Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policies

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Presentation to SRUC staff and students 30 October 2012

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Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policies

  1. 1. Presentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012 Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policies Davy McCracken Land Economy & Environment Research Group
  2. 2. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Biodiversity essential in underpinning the finalecosystem services associated with our agriculturalecosystems 2 From Norris et al. 2011 Biodiversity. UK National Ecosystem Assessment
  3. 3. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Importance of farmland for biodiversity• Over 45% (173 million ha) of EU27• Recognised that habitats and landscapes of nature conservation value are intimately associated with farming practices• Taking land out of agricultural production is not the answer for farmland biodiversity• Rather, it is essential to ensure type and intensity of farm management is appropriate 3
  4. 4. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012 The farmland biodiversity challenge Scotland: 1995-2009 (BTO) Stable (but at low levels): • Linnet • Skylark • Yellowhammer Declined: • Curlew (-53%) • Kestrel (-58%) • Lapwing (-37%) • Meadow Pipit (-31%) • Rook (-25%) UK Wild bird population index: 1970-2009 4Action needed in protected areas and wider countryside
  5. 5. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012The farmland biodiversity challengeFrom: Hart, K., Baldock, D., Tucker, G., Allen, B., Calatrava, J., Black, H., Newman, S., Baulcomb, C., McCracken, D. & Gantioler, S. 2011 Costing theenvironmental needs related to rural land management. Report Prepared for DG Environment, Contract No ENV.F.1/ETU/2010/0019r. Institute for 5European Environmental Policy, London
  6. 6. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012 90 80 70 Number of breeding pairs 60 50 40 30 20 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 The impact of farming practices on farmland biodiversity 6
  7. 7. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and students Pressures on farmland biodiversitySRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012The farmland biodiversity challenge • Abandonment of management practices • Intensification of management practices • Simplification of agricultural landscapes Intensity of agriculture 7 Graph from presentation by: Hoogeveen Y.R., Petersen J.E. & Gabrielsen P. (2001). Agriculture and biodiversity in Europe. Background report to the High-Level European Conference on Agriculture and Biodiversity, 5–7 June, Paris. STRA-CO/AGRI (2001) 17. Council of Europe/UNEP.
  8. 8. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012High Nature Value farming systems:• Recognising what the issues are• Understanding the processes involved• Raising awareness of the concern and the issues• Ensuring they are a policy priority• Identifying: how much, where and in whatcondition• Developing and delivering appropriate fundingmechanisms at relevant scale• Monitoring outcomes and adapting theapproach where necessary 8
  9. 9. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012High Nature Value farming systems:• Recognising what the issues are• Understanding the processes involved• Raising awareness of the concern and the issues• Ensuring they are a policy priority• Identifying: how much, where and in whatcondition• Developing and delivering appropriate fundingmechanisms at relevant scale• Monitoring outcomes and adapting theapproach where necessary 9
  10. 10. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012High Nature Value farming system characteristics 10
  11. 11. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012 Surrogate: Proportion of Utilisable Agricultural Area consisting of rough grazing. Potentially HNV when rough grazing is > 70% UAA Surrogate: Livestock Units per available forage ha. Potentially HNV when < 0.2 LU/ha on rough grazing and < 1.0 LU/ha on in-bye ground, i.e. < 0.44 LU/ha at ‘whole farm’ level where rough grazing is > 70% UAA 11
  12. 12. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012 2010: 2.2 million ha (40%) of UAA in Scotland estimated to be under HNV farming systems 12
  13. 13. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012 13
  14. 14. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Addressing farmland biodiversity concerns inthe Common Agricultural Policy (CAP):• Recognising what the issues are• Understanding the processes involved• Raising awareness of the concern and the issues• Ensuring they are a policy priority• Identifying: how much, where and in whatcondition• Developing and delivering appropriate fundingmechanisms at relevant scale• Monitoring outcomes and adapting theapproach where necessary 14
  15. 15. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Addressing farmland biodiversity concerns inthe Common Agricultural Policy (CAP):• Recognising what the issues are• Understanding the processes involved• Raising awareness of the concern and the issues• Ensuring they are a policy priority• Identifying: how much, where and in whatcondition• Developing and delivering appropriate fundingmechanisms at relevant scale• Monitoring outcomes and adapting theapproach where necessary 15
  16. 16. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Addressing farmland biodiversity concerns inthe Common Agricultural Policy (CAP): • Highlighted major agricultural biodiversity concerns in EU25 • Considered measures taken across EU to address these concerns (largely EU15) • Case study approach for EU10 issues (large-scale farming; small-scale farms; abandonment) • Selection of a number of measures that were considered to have potential for high impact at EU level 16
  17. 17. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Three Tier Approach: Tier I: Improving the biodiversity value Uptake? and potential of agricultural landscapes • Aspects of these included in current CAP Tier II: Providing support for particular reform proposals farming systems • BUT issues with Tier III: Providing support for regional- interpretation and specific measures targeted at proposed addressing landscape implementation by DG simplification, farmland birds and Agriculture semi-natural vegetation 17
  18. 18. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Three Tier Approach: Tier I: Improving the biodiversity value • Increase Cross and potential of agricultural Compliance landscapes • At least 5% of Tier II: Providing support for particular Utilised Agricultural farming systems Area on each farm to designated as Ecological Tier III: Providing support for regional- Priority Area specific measures targeted at addressing landscape simplification, farmland birds and semi-natural vegetation 18
  19. 19. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Three Tier Approach: Tier I: Improving the biodiversity value and potential of agricultural landscapes Tier II: Providing support for particular • High Nature Value farming systems farming systems Tier III: Providing support for regional- • Organic farming specific measures targeted at systems (though with addressing landscape management intensity simplification, farmland birds and restrictions) semi-natural vegetation 19
  20. 20. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Three Tier Approach: Tier I: Improving the biodiversity value and potential of agricultural landscapes Tier II: Providing support for particular farming systems Tier III: Providing support for regional- specific measures targeted at addressing landscape simplification, farmland birds and semi-natural vegetation 20
  21. 21. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Challenges:• Appropriate Common Agricultural Policy reform will be key to ensuring an appropriate policy framework for farmland biodiversity in 2014-2020• Aspects of the MEACAP findings currently under consideration but issues with interpretation and proposed implementation• Political will and pressure will be the major driver in shaping the reformed CAP• Achieving an appropriate balance will require scientific understanding and re-packaging of logical arguments 21
  22. 22. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012 22
  23. 23. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012 23
  24. 24. Informing the development of farmland biodiversity prescriptions and policiesPresentation to staff and studentsSRUC Edinburgh, 30 October 2012Further information• McCracken, D.I. 2011 Policy Briefing: CAP reform post-2013 - an opportunity to support High Nature Value farming systems in Scotland? SRUC Rural Policy Centre Online (RPC PB 2011/09)• McCracken, D.I. 2011 Policy Briefing: Farmland biodiversity and the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). SRUC Rural Policy Centre Online (RPC PB 2011/04) 24

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