Nutrition, Physical Activity And Cancer Prevention Cirignano


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Nutrition, Physical Activity And Cancer Prevention Cirignano

  1. 1. Nutrition, Physical Activity & Cancer Prevention Update Sherri Cirignano, MS, RD, LDN Rutgers University
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Promote awareness of the link between nutrition, physical activity and cancer prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ways to promote client personal weight, physical activity and/or nutrition goals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Controllable Causes of Cancer <ul><li>Lifestyle Choices </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Eating Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco Use WCRF/AICR, 2007 </li></ul>
  4. 4. AICR Recommendations for Cancer Prevention WCRF/AICR,2007
  5. 5. AICR Recommendation #1 <ul><li>Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight. WCRF/AICR 2007 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Weight Maintenance Tops the List <ul><li>Evidence for increased risk </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body fatness  Convincing for esophageal, pancreas, colorectal, breast (post), endometrium, kidney; Probable for gallbladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal fatness  Convincing for colorectal; Probable pancreas, breast (post), endometrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adult weight gain  Probable for breast (post) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Balance caloric intake with physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Work towards a healthy BMI (18.5-24.9) and waist measurement (<31.5” for women/<37” for men) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR, 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USDA </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Tips to Make it Happen! <ul><li>Make it goal-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Make it safe </li></ul><ul><li>Make it positive </li></ul><ul><li>Make it Happen! One step at a time </li></ul>
  8. 8. AICR Recommendation #2 <ul><li>Be physically active for at least 30 minutes each day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR, 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Get Moving-Get Healthy! <ul><li>Evidence for decreased risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convincing  for colon cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable  for breast (post), endometrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited-suggestive  for lung, pancreas, breast (pre) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adults: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in moderate – vigorous activity for 30-60 minutes every day / Limit sedentary activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR, 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children and Adolescents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in 1 hour (60 minutes) or more of physical activity every day / Limit sedentary activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USDHHS </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Tips to Make it Happen! <ul><li>Make it safe </li></ul><ul><li>Make it goal-focused </li></ul><ul><li>Make it easy </li></ul><ul><li>Make it fun </li></ul><ul><li>Make it Happen! Every day </li></ul>
  11. 11. AICR Nutrition Recommendations
  12. 12. AICR Recommendation #3 <ul><li>Avoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence probable for increased risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Drink mostly water and up to one glass of fruit juice per day </li></ul><ul><li>Choose nutrient-rich foods more often </li></ul><ul><li>Consume fast foods sparingly, if at all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR, 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. AICR Recommendation #4 <ul><li>Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes. </li></ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR, 2007 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cancer Prevention Benefits of Non-Starchy Vegetables <ul><li>Evidence probable for a decreased risk of mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophageal, stomach and colorectal cancers </li></ul><ul><li>Non-starchy vegetables includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root vegetables (carrots, beets, turnips) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allium vegetables (garlic, leeks, shallots) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green leafy vegetables (collard and turnip greens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cancer Prevention Benefits of Fruit <ul><li>Evidence for decreased risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable for mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, lung, stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited-suggestive for nasopharynx, pancreas, liver, colorectum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citrus fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General fruits including apples, watermelon, guava and apricots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. More Matters! <ul><li>Eat a variety of vegetables and fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Include vegetables and fruits at meals and snacks </li></ul><ul><li>Limit fried and starchy vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Choose 100% juice for fruit or vegetable juices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR, 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Make Half Your Grains Whole <ul><li>Evidence for decreased risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable for colorectal due to fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose whole grains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim for 3 ounces each day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include whole grain rice, bread, pasta and cereals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit refined grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Legumes <ul><li>Evidence for decreased risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable for colorectal due to dietary fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited-suggestive for stomach, prostate due to legumes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kidney, black & soy beans, chickpeas and lentils </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent source of plant protein & fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Aim for three cups/week </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR, 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The New American Plate <ul><ul><li>Learn More </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Tips to Make it Happen! <ul><li>Make it easy </li></ul><ul><li>Make it different </li></ul><ul><li>Make it fun </li></ul><ul><li>Make it Happen! With one food type at a time </li></ul>
  21. 21. AICR Recommendation #5 <ul><li>Limit consumption of red meats and avoid processed meats. </li></ul>WCRF/AICR,2007
  22. 22. Recommendation #5 Specifics <ul><li>Evidence for increased risk with regard to red meat and processed meat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convincing for colorectum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit red meat to less than 18 oz. each week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes beef, pork and lamb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have little, if any, processed meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes bacon, salami, hot dogs, sausages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Making Protein Choices <ul><li>Choose fish, poultry, or beans as an alternative to beef, pork, and lamb </li></ul><ul><li>When eating meat, select lean cuts and smaller portions </li></ul><ul><li>Bake, broil, or poach meat, rather than frying or charbroiling </li></ul><ul><li>Save processed meats for special occasions only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn More </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Grilling <ul><li>Evidence for increased risk is limited-suggestive for stomach cancer </li></ul><ul><li>For safer grilling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marinate and/or pre-cook meats before grilling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use lean meats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove charred meat portions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grill vegetables and fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AICR </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. AICR Recommendation #6 <ul><li>Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Probable evidence for increased risk of stomach cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Intake of sodium should be less than 2400mg per day </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid processed foods </li></ul><ul><li>Check food labels </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually reduce the amount of salt added </li></ul><ul><li>Use spices, herbs or lemon instead of salt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Review of Diet Recommendations <ul><li>Avoid sugary drinks and limit energy- dense foods </li></ul><ul><li>Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Limit consumption of red meats and avoid processed meats </li></ul><ul><li>Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with salt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. AICR Recommendation #7 <ul><li>If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Limit Alcohol <ul><li>Evidence for increased risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convincing for mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal (men), breast (pre & post) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable for colorectal (women) and liver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limit alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One drink = 12 ounces beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80 proof spirits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate between alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and dilute alcoholic drinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim to keep a few nights a week alcohol-free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water is the recommended beverage of choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:529-542 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. AICR Recommendation #8 <ul><li>Don’t use supplements to protect against cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence for increased risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convincing w/beta-carotene and lung cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The best source of nutrients is food and drink </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnant women & nursing mothers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children & adolescents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. AICR Recommendation #9 <ul><li>It’s best for mothers to breastfeed exclusively for up to six months. </li></ul><ul><li>Protective to moms against breast cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence for lactation is convincing for decreased risk of breast cancer (pre & post) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreases the risk of over- weight and obesity in children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence for weight gain, overweight and obesity is probable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. AICR Recommendation #10 <ul><li>After treatment, cancer survivors should follow the recommendations for cancer prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek professional advice when in treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Follow prevention recommendations to reduce risk of recurrence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. And, always remember – do not smoke or chew tobacco
  33. 33. <ul><li>Aim to be a healthy weight throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Be physically active everyday in any way for 30 minutes or more </li></ul><ul><li>Eat a variety of healthful foods, with a focus on plant foods </li></ul><ul><li>Limit consumption of alcoholic beverages </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid tobacco use and exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRF/AICR,2007 </li></ul></ul>The Power of Prevention
  34. 34. Nutrition, Physical Activity & Cancer: <ul><li>This presentation was created by </li></ul><ul><li>Family & Community Health Sciences of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Authored by: Sherri Cirignano, MS, RD, LDN </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>2009 </li></ul>The Power of Prevention