38 END OF SECTIONEND OF SECTION END OF SECTIONEND OF SECTION ONON NFPA 1142NFPA 1142 FAMILIARIZATIONFAMILIARIZATION

×