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სამაგისტრო ნაშრ ომი

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სამაგისტრო ნაშრ ომი

  1. 1. ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti saerTaSoriso samarTlis instituti Mmagistraturis IV semestris studentis akaki beriZis naSromi Temaze: erovnuli amnistiebi da simarTlis komisiebi rogorc sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis damabrkolebeli garemoeba naSromi wardgenilia magistris akademiuri xarisxis mosapoveblad Temis xelmZRvaneli: qeTevan xuciSvili, Tsu, sruli profesori, saerTaSoriso samarTlis doqtori. Tbilisi ivlisi, 2013 weli
  2. 2. sarCevi abreviaturebis CamonaTvali................................................................................................................2 Sesavali................................................................................................................................................4 E1. erovnuli amnistiebi da simarTlis komisiebi ..................................................................................5 1.1 simarTlis komisiebi ........................................................................................................ 5 1.1.1. simarTlis komisiaTa cneba da funqciebi......................................................................................... 6 1.1.2 simarTlis komisiebi, rogorc sisxlissamarTlebrivi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis alternatiuli meqanizmi................................................................................................................................................. 7 1.2 erovnuli amnistiebi ......................................................................................................... 7 1.2.1 erovnuli amnistiis saxeebi ................................................................................................................ 8 1.2.2. saerTaSoriso samarTlis midgoma amnistiebis mimarT .................................................................. 9 2. damnaSaveTa dasjis valdebuleba..................................................................................................11 2.2 damnaSavis dasjis valdebuleba ........................................................................................ 11 2.2.1 რომის სტატუტით გათვალისწინებული დანაშაულები..................................................... 12 2.2.1.1. saerTaSoriso saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebi.............................................................................. 12 2.2.1.2 saerTaSoriso CveulebiTi samarTlidan momdinare valdebulebebi ............................................. 13 2.2.2 adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebi ........................................................................................ 15 2.2.2.1 adamianis uflebaTa amerikuli sistema........................................................................................ 16 2.2.2.2 gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komiteti ........................................................................................... 17 2.2.2.3. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasmarTlo.................................................................................... 17 3. sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis kriteriumebi ....................18 3.1 sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos Seqmna da misi kompetencia.................... 18 3.2 sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis kriteriumebi ........... 19 1.2.1 romis statutis me-17(1) muxli komplementarobis testis pirveli nawili .......................................... 19 1.2.2 romis statutis me-17(2) muxli, komplementarobis testis meore nawili.......................................... 21 1.3 samxreT afrikis simarTlis komisia ............................................................................... 23 4. Eerovnuli amnistiebis “nebadamrTvel” normaTa ganxilva.......................................................25 2.1 prokuroris diskrecia.......................................................................................................... 25 2.2 uSiSroebis sabWos roli romis statutis me-16 muxli......................................................... 27 gamoyenebuli literatura.....................................................................................................................30 abreviaturebis CamonaTvali
  3. 3. UN United Nations UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNSC United Nations Security Council ECOSOC United Nations Economic And Social Counsil UNCHR United Nations Commission on Human Rights ECHR European Court of Human Rights ICC International criminal court ICTY International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia ICTR International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda IMT International Military Tribunal Inter-Am.C.H.R Inter-American Court of Human Rights PCIJ Permanent Court of International Justice ICJ International Court of Justice HRC Human Rights Committee erovnuli amnistiebi da simarTlis komisiebi rogorc sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis damabrkolebeli garemoeba
  4. 4. Sesavali meoce saukunis Sua xenabi saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis ganviTarebisaTvis gadamwyvet etaps warmoadgenda. amis mizezi saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mxridan, adamianis uflebaTa dacvisadmi mudmivad mzard yuradRebaSi unda veZioT. mas Semdeg, rac ,,abstraqtuli subieqtebis” Sesaxeb gancxadebam saxelmwifos qmedebis doqtrina daamarcxa da meore msoflio omis damnaSaveTa pirveli sasamarTlo procesebi Sedga,1 saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTali, iseve rogorc sisxlis samarTlis tribunalTa wesdebebi gamudmebiT viTardeboda da ixveweboda, sanam es procesi mudmivmoqmedi sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos SeqmniT ar dagvirgvinda. sasamarTlos Seqmnis istorias Tu gadavxedavT, naTeli gaxdeba misi arsebobis mTavari mizani, romelic agreTve ganmtkicebulia romis statutis (SemdgomSi statuti) preambulaSi kerZod, saerTaSoriso danaSaulTa Cadenisas dausjelobis aRkveTa.2 analogiur mizans emsaxureba sasamarTlos sistemac, romelic moqmedebs komplementarobis principis dacviT da morgebulia iseT SemTxvevebs, sadac saxelmwifos ar surs an ar SeuZlia dasajos damnaSave.3 komplementarobis principi Tavis mxriv gulisxmobs imas, rom konkretuli kriteriumebis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi, erovnul doneze ganxorcielebul process eniWeba upiratesoba sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos iurisdiqciasTan mimarTebaSi. swored am ori umniSvnelovanesi faqtoris, arsebobis Sedegia TiTqmis sasamarTlos Seqmnis dRidan mimdinare aqtiuri akademiuri mimoxilva sakiTxisa, Tu ramdenad unda warmoadgendes saxelmwifos mier Sesabamisi erovnuli kanonmdeblobis miRebis safuZvelze ganxorcielebuli amnistiebi da Sewyalebis aqtebi sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dauSveblad gamocxadebis safuZvels. aRniSnuli Temis aqtualobam kidev erTxel Segvaxsena Tavi sasamarTlos mier ugandis situaciis gamoZiebis konteqstSi,4 ramac ganaaxla debatebi am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT.5 romis statutis SemTxvevaSi gaugebrobas amwvavebs is faqti, rom aRniSnuli dokumenti naTlad da calsaxad ar awesrigebs amnistiaTa sakiTxs da ufro metic mocavs normebs, romelTa interpretaciac urTierTsawinaaRmdego suraTs iZleva. Sesabamisad, winamdebare naSromis mizans warmoadgens, statutis Sesabamisi normebisa da terminologiis interpretaciis safuZvelze, imsjelos sasamarTlos iurisdiqcias daqvemdebarebuli danaSaulebis SemTxvevaSi amnistiis miniWebisas, erovnuli procedurebis unarze komplementarobis principidan gamomdinare daabrkolos saqmis dasaSveboba da garkveulwilad naTeli mohfinos sakiTxs, Tu ra gavlenas axdens simarTlis 1 IMT, The Trial of German Major War Criminals, naw.22, gv. 466, (1950) 2 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (2002), preambula, para.5. 3 Ibid. me-17 muxli. 4 ICC Press Reliese (2004/01/29), “President of Uganda refers situation concerning the Lord’s Resistence Army (LRA) to the ICC.” xelmisawvdomia http://www.icccpi.int/en_menus/icc/situations%20and%20cases/situations/situation%20icc%200204/press %20releases/Pages/index.aspx (ნანახია, 2013/0707). 5 Dwight G. Newman, “The Rome Statute, Some Reservations Concerning Amnesties, and a Distributive Problem”, American University International Law Review, Volume 20:293(2005) gv.356; Thomas Hethe. Clark, “The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Amnesties, and the "Interests of Justice": Striking a Delicate Balance”, Washington University Global Studies Law Review, Volume 4:389(2005) gv.391.
  5. 5. komisiebisa da erovnuli amnistiebis SerwymiT miRebuli gardamavali marTlmsajulebis meqanizmebi, sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobaze. am miznis misaRwevad, kvleva ganviTardeba Semdegi mimarTulebiT: naSromis pirveli Tavi mieZRvneba rogorc amnistiebis, ise erovnuli simarTlis komisiebis cnebisa da saxeebis ganxilvas. naSromis meore TavSi amnistiebis sakiTxis gadawyvetis miznisaTvis ukiduresi relevanturibidan gamomdinare saubari iqneba saerTaSoriso samarTalSi arsebul damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebaze. mesame Tavi mieZRvneba romis statutis me-17 muxliT dadgenil, sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis standartebis interpretaciis gziT erovnuli procesisadmi wayenebuli moTxovnebis identifikaciaze da imaze Tu ramdenad pasuxobs zemoaRniSnuli gardamavali marTlmsajulebis meqanizmi am konkretul moTxovnebs. xolo naSromis ukanaskneli Tavi mieZRvneba gamoZiebis dawyebisas prokuroris diskreciis ganxilvas da imis gansazRvras sworad aris Tu ara miCneuli statutis 53-e muxli marTlmsajulebis alternatiuli meqanizmebisadmi romis statutis “pativiscemis” demonstrirebad.6 E1. erovnuli amnistiebi da simarTlis komisiebi aRniSnul TavSi saubari iqneba erovnul amnistiebsa da simarTlis komisiebze. Uupirveles yovlisa aRsaniSnavia, rom am cnebaTa erTian konteqstSi ganxilva gamowveulia im saxelmwifoTa praqtikiT, romlebmac simarTlis komisiebisa da erovnuli amnistiebis dakavSirebiT SeimuSaves erTgvari gardamavali marTlmsajulebis meqanizmi, romelic Tavad misi Semadgeneli nawilebis bunebidan gamomdinare yvela SemTxvevaSi individualuri da gansxvavebulia. Sesabamisad, sanam visaubreb erTian suraTze, romelic SesaZloa Seiqmnas simarTlis komisiebisa da amnistiis kombinaciiT da mis SesaZlo Sedegebze sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis miznebisaTvis, gonivruli iqneboda aRniSnul institutTa bunebis ganxilva. 1.1 simarTlis komisiebi simarTlis komisiebi, romlebic saxelmwifoTa mier araerTxel iqna gamoyenebuli rogorc marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis alternatiuli meqanizmi, mniSvnelovania ara mxolod samarTlebriv aramed socialur konteqstSic, Tumca Cemi naSromis miznebisaTvis mizanSewonilia ganvixil iqnes mxolod simarTlis komisiaTa mandate, maTi unari Caanacvlon erovnuli sagamoZiebo da sasamarTlo meqanizmebi. Sesabamisad am SemTxvevaSi SevCerdebi mxolod simarTlis komisiaTa samarTlebriv mxareze da vimsjeleb im sakiTxze SesaZloa Tu ara simarTlis komisiis mier ganxorcielebuli procedura CaiTvalos gamoZiebad. 6 Cameron, Jurisdiction and Admissibility Issues Under the ICC Statute" in McGoldrick et al (eds), The Permanent International Criminal Court: Legal and Policy Issues (USA: Hart Publishing 2004) gv.91.
  6. 6. 1.1.1. simarTlis komisiaTa cneba da funqciebi gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis (SemdgomSi gaero) mier simarTlis komisia ganmartebulia rogorc droebiTi arasamarTlebrivi instituti, romelic orientirebulia faqtobrivi garemoebebis gamovlenaze, rasac ganaxorcielebs konkretuli periodis ganmavlobaSi adamianis uflebaTa darRvevebis gamoZiebis saSualebiT.7 komisiaTa Seqmnis procedura da maTi mandati mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, magaliTisaTvis, isini SeiZleba Seqmnili iyos rogorc aRmasrulebeli da sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis, ise saerTaSoriso panelis mier, romelic xels uwyobs konfliqtur mxareTa Soris molaparakebebis warmoebas. miuxedavad am gansxvavebisa simarTlis komisiebis Sesaxeb dRes arsebuli kvlevebis safuZvelze, SesaZloa moxdes komisiaTa saerTo Tvisebebis identifikacia, kerZod priscila heineri mis cnobil naSromSi, 15 simarTlis komisia ayalibebs konkretul maxasiaTeblebs, romlebic saerTos yvela mis mier ganxiluli komisiisaTvis.8 am maxasiaTeblebidan Cemi naSromis miznebisaTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovans warmoadgens is, rom rogorc avtori acxadebs, simarTlis komisiis ZiriTadi mizania adamianis uflebaTa darRvevebis zogadi suraTis aRwera da igi ar aris orientirebuli specifiur movlenaze, Sesabamisad simarTlis komisiebis ZiriTad funqciebad avtorebi asaxeleben warsulSi Cadenil danaSaulTa gamoZiebasa da gamoZiebis Sedegebis formlur gaSuqebas, komnfliqtis mxareTa Serigebas da momavalSi darRvevebis Tavidan acilebas, daskvnebisa da rekomendaciebis gakeTebas da ase Semdeg.9 Sesabamisad, simarTlis komisiis samiznes warmoadgens faqtebi da ara individebi. faqtebis mimarT mimdinare process, sisxli samarTalSi ewodeba gamoZieba da moicavs ara mxolod faqtebis kvlevas, aramed damnaSavis identifikaciasac. simarTlis komisiis mier ganxorcielebuli procesebi sruldeba faqtebis Sesaxeb simarTlis gamovlenisa da ukeTes SemTxvevaSi damnaSaveTa identificirebasTan erTad da rogorc wesi gvirgvindeba simarTlis komisiis daskvniT, romelic saSualebas aZlevs sazogadoebas Seityon simarTle warsulSi Cadenili danaSaulebis Sesaxeb. Sesabamisad, simarTlis komisia ar moicavs sisxlis samarTlis procesis Semdgom etaps, kerZod sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas, romelic gamoZiebisagan gansxvavebiT mimarTuli ara faqtebis, aramed individis mimarT da emsaxureba misi pasuxismgeblobis arseboba-ar arsebobis dadgenas. swored sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebis mandatis ar arseboba ayenebs eWvqveS simarTlis komisiis mier ganxorcielebuli procesis Sesabamisobas pirovnebis dasjis mizanTan. logikuri iqneba Tu davaskvniT, rom saxelmwifo, romelic uqvemdebarebs danaSauls simarTlis komisias da ar aniWebs mas damnaSavis dasjis mandats, amgvari dasjis mizani ar gaaCnia. Ees gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa im ASemTxvevaSi, rodesac komisiis funqcionirebis paralelurad saxelmwifoSi iqmneba amnistiis kanonmdebloba. 7 UN Secretary-General Report S/2004/616 (2004/08/23), “The rule of law and transitional justice in conflict and post-conflict societies”, gv.17. xelmisawvdomiahttp://daccessddsny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/395/29/PDF/N0439529.pdf?OpenElem ent (ნანახია,2013/0707). 8 Priscilla B. Hayner, “Fifteen truth commissions-1974-1994 comparative study”, Human right Quarterly, Volume16:597(1994) gv.604. 9 Priscilla B. Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocities (London: Routledge 2002) gv.24.
  7. 7. 1.1.2 simarTlis komisiebi, rogorc sisxlissamarTlebrivi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis alternatiuli meqanizmi simarTlos komisibis zogadi maxasiaTeblebisa da mandatis ganxilvis Semdeg, mniSvnelovania agreTve Sefasdes saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis midgoma am institutebis mimarT. zogierti avtoris azriT, sisxlissamarTlebrivi procesis gziT marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis alternativas SesaZloa warmoadgendes iseTi institutebi rogoricaa simarTlis komisia.10 sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebisa da danaSaulTa upirobo dasjis momxrenic ki Tanxmdebian imaze, rom konkretul SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa gamarTlebuli iyos marTlmsajulebis aRdgenis kreatiuli gza.11 Sesabamisad, zogierti avtori Tvlis, rom konkretuli kriteriumebis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi simarTlis komisia SesaZloa CaiTvalos legitimurad. aseT kriteriumebs daakmayofilebs iseTi komisiebi, romlebic magaliTisaTvis, Seqmnilia demokratiulad arCeuli xelisuflebis mier, aris miukerZoebeli da damoukidebeli organo, gaaCnia farTo mandati, romelic saSualebas aZlevs Caataros srulfasovani gamoZieba da ar iyos SezRuduli konkretuli danaSaulebiT, gaaCnia uflebamosileba Caataros sajaro mosmenebi, hqondes msxverplTaTvis reparaciis miniwebaze rekomendaciebis gakeTebis uflebamosileba da SeimuSavos amomwuravi moxseneba gamovlenil faqtobriv garemoebebTan dakavSirebiT konkretul droSi.12 Sesabamisad saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba ar uaryofs im faqts, rom konkretuli tipis simarTlis komisiam SesaZloa daakmayofilos marTlmsajulebis alternatiuli meqanizmis kriteriuebi da zogierT SemTxvevasi ukeT emsaxuros marTlmsajuleis aRdgenis mizans. rogorc gaeros yofilma generalurma mdivanma kofi ananma sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloze saubrisas aRniSna, sasamarTlom erTveba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saxelmwifos ar surs an ar SeuZulia gamoZiebis Catareba, ramdenadac mis mizans warmoadgens imis uzrunvelyofa, rom damnaSaveebma sakuTari politikuri mdgomareobis gamoyenebiT Tavidan ar aicilon pasuxismgebloba.Man agreTve xazi gausva, rom aseTi viTareba aRar arsebobs samxreT afrikaSi, sadac danaSaulebrivi reJimi, romelic pasuxismgebeli iyo adamianis uflebaTa mZim darRvevebisaTvis, aRar arsebobs da Zalaufleba msxverplTa xelSia.13 1.2 erovnuli amnistiebi rogorc avtorTa umravlesoba aRniSnavs, termini amnistia warmoadgens berZnul sityvas da niSnavs patiebas.14 Aarsebuli literaturidan ikveTeba, rom amnistia ar 10 J.E. Alvarcz, Altcrnativcs to Criminal justice in Antonio Cassese (ed), The Oxford Companion to Interalanal Criminal justice (Oxford University Press 2009) gv.25. 11 Robin Perry, “The Nature, Status and Future of Amnesties under International Criminal Law“, Australian International Law Journal, Volume 18:77(2011) gv.89. 12 John Dugard, “Dealing with Crimes of a Past Regime: Is Amnesty Still an Option?” Leiden Journal of International Law, Volume 12:1001(1999) gv.1005; 13 Charles Villa-Vicencio, "Why Perpetrators Should Not Always Be Prosecuted: Where the International Criminal Court and Truth Commissions Meet", Emory Law Journal, Volume 49:205(2000) gv.222. 14 Michael Scharf, “The Amnesty Exception to the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court” Cornell International LauwJournal, Volume 32:507(1999) gv.507; Ben Chigara, Amnesty in International Law: The Legality under International Law of National Amnesty Laws (London: Longman, 2002), gv.8.
  8. 8. warmoadgens axal instituts da igi Seiqmna kanonis SeqmnasTan erTad.15 Ppirvelad amnistia gamoyenebuli iqna Cvens welTaRricxvamde 1286 wels da mas Semdeg arsebobs rogorc danaSaulis patiebis saSualeba.16 Aamnistia gansazRvrulia, rogorc kanonmdebloba, romelic icavs damnaSaves samoqalaqo da sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisagan warsulSi, politikur konteqstSi Cadenili danaSaulebis SemTxvevaSi.17 swored es specifiuri xasiaTi ganasxvavebs amnistias misi msgavsi efeqtis mqone institutis, Sewyalebisagan.18 Aam or instituts, agreTve ganasxvaveben maTi miznebidan gamomdinare, ramdenadac amnistias, rogorc wesi gaaCnia mSvidobis damyarebis mizani.19 magaliTisaTvis, samxreT afrikis konstitucia pirdapir iTvaliswinebs amnistiis gamoyenebas am konkretuli miznis misaRwevad.20 Yyoveli konkretuli tipis amnistiis xasiaTis detaluri Seswavla scdeba winamdebare naSromis farglebs, Sesabamisad am SemTxvevaSi Cems mizans warmoadgens garda zogadi maxasiaTeblebisa da tendenciebisa, romlebic amnistiis institutTan mimarTebaSi vlindeba erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi, ganvixilo misi adgili saerTaSoriso samarTalSi. 1.2.1 erovnuli amnistiis saxeebi amnistiis saxeebis mravali dayofa arsebobs, yvelaze zogads warmoadgens misi dayofa ori tipis amnistiad: 1.egreT wodebuli blanketuri. blanketuri amnistia warmoadgens iseTi tipis amnistias, romelic uaryofs yvelanair moTxovnas misi mimRebis mimarT da zogierT SemTxvevaSi faqtebis gamoZiebis aucileblobasac.21 2.pirobiTi amnistia, romlis misaniWeblad saWiroa konkretuli pirobis Sesruleba an kriteriumebis dakmayofileba magaliTad rogoricaa danaSaulis aRaireba, simarTlis gamovleba, simarTlis komisiis winaSe wardgoma da ase Semdeg.22 amnistia SeiZleba iyos mimarTuli konkretul periodSi Cadenili danaSaulebisaken, amnistia SeiZleba ganvasxvavoT damnaSaveTa mdgomareobisa da maT mier danaSaulis CadenaSi Setanili wvlilis mixedviT. amnistia SeiZeba iyos avtomaturi, faravdes konkretuli klasis warmomadgenel yvela damnaSaves, an eniWebodes individualurad. konkretuli pirovnebis mimarT miniWebuli amnistiebis SemTxvevaSi misi pirobobebi SesaZloa iyos gansxvavebuli, magaliTad individs moeTxovebodes an ar moeTxovebodes mis mier Cadenil danaSaulTa detaluri aRwera da aRiareba. 15 Robert Parker, “Fighting the Siren’s Song: The Problem of Amnesty in Historical and Contemporary Perspective”, Acta Juridica Hungaria, Volume 42:96(2001) gv.76. 16 Andreas O'Shea, Amnesy for Crimes in International Law and Practice (New York: Kluwer Law International 2002) gv.5-6. 17 A. O'Shea, “Amnesy for Crime in International Law and Practice (London: Kluwer Law International, 2002) gv.1; Bryan A. Garner, Black’s Law Dictionary (United States of America: West Group, 1999) gv.83. 18 Faustin Z. Ntouband, Amnesty for Crimes Against Humanity Under International Law (The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV 2007) გვ.10. 19 A. O'Shea, “Amnesy for Crime in International Law and Practice (London: Kluwer Law International, 2002) gv 2. 20 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act No. 200 (1993). 21 Meintjes G. Méndez J.E., Reconciling Amnesties with Universal Jurisdiction International Law Forum du droit international, Volume 2:75(2000) gv.85; Kristin Henrard, The Viability of National Amnesties in View of the Increasing Recognition of Individual Criminal Responsibility at Iternlationlal Law, Michigan State University Jurnal of International Law, Volume 8:598(1999) gv.630 22 Gwen K. Young, All the Truth and as Much Justice as Possible, U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy, Volume 9:209(2003) gv.213.
  9. 9. amnistia SeiZleba mimarTuli iyos mxolod sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisaken an moicvas, rogorc sisxlissamarTlebriv, ise samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi xelSeuxebloba konkretul danaSaulTan mimarTebaSi.23 samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebas amnistiis safuZvelze SesaZloa mohyves raime tipis alternatiuli dakmayofileba msxverplisaTvis.24 1.2.2. saerTaSoriso samarTlis midgoma amnistiebis mimarT ramdenadac winamdebare naSromis mizans warmoadgens ganaviTaros msjeloba imis Sesaxe SeiZleba Tu ara erovnuli procesi, romelic dasrulda amnistiis miniWebiT gaxdes sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis damabrkolebeli garemoeba, mniSvnelovania Seswavlili iqnes saerTaSoriso samarTlis midgoma am sakiTxis mimarT. saerTaSoriso samarTlis midgoma erovnul amnistiaTa mimarT metad winaaRmdegobrivia. amnistiebsa da adamianis uflebebze debatebi aqtiurad gvxvdeba meoce saukunis Sua xanebSi, rodesac axla Seqmnili arasamTavrobo organizaciebi adamianis uflebaTa dacvis propagandiT moiTxovdnen patimarTaTvis amnistiis miniWebas.25 dResdReobiT am praqtikis mowinaaRmdegeTa simravle nawilobriv ganapiroba laTinuri amerikis konfliqtebis dros ganviTarebulma movlenebma, sadac adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebSi damnaSave reJimebis liderebma pasuxismgeblobisagan Tavis daRwevis mizniT, guluxvad mianiWes sakuTar Tavsa da maT momxreebs amnistiebi. laTinuri amerikis konfliqtebis konteqstSi sxvadasxva tipis amnistiebma moicva mravali qveyana. aRniSnuli praqtika imdenad farTomasStabiani iyo, rom mas erT-erTma avtorma amnistiebis epidemiac ki uwoda.26 amnistiis mowinaaRmdegeTa gancxadebiT, misi gamoyeneba adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi ewinaaRmdegeba saerTaSoriso samarTlis principebs.27 Sesabamisad, gansxvavebiT warsulisagan, rodesac amnistia politikis warmarTvis saSualebas armoadgenda, dResdReobiT demokratiul mTavrobaTa arsebobis pirobebSi, romlebic SezRudulni arian kanoniT, amnistiis miniWebis sakiTxis garkveul kanonmdeblobas eqvemdebareba.28 mraval avtors aqvs gamoTqmuli mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra kriteriumebs unda akmayofilebdes amnistia imisaTvis, rom miCneul iqnas validurad, magaliTad amnistia unda iyos ukanaskneli saSualeba erovnuli konfliqtis dasasruleblad da mSvidobis dasamyareblad.29 agreTve gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom saWiroa kriteriumebis 23 Amnesty Act 2000 (Uganda). 24 Kent Greenawalt, Amnesty's Justice, Robert I. Rotberg, Dennis Thompson(eds.), Truth v. Justice: The Moralty of Truth Commissions (United Kingdon: Princeton University Press 2000) gv.195. 25 Orlaith Minogue, Peace vs. Justice: The Utility of Amnesties, Criminal Justice Ethics, Volume 29:306(2010) gv.306. 26 Mahnoush H. Arsanjani, The International Criminal Court and National Amnesty Laws, The American Society of International Law, Volume 93:65(1999) gv.66. 27 Human Rights Watch, Algeria:Amnesty Law Risks Legalizing Impunity for Crimes Against Humanity(2005/04/14), xelmisawvdomia http://www.hrw.org/news/2005/04/13/algeria-amnesty-law-risks- legalizing-impunity-crimes-against-humanity (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 28 Helmut Gropengieber and Jorg Meibner, Amnesties and rome Statute of international criminal court, International Criminal Law Review, Volume 5:267(2005) gv.271. 29 Michael Scharf, “The Amnesty Exception to the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court” Cornell International LauwJournal, Volume 32:507(1999) gv.512.
  10. 10. SemoReba amnistiis ara mxolod mopovebis, aramed SenarCunebisTvisac, garda amisa, unda arsebobdes amnistiis miniWebaze zedamxeveli saxelmwifos xelisuflebisagan damoukideblad moqmedi organo.30 avtorebs Camoyalibebuli aqvT dasaSvebi amnistiis mravalricxovani kriteriumebi.31 mniSvnelovani ganviTareba rac ukve calsaxad naTelia aris is, rom blanketuri amnistiebi saerTaSoriso samarTalSi aRar aris misaRebi.32 mniSvnelovnad mxardaWerilia is idea, rom blanketuri amnistiebi saerTaSoriso danaSaulebisa da adamianis uflebaTa sxva mZime darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi ar warmoadgens sxva saxelmwifoebisaTvis iurisdiqciis gavrcelebis damabrkolebel garemoebas. rogorc antonio kasese acxaebs, saerTaSoriso danaSaulebi warmoadgens Tavdasxmas saerTaSoriso Rirebulebebze da arcerT sxelmwifos ar aqvs ulebamosileba Tavidan aacilos damnaSaves misi qmedebebis Sedegebi.33 rac Seexeba pirobiT amnistiebs, saerTaSoriso samarTali maT calsaxad ar krZalavs, Tumca mravali e.w rbili samarTlis dokumenti acxadebs, rom igi dauSebelia adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebisa da saerTaSoriso danaSaulebis SemTxvevaSi.34 erT-erTi avtori, sierra- leones da aRmosavleT timoris situaciebis ganxilvis safuZvelze mivida im daskvnamde, rom saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba am SemTxvevaSi warmodgenili gaeros saxiT, zogjer xedavs amnistiis saWiroebas, Tumca uars ambobs aRiaros legitimurad adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvvebis SemTxvevaSi amnistiis miniWeba erovnuli xelisuflebis mier.35 Mmiuxedavad amisa, rogorc ukve aRvniSne amnistiis mimarT saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis midgoma winaaRmdegobrivia rac gulisxmobs imas, rom amnistiaTa miniWebis praqtika iseTive farTomasStabiania, rogoric maTi akrZalvis saWiroebaze TiTqmis universaluri Tanxmoba. amnistiis momxreTa azriT, misi arsebobis pirobebSi sisxlissamarTlebrivi gamoZiebis Catareba axangrZlivebs da arTulebs konfliqturi situacias,36 meore mxriv amnistiis mowinaarmdegeebi Tanxmdebian imaze, rom aRniSnuli praqtika xels uwyobs dausjelobis propagandas.37 miuxedavad am sirTulisa Sesaloa davaskvnaT, rom saerTaSoriso samarTali viTardeba amnistiebis akrZalvis mimarTulebiT. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, rTulia dadgindes amnistiebisa da simarTlis komisiebis adgili saerTaSoriso samarTalSi da Sesabamisad maTi relevanturoba sisxlis samarTlis 30 Mark Freeman, Necessary Evils: Amnesties and the Search for Justice (United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2010) gv.71. 31 Robert O.Weiner, Trying to Make Ends Meet: Reconciling the Law and Practice of Human Rights Amnesties, St.Mary's Law Journal, Volume 26:857(1995) gv.871; Ronald C. Slye, The Legitimacy of Amnesties Under International Law and General Principles of Anglo-American Law: Is a Legitimate Amnesty Possible? Virginia Journal of International Law Association, Volume43:173(2002) gv.247; Helmut Gropengieber and Jorg Meibner, Amnesties and rome Statute of international criminal court, International Criminal Law Review, Volume 5:267(2005) gv.278-280. 32 Neil J. Kritz, Coming to Terms with Atrocities: A Review of Accountability Mechanisms for Mass Violations of Human Right, Law and Contemporary Problems, Volume 59:127(1996) gv.129; John Dugard, Dealing with Crimes of a Past Regime: Is Amnesty Still an Option?, Leiden Journal of International Law, Volume 12:1001(1999) gv.1015. 33 Antonio Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford University Press, 2003) gv.315. 34 Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction(2001), xelmisawvdomia http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/princeton.html (nanaxia 2013/07/07); 35 Diba Majzub, Peace of Justice? Amnesties and the International Criminal Court, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Volime 3:247(2002) gv.272-276. 36 Thomas H. Clark, The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Amnesties, and the "Interests of Justice": Striking a Delicate Balance, Washington University Global Studies :aw Review, Volume 4:289(2005) gv.404. 37 Michael P. Scharf, The Functions of Justice and Anti-Justice in the Peace-Building Process, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Volume 35:161(2003) gv.176.
  11. 11. saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos miznebisaTvis, saerTaSoriso danaSaulTa da adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebisas damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebis arseboba-ar arsebobis ganxilvis gareSe, Sesabamisad Semdegi Tavi mieZRvneba saxelmwifoTa dasjis valdebulebis ganxilvas. 2. damnaSaveTa dasjis valdebuleba sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis winapirobas ar warmoadgens saxelmwifos mier damnaSavis dasjis saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi valdebulebis darRveva, Sesabamisad erovnuli amnistiebis legaluroba saerTaSoriso samarTalSi sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis miznebisaTvis, samarTlebrivad ararelevanturia.38 Miuxedavad amisa, safuZvels moklebuli ar unda iyos varaudi, rom sasamarTlo ar cnobs dasaSvebobis damabrkolebel garemoebad iseT SemTxvevebs, rodesac saxelmwifo arRvevs piris dasjis valdebulebas.39 amis mizezi martivia, romis statutis preambulis Sesabamisad, sasamarTlo mowodebulia ebrZolos dausjeobas. dausjelobis praqtikis arseboba-ar arseboba unda dadgindes iqidan gamomdinare Tu ramdenad arsebobs dasjis samarTlebrivi da moraluri molodini. Sesabamisad damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebis arseboba samarTlebrivi gavlenis ar qonis miuxedavad, met-naklebad mainc gasaTvaliswinebelia sasamarTloSi saqmis dasSvebobis dadgenisas. Ggarda amisa, amgvari dasjis valdebulebis darRveva martivad SeiZleba iqnes interpretirebuli, rogorc saxelmifos mxridan danaSaulis gamoZiebis survilis ar arseboba, rac Tavis mxriv romis statutis me-17 muxlis Sesabamisad, sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis erT-erT winapirobas warmoadgens.40 Sesabamisad, vfiqrob romis statutis mier winaaRmdegobrivi normebis ganmtkicebis pirobebSi, romlebic ar iZleva saSuelabs gaices calsaxa pasuxi kiTxvaze unda aRiaros Tu ara sasamarTlos simarTlis komisiebisa da amnistiebis Serwymit miRebuli gardamavali marTlmsajulebis modeli, saqmis dasaSvebobis damabrkolebel garemoebad, mniSvnelovani iqneba ganxiluli iqnes iseTi faqtorebi rogoricaa damnaSaveTa dasjis valdebuleba. 2.2 damnaSavis dasjis valdebuleba aRniSnuli TavSi ganxiluli iqneba saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis midgoma saxelmwifos mxridan damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebis arsebobasTan mimarTebaSi. damnaSavis dasjis valdebuleba saerTaSoriso samarTalSi ganxiluli unda iqnes saerTaSoriso samarTlis tradiciuli wyaroebis kvlevis safuZvelze. Sesabamisad gansaxilvels sakiTxs warmoadgens saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi, rogorc saxelmwifoTa valdebulebis 38 Anja Seibert-Fohr, The Relevance of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court for Amnesties and Truth Commissions, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, Volume 7:553(2003) gv.564. 39 Gerhard Hafner et al, A Response to the American View as Presented by Ruth Wedgwood, European Journal of International Law, Volume 10:109(1999) gv.111. 40 Carsten Stahn, Complementarity, amnesties and Alternative forms of justice: some Interpretative guidelines for International Criminal Court, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 3:659(2005) gv.703.
  12. 12. wyaroebi da saerTaSoriso Cveuleba, romelic qmnis valdebulebebs konvenciuri samarTlis ar arsebobis miuxedavad.41 Sesabamisad damnaSavis dasjis valdebuleba ganxiluli unda iqnes yoveli konkretuli danaSaulis mimarT, am SemTxvevaSi saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis iurisdiqciidan gamomdiare saubadi iqneba genocidis, kacobriobis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulTa da omis danaSaulebze.42 2.2.1 რომის სტატუტით გათვალისწინებული დანაშაულები arsebobs TiTqmis universaluri Tanxmoba imis Sesaxeb, rom romis statutiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulebi warmoadgens universalur iurisdiqcias daqvemdebarebul danaSaulebs.43 Tumca, ar unda moxdes universaluri iurisdiqciis areva damnaSavis gadacemis an dasjis CveulebiTsamarTlebriv valdebulebaSi, radgan universaluri iurisdiqcia gulisxmobs damnaSavis dasjis uflebas da ara valdebulebas. gamomdinare iqidan, damnaSavis dasjis valdebuleba ganxiluli unda iqnes yoveli konkretuli danaSaulis mimarT, am SemTxvevaSi saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis iurisdiqciidan gamomdiare saubadi iqneba genocidis, kacobriobis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulTa da omis danaSaulebze. 2.2.1.1. saerTaSoriso saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebi Aarsebobs Tanxmoba imis Sesaxeb, rom romis statutiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulebi warmoadgens saxelmwifoTa valdebulebas. aRniSnuli upirveles yovlisa Sedegia genocidisa da omis danaSaulebis amkrZalavi konvenciebis TiTqmis universaluri ratifikaciisa. saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebi Cveulebisagan gansxvavebiT warmoadgens kodificirebul valdebulebebs, romelTa darRvevac saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebaTa Sesaxeb venis konvenciis Sesabamisad ar SeiZleba gamarTlebul iqnes erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT.44 Sesabamisad saxelmwifo sakuTar kanonmdeblobas, romelic iTvaliswinebs amnistias konkretuli danaSaulisaTvis, ver daayenebs damnaSavis dasjis saerTaSorisosamarTlebriv valdebulebaze maRla. Kkonvenciebis umetesoba iTvaliswinebs egreT wodebul gadaeci an dasaje princips, romelic realurad eqstradiciis samarTlis nawilia, Tumca igi xSirad analogiuria dasjis valdebulebisa. es pirvel rigSi gamowveulia imiT, rom im SemTxvevaSi Tu ar xdeba damnaSavis gadacema, rac praqtikaSi arcTu xSiria, saxelmwifo valdebulia dasajos 41 Statute of the International Court of Justice, 38-e muxli (1945). 42 Statute of the International Court of Justice, me-5 muxli (2002). 43 The Ptinceton Ptincples on Universal Jurisdiction (2001), Principle 2(1). 44 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 27-ე მუხლი (1969); PCIJ, Series B, №17, Greco-Bulgarian "Communities", para.32 (1930); PCIJ, Series A/B, №44, Polish Nationals in Danzig, para.24 (1931); PCIJ, Series A/B, №46, Free Zones Case, para.167 (1932).
  13. 13. damnaSave.45 arniSnuli principi warmoadgens saxelSekrulebo samarTlis nawils da dResdReobiT ganmtkicebulia mraval konvenciaSi.46 Oomis danaSaulebis SemTxvevaSi, damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebaze saubrobs 1949 wlis Jenevis konvenciebi da 1977 wlis pirveli damatebiTi protokoli.47 wiTeli jvris komentarebis Sesabamisad, aRnisnuli valdebuleba absoluturia.48 aRsaniSnavia, rom zog emTxvevaSi, sowred Jenebis konvenciebia moSveliebuli omis danaSaulebze amnistiis gavrcelebis ideis mxardasaWerad, kerZod, avorebi xSirad akeTeben konvenciebis meore damatebiTi protokolis me-5 muxlis interpretacias ise, TiTqos is eweodes amnistiis propagandas, Tumca aRniSnuli midgoma ar miiCneva marTebulad, radgan am normis mizans warmoadgens arasaerTaSoriso konfliqtebSi kombatantTa dacva da ara omis damnaSaveTaTvis amnistiis miniWeba.49 aRsaniSnavia isic, rom es valdebuleba vrceldeba Jenevis konvenciebis mZime darRvevebze mxolod saerTaSoriso konfliqtis dros da Sesabamisad faravas romis statutis me-8 muxlis meore punqtis a nawils da ar iTvaliswinebs aseT valdebulebas sxva omis danaSaulebTan mimarTebSi, rac mniSvnelovnad zRuravs im omis danaSaulTa raodenobas, romelTa Cadenis SemTxvevaSic saxelmwifos gaaCnia damnaSavis dasjis valdebuleba.50 gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac amnistiebis praqtika umetes SemTxvevebSi swored saSinao konfliqtebSi gvxvdeba. genocidis danaSaulis SemTxvevaSi, damnaSavis dasjis valdebuleba momdinareobs genocidis konvenciis me-6 muxlidan.51 rac Seexeba kacobriobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebs, am SemTxvevaSi SedarebiT rTulia gavadginoT damnaSavis dasjis valdebuleba, radgan ar arsebobs konvencia, romelic daakisrebs saxelSekrulebo tipis valdebulebas saxelmwifoebs.52 Tumca es ar gulisxmobs imas rom konkretuli qmedebebi, romlebic Sedis kacobriobis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulSi ar warmoadgens saerTaSoriso saxelSekrulebo samarTliT regulirebis sagans, magaliTad wamebis danaSauli, gaTvaliswinebulia gaeros 1984 wlis wamebis sawinaaRmdego konvenciis me-4 muxSi.53 2.2.1.2 saerTaSoriso CveulebiTi samarTlidan momdinare valdebulebebi 45 Miles M. Jackson, The Customary International Law Duty To Prosecute Crimes Against Humanity: A New Framework, Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law, Voume. 16:117(2007) გვ.127. 46 Convention for the Supression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, me-7 muxli, (1971). 47 Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 49-e muxli (1949); Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 50-e muxli (1949); Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 129-e muxli (1949); Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 146-e muxli (1949). 48 Theodor Meron, Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law (USA:Oxford University Press, 1991) gv.215. 49 Gerhard Hafner et al, A Response to the American View as Presented by Ruth Wedgwood, European Journal of International Law, Volume 10:109(1999) gv.111; Tristan Garcia, Amnesties and the Tome Statute-A Legitimate Bar to Prosecution?, Australian International Law Journal, Volume 10:188(2006) gv.192. 50 Michael Scharf, “The Amnesty Exception to the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court” Cornell International LauwJournal, Volume 32:507(1999) gv.516. 51 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, me-6 muxli (1951). 52 M. Cherif Bassiouni, "Crimes Against Humanity": The Need for a Specialized Convention, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Volume 31:457(1993-1994) gv.457-494. 53 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, მე-4 მუხლი (1984).
  14. 14. rogoc marTlmsajulebis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlo aRniSnavs, saerTaSoriso Cveulebis CamoyalibebisaTvis saxelmwifoTa mier valdebulebis arsebobis Segnebasa da aRiarebasTan erTad (e.w Opinio Juris), saWiroa arseobdes saxelmwifoTa praqtika.54 rogorc ukve aRiniSna konvenciuri samaTali adgens valdebulebebs mxolod xelSekrulebis wevri saxelmwifobisaTvis, Tumca arsebobs TiTqmis universaluri Tanxmoba imis Sesaxeb, rom romis statutiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulebis dasjis valdebuleba agreTve ganmtkicebulia CveulebiTi samarTliT. amas adasturebs mravali egreT wodebuli rbili samarTlis dokumenti magaliTisaTvis gaeros sxvadasxva organoebis rezoluciebi.55 Ggenocidis danaSaulisa da omis danaSaulebis SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania ganxiluli iqnes saerTaSoriso saxelSekrulebo samarTlis CveulebiT samarTlad gardaqmnis tendencia. met-naklebad universaluri ratifikaciis mqone konvenciebis normebis moqmedebis farglebi scdeba maT wevr saxelmwifoebs da CveulebiTi samarTlis saxiT vrceldeba agreTve arawevr saxelmwifoebzec. dResdReobiT genocidis danaSaulis dagmobisa da Jenevis konvenciebis universaluri ratifikaciis fonze, saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba garkveulwilad Tanxmdeba imaze, rom genocidis da omis danaSaulebis dasjis konvenciuri valdebuleba gaxda CveulebiTi samarTlis nawili. kacobriobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebis Camden pirTa dasjis valdebulebis arsebobas farTo mxardaWera aqvs saerTaSoriso samarTalSi generaluri asambleis rezoluciebis saxiT,56 romlebic am SemTxvevaSi gansakuTrebiT relevanturia, radgan rogorc marTlmsajulebis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlo aRniSnavs, miuxedavad imisa, rom generaluri asambleis rezoluciebs savaldebulo Zala ar gaaCnia, am organos warmomadgenlobiTi xasiaTidan gamomdinare, misi rezoluciebi SesaZloa warmoadgendes opinion juris arsebobis gamoxatulebas.57 am konkretuli sakiTxis miznebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia 1973 wlis rezolucia,58 romelic sruli umravlesobiT iqna miRebuli da calsaxad acxadebs, rom arsebobs omis danaSaulebisa da kacobriobis winaarmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebis dasjis valdebuleba. Ggarda amisa aRniSnuli valdebulebis arseboba ganmtkicebulia akademiur naSromebSi59 da saerTaSoriso tribunalebis gadawyvetilebebSi.60 avtorebi agreTve xazs usvamen romis statutiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSauleibs akrZalvis specifikur xasiaTs, rogorc jus cogens normebs, romlebic Tavis mxriv qmnian damnaSavis dasjis an gadacemis erga omnes valdebulebas.61 Jus cogens normebi warmoadgens saerTaSoriso samarTlis umniSvnelovanes wesebs,62 xolo erga omnes valdebuleba Tavi mxriv gulisxmobs valdebulebas ara konkretuli saxelmwifos, aramed zogadad saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis winaSe.63 Sesabamisad, danaSaulebi, romelTa 54 ICJ, North Sea Continental Shelf (Federal Republic of Germany/Netherlands), para.77 (1969). 55 UNGA Res. 3074(1974); UNSC Res. 1315(2000); UN Commission on Human Rights Res. 2002/79; UNCHR Res. 79(2002). 56 UNGA Res. 3074; UNGA Res. 2312; UNGA. Res. 2712; UNGA Res. 2840; UNGA Res. 2312; UNGA Res. 1989/65; UNGA Res. 47/133. 57 ICJ, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons advisory opinion, para.70 (1995). 58 UNGA. Res. 3074. 59 M. Cherif Bassiouni, Searching for Peace and Achieving Justice: The Need for Accountability, Law and Contemporary Problems, Volume 59:9(1996) gv.17-18. 60 ICTY Case No IT-95-17/1-T, Prosecutor v Furundzia, para.l51-157, (1998). 61 M. Cherif Bassiouni, International Crimes: Jus Cogens and Obligatio Erga Omnes, Law and Contemporary Problems Volume 59:63(1996) gv.63; ICJ, Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, para.23 (1951); ICJ, Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, para.31 (1996). 62 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 53-e muxli (1969). 63 ICJ, Case concerning the Barcelona traction, para.33 (1962).
  15. 15. akrZalvamac jus cogens normis statuss miaRwia Tavis TavSi moicaven maTze universaluri iurisdiqciis gavrcelebis SesaZleblobas,64 rac gulisxmobs imas, rom nebismieri saxelmwifo uflebamosilia dasajos misi damrRvevi. xolo meore mxriv, jus cogens normebi, romlebic icavs ara konkretuli piris an saxelmwifos, aramed mTlianad saerTaSoriso sazogadoebisaTvis mniSvnelovan sikeTes, darRvevis SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifos, romlis iurisdiqciaSic imyofeba damnaSave akisreben misi dasjis erga omnes valdebulebas. gabatonebuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, am ori wesis Serewyma iwvevs jus cogens normebis darRvevisas damnaSavis dasjis an gadacemis valdebulebas.65 Sesabamisad zemoarniSnuli msjelobidan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebis Sesaxeb opinion juris arsebobs. Tumca rogorc ukve aRiniSna CveulebiTsamarTlebrivi normis CamoyalibebisaTvis, mxolode saxelmwifoTa mier konkretuli valdebulebis Segneba ar aris sakmarisi, aramed agreTve mniSvnelovania saxelmwifoTa praqtikis Seswavlac, romelic am mxriv metad winaaRmdegobrivia. kerZod saxelmwifoebi ganagrZoben saerTaSoriso danaSaulebis Camden pirTaTvis amnistiis miniWebas,66 rac Tavis mxriv gulisxmobs imas, rom miuxedavad generaluri asambleis rezoluciebis msgavs arasavaldebulo dokumentebSi gamoxatuli TiTqmis universaluri Tanxmobisa, saxelmwifoebi jer ar arian mzad aRiaron saerTaSoriso danaSaulTa Camdeni pirebis dasjis da Sesabamisad amnistiebis akrZalvis CveulebiTsamarTlebrivi valdebulebis arseboba.67 es midgoma gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa bolo droindeli movlenebis fonze, rodesac masiurad xdeboda amnistiis miniWeba konfliqtebis regulirebis mizniT. romis statutiT gaTvaliswinebuli danaSaulebis ganxilva ar gvaZlevs imis saSualebas SevafasoT arsebobs Tu ara konkretuli danaSaulebis dasjis CveulebiTsamarTlebrivi valdebuleba, es gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania kacobriobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebis SemTxvevaSi, romelic ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli arcerT konvenciaSi da Sesabamisad CveulebiTsamarTlebrivi valdebulebis ar arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, arc SezsRuduli raodenobis saxelmwifoebisTvis Seqmnis saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebs. Sesabamisad gansakuTrebiT kacobriobis winaaRmdeg danaSaulebTan mimarTebaSi, relevanturi iqneba ganvixiloT adamianis uflebaTa sxva mZime darRvevebi, romlebic SesaZloa warmoadgendnen romis statutis me-7 muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul qmedebebs. 2.2.2 adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebi winamdebare qveTavSi saubari iqneba adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifoTa mxridan damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebis Sesaxeb. Aam konteqstSi ganxiluli iqneba adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso samarTlis sferoSi arsebuli sami ZiriTadi dokumenti da maT Sesrulebaze sazedamxedvelo organoTa mier maTi 64 ICTY, Prosecutor v. Furundzija, para.156 (1998). 65 Robert Cryer, Hakan Friman, Darryl Robinson, Elizabeth Wilmshurst, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007) გვ.60. 66 Michael P. Scharf, Swapping Amnesty for Peace: Was There a Duty To Prosecute International Crimes in Haiti, Texas International Law Journal, Volume 31:1(1996) gv.36; 67 John Dugard, “Dealing with Crimes of a Past Regime: Is Amnesty Still an Option?” Leiden Journal of International Law, Volume 12:1001(1999) gv.1002.
  16. 16. interpretaciisas dadgenili standartebi, ramdenadac rogorc marTlmsajulebis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos wesdebis 38-e muxli acxadebs, sasamarTloTa gadawyvetilebebi SesaZloa miCneul iqnes saerTaSoriso samarTlis wyarod.68 2.2.2.1 adamianis uflebaTa amerikuli sistema Aadamianis uflebaTa amerikul sistemas safuZveli Caeyara 1948 wels, rodesac amerikis saxelmwifoTa organiaciam miiRo adamianis uflebaTa deklaracia.69 aRniSnuli procesis gagrZelda 1959 wels adamianis uflebaTa inter-amerkuli komisiis SeqmniTa da mogvianebiT adamianis uflebaTa amerikuli konvenciis miRebiT, romelic ZalaSi Sevida 1978 wels da romlis bazazec dafuZnda adamianis uflebaTa inter-amerikuli sasamarTlo.70 aRniSnuli sasamarTlos praqtika metad mniSvnelovania saerTaSoriso amnistiisadmi saerTaSoriso samsarTlis midgomis kvlevisas, ramdenadac sasamarTlom mravaljer ganixila amnistiis sakiTxi laTinuri amerikis saxelmwifoTa konfliqtebis konteqstSi. magaliTisaTvis, sasamarTlom ganixila Semdegi saxelmwifoebis erovnuli amnistiis kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisoba adamianis uflebaTa inter-amerikul konvenciasTan: urugvai,71 peru,72 argentina,73 el salvadori,74 Cile.75 amnistiis konteqstSi sasamarTlos msjeloba ZiriTadad efuZneboda adamianis uflebaTa inter-amerikuli konvenciis sam muxls. kerZod, erT-erT gadawyvetilebaSi sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom konvenciis pirvel muxlSi gansazRvruli adamianis uflebaTa pativiscemis uzrunvelyofisl movaleoba moicavs agreTve iseTi Sidasaelmwifoebrivi sistemis Seqmnis valdebulebas, romelic samarTlebrivad uzrunvelyofs konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul adamianis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa srulyofil dacvasa da pativiscemas, rac Tavis mxriv gulisxmobs imas, rom am valdebulebis aRebis Sedegad, saxelmwifoebma unda ganaxorcielon adamianis uflebaTa darRvevebis prevencia, gamoZieba da dasja.76 Pirveli muxlis konteqsSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania inter-amerikuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, sadac man ganacxada, rom amnistiis kanonmdeblobis ZaliT, sisxlissamarTlebrivi procedurebis Catarebis SeuZleblobam eWvqveS daayena msxverplTa 68 Statute of International Court of Justice, 38-e muxli (1945). 69 American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948). 70 American Convention on Human Rights (1978). 71 Mendoza et. al. v. Uruguay, Cases 10.029, 10.036, 10.145, 10.305, 10.372, 10.373, 10.374 and 10.375, Report No. 29/92, Inter-Am.C.H.R., OEA/Ser.L/V/II.83 Doc. 14 at 154 (1993). xelmisawvdomia http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/29-92-URUGUAY.htm (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 72 Barrios Altos v. Peru, Judgment of November 30, 2001, Inter-Am Ct. H.R. (Ser. C) No. 87 (2001). xelmisawvdomia http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/iachr/C/87-ing.html (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 73 Consuelo et al. v. Argentina, Case 10.147, 10.181, 10.240, 10.262, 10.309, 10.311 Report No. 28/92, Inter- Am.C.H.R., OEA/Ser.L/V/II.83 Doc. 14 at 41 (1993). xelmisawvdomia http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/28-92-ARGENTINA.htm (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 74 Monsenor Oscar Arnulfo Romero and Galdamez v. El Salvador, Case 11.481, Report N° 37/00, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.106 Doc. 3 rev. at 671 (1999). xelmisawvdomia http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/37-00.html (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 75 Carmelo Soria Espinoza v. Chile, Case 11.725, Report Nº 133/99, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.106 Doc. 3 rev. at 494 (1999). Xelmisawvdomia http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/133-99.html (nanaxia 2013/07/07). Garay Hermosilla et al. v. Chile, Case 10.843, Report No. 36/96, Inter-Am.C.H.R.,OEA/Ser.L/V/II.95 Doc. 7 rev. at 156 (1997). xelmisawvdomia http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cases/1996/chile36-96.htm (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 76 Velasquez Rodriguez v. Honduras, Case, Inter-Am.Ct.H.R. (set. C), No. 4,.Judgement (1988), para.166.
  17. 17. uflebebi samoqalaqo sasamarTloebSi.77 Garda amisa, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom konvenciis pirveli muxlis safuZvelze aRebuli valdebulebidan gamomdinare, saxelmwifos yvela organo unda funqcionirebdes adamianis uflebaTa damrRvevTa identificirebisa da dasjis muzniT.78 garda admaianis uflebaTa inter-amerikuli konvenciis pirveli muxlisa, sasamarTlom amnistiis konteqstSi agreTve aqcenti gaakeTa konvenciis me-8 da 25-e mulebze. kerZod, sasamarTlos azriT, erovnul amnistias SesaZloa eWvqveS daeyenebida konvenciis me-8 muxliT gansazRvruli msxverplTa uflebebi gansakuTrebiT im saxelmwifoebSi, sadac erovnuli kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs msxverplTa monawileobas samarTlebriv procesebSi.79 rac Seexeba konvenciis 25-e muxls, romelic ganamtkicebs adamianis uflebas mimarTos efeqturi tribunals an sasamarTlos misi konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlom igi gamoiyena erovnuli amnistiis kanonmdeblobis inter-amerikuli knvenciiT nakisr valdebulebebTan Seusabamobis damadasturebel normad.80 Sesabamisad sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebidan ikveTeba, rom adamianis uflebaTa inter-amerikuli konvenciis darRvevisas mis Sesrulebaze zedamxedvelobis organo miiCnevs, rom saxelmwifoebs gaaCniaT damnaSaveTA dasjis valdebuleba, romelic ikiTxeba konvenciis konkretuli normebis interpretaciis Sedegad. 2.2.2.2 gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komiteti Ggaeros adamianis uflebaTa komitetma romelic warmoadgens 1966 wlis adamianis samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebaTa paqtis Sesrulebaze zedamxedvel organos, ganaviTara analogiuri midgoma adamianis uflebaTa darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebis mimarT. Kkomitetis gancxadebiT, miuxedavad imisa, rom zemoaRniSnuli paqti ar moicavs individis uflebas moiTxovos konkretuli piris sisxlissamarTlebrivi dasja, saxelmwifo valdebulia ganaxorcielos adamianis uflebaTa darRvevebis gamoZieba, rac agreTve moicavs damnaSavis identificirebisa da sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebis valdebulebas, romelic daafuZna paqtis 2(3) muxlSi ganmtkicebul uflebas.81 2.2.2.3. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasmarTlo 77 Garay Hermosilla et al. v. Chile, Case 10.843, Report No. 36/96, Inter-Am.C.H.R.,OEA/Ser.L/V/II.95 Doc. 7 rev. at 156 (1997). პარაgrafi.66. 78 Garay Hermosilla et al. v. Chile, Case 10.843, Report No. 36/96, Inter-Am.C.H.R.,OEA/Ser.L/V/II.95 Doc. 7 rev. at 156 (1997). პარაgrafi.111. 79 Consuelo et al. v. Argentina, Case 10.147, 10.181, 10.240, 10.262, 10.309, 10.311 Report No. 28/92, Inter- Am.C.H.R., OEA/Ser.L/V/II.83 Doc. 14 at 41 (1993) paragrafi.34 80 Garay Hermosilla et al. v. Chile, Case 10.843, Report No. 36/96, Inter-Am.C.H.R.,OEA/Ser.L/V/II.95 Doc. 7 rev. at 156 (1997). პარაgrafi 63. 81 Bautista Arellana v. Colombia, Communication No. 563/1993, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/55/D/563/1993 para.8(6) (1995); Ana Laureano v. Peru, Communication No. 540/1993, U.N.Doc. C(PR/C/56/D/540/1993 para.10 (1996).
  18. 18. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlo, romelic warmoadgens adamianis uflebaTa evropul konvenciaze sazedamxedvelo organos,82 agreTve mxars uWers konkretul danaSaulebTan mimarTebaSi damnaSavis dasjis valdebulebis arsebobas. kerZod, sasamarTlo aseTis valdebulebis arsebobas aRiarebs wamebis danaSaulis Cadenis SemTxvevaSi.83 3. sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis kriteriumebi rogorc ukve aRiniSna sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos damfuZnebeli dokumenti moicavs normebs romelTa interpretaciam SesaZloa gansxvavebuli suraTi mogvces sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobaze msjelobisas. kerZod, romis statutis preambula mxars uWers im ideas, rom arsebobs dasjis valdebuleba da Sesabamisad gamoZieba, romlis warmarTvis manerac ar axdens am valdebulebis Sesrulebis miznis demonstrirebas ver CaiTvleba Sesabamis gamoZiebad statutis me-17 muxlis miznebisaTvis. meore mxriv, konkretuli normebi, magaliTad statutis 53-e muxli tovebs imis SesaZleblobas, rom sasmarTlom aRiaros iseTi erovnuli procesebi rogoricaa marTlmsajulebis alternatiuli meqanizmebi. zogierTi avtoris azriT, am gaugebrobis mizezs warmoadgens is faqti, rom aRniSnuli normebi Seiqmna sxvadasxva samuSao jgufebis mier.84 3.1 sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos Seqmna da misi kompetencia romis statuti warmoadgebs pirvel saerTaSoriso dokuments, romelmac Seqmna saerTaSoriso danaSaulTa gamoZiebisa da dasjis saerTaSorisosamarTlebrivi baza. sasamarTlos iurisdiqca gansazRvrulis romis statutis me-5 mulSi da Semoifargleba oTxi danaSauliT. Miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlos Seqmnis procesSi amnistiis sakiTxi dasmuli iqna amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis mier,85 romis statuti ar Seicavs arcerT normas, romelic moixseniebs amnistias. rogorc ukve aRiniSna romis statutis Seqmna Sedegi iyo meoce saukunis Sua xanebSi dawyevbuli procesisa, romelsac biZgi misca meore msoflio omis dros momxdar adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebma Sesabamisad, saerTaSoriso sisxlis samarTlis arsebobac ki xSirad gamarTlebuli iyo dausjelobis aRkveTis lozungiT. Aaqdan gamomdinare gasakviri ar unda iyos, rom romis statutis preambula gamoxatavs aSkara mxardaWeras sasamarTlos iurisdiqciiT gaTvaliswinebul danaSaulTa represiis ideisadmi da acxadebs, rom yvela 83 ECHR, Aksoy v. Turkey, para.98 (1997). 84 Sharon A. Williams & William A. Schabas, Article 17, Issues of Admissibility, Otto Triffterer (ed.) Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers’ Notes, Article by Article (2d ed. 2008) gv.605-611. 85 Naomi Roht-Arriaza, Amnesty and the International Criminal Court, Dinah Shelton (ed.) International Crimes, Peace and Human Rights: The Role Of the International Criminal Court (Transnational Publishers, 2000); Ruth Wedgwood, The International Criminal Court: An American View, European Journal of International Law, Volume 10:93(1999) gv.96.
  19. 19. saxelmwifos gaaCnia valdebuleba dasajos am danaSaulTa Camdeni pirebi. Ggarda amisa preambula gamoxatavs statutis xelmomwer saxelmwifoTa srul mzadyofnas dausvan wertili dausjelobis praqtikas. miuxedavad imisa, rom xelSekrulebis preambulas Sesasruleblad savaldebulo Zala ar gaaCnia, mas ukiduresad didi mniSvneloba eniWeba xelSekrulebis interpretaciis dros, ramdenadac igi warmoadgens xelSekrlebis miznisa da obieqtis identificirebis saSualebas.86 analogiurad romis statutis iterpretaciisas mniSvnelovania gaTvaliswinebuli iqnes preambulis gancxadebebi,87 romelic am konkretul SemTxvevaSi naTlad gamoxatavs, dausjelobis aRkveTis mizans da Sesabamisad SeiZleba gakeTdes daskvna, rom sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos mier erovnuli amnistiebis pativiscema, ewinaaRmdegeba sasamarTlos arsebobis ZiriTad miznebs. 3.2 sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis kriteriumebi romis statutis me-17 muxli, romelic awesrigebs sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis sakiTxs, iTvaliswinebs or kriteriums komplementaroba da danaSaulis simZime.88 komplementaroba romis statutis Seqmnaze molaparakebebis warmoebisas warmoadgenda ara mxolod axal da jer ar arsebul princips, aramed axal terminsac.89 komplementarobis principi gaCnda jer kidev saerTasoriso samarTlis komisiis mier SemuSavebul proeqtSi. komplkementarobis, rogorc terminis kvlevisas erT-erTi avtori mivida daskvnamde, rom komplementaroba gulisxmobs Sevsebasa da srulyofas Sesabamisad sisxlis samarTlis saerTasoriso sasamarTlos iurisdiqcia srulyofs erovnul iurisdiqcias da moqmedebs mxolod maSin, rodesac saxelmwifos ar surs an ar SeuZlia Caataros gamoZieba.90 1.2.1 romis statutis me-17(1) muxli komplementarobis testis pirveli nawili egreT wodebuli komplementarobis testi, romelic sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlosi saqmis dasaSvebobis Semowmebis erT–erT safexurs warmoadgens, SeiZleba daiyos or nawilad, 1.erovnuli samarTlebrivi procedurebis arseboba, romelic unda moicavdes rogorc danaSaulebriv qmedebas, ise konkretul damnaSaves,91 radgan sasamarTlos precedentulma samarTalidan irkveva, rom saxelmwifos umoqmeboda sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos iurisdiqcias daqvemdebarebuli danaSaulis Cadenisas 86 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 31-e მუხლი (1969). 87 Michael Scharf, “The Amnesty Exception to the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court” Cornell International LauwJournal, Volume 32:507(1999) gv 522. 88 ICC, ICC-01-04-01-06-8, Prosecutor v. Lubanga, Decision on prosecutors applicatio for warrant of arrest, para.29 (2006). 89 Johan D. van der Vyver, Personal and Territorial Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, Emory International Law Review, Volume 14:1(2000) gv.66 90 Jo Stigen, The Relationship Between the International Criminal Court and National Jurisdictions the principle of Complementarity (Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2008) გვ.190. 91 ICC, ICC-02/05-01/07 Prosecutor v. Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb, Decisio on the prosecutor’s application under article 58(7) of the Statute, para.21 (2007).
  20. 20. garkveul SemTxvevebSi avtomaturad iwvevs saqmis dasaSvebobas.92 2.erovnuli procedurebis warmarTvis teqnika da mizani, ramdenadac nebismieri Sedegi rac mohyveba arsebul gamoziebas ar unda momdinareobdes saxelmwifos uunarobis an survilis ar qonisgan ganaxorcielos gamoZieba an sisxlissamarTlebivi devna. romis statutis me-17 muxlis pirveli nawili ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisagan danaSaulis gamoZiebisa da devnis stadiebs. aRniSnul muxlSi ganmtkicebuli komplementarobis principi asaxelebs sam SemTxvevas, rodesac saqme dauSvebelia sisxis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi. pirveli SemTxveva exeba mimdinare gamoZiebas, kerZod saxelmwifoSi, romelsac aqvs iurisdiqcia konkretul danaSaulze, am danaSaulTan mimarTebaSi mimdinareobs gamoZiebis procesi.93 meore SemTxveva exeba iseT viTarebas, rodesac danaSaulis gamoZieba ukve dasrulebulia da saxelmwifo wyvets ar ganaxorcielos sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna damnaSavis mimarT,94 xolo mesame SemTxveva exeba iseT situaciebs, rodesac dasrulebulia rogorc gamoZieba, ise pirovnebis devna da damnaSave eqvemdebareba Sesabamis sasjels. Uukanasknel SemTxvevaSi moqmedebas iwyebs ormagis dasjis akrZalvis principi, (ne bis in idem) romelic ganmtkicebulia romis statutis me-20 muxlSi.95 ormagi dasjis akrZalva warmoadgens erT- erT umnisvnelovanes sixlissamarTlebriv princips da ganmtkicebulia mraval adamianis uflebaTa konvenciaSi.96 Ppirveli da meore SemTxvevis gaTvaliswinebiT, gansaxilvel sakiTxs warmoadgens gamoZiebis arsi da misi interpretacia romis statutis miznebisaTvis. termini gamoZieba ganmartebulia rogorc procesi, romelic mimarTulia ara mxolod danaSaulis irgvliv arsebuli faqtebis gamovlenisken, aramed agreTve damnaSavis identificirebisken.97 Sesabamisad igi unda gamoricxavdes iseT procesebs, romlebic ar akmyofilebs am kriteriumebs da emsaxureba mxolod simarTlis gamovlenas. zogierTi avtoris azriT, aRnisnuli termini gulisxmobs, rom unda arsebobdes individualuri gamoZieba konkretuli saqmis faqtobrivi garemoebebis mimarT.98 aranakleb mniSvnelovania ganimarTos statutis me-17(1)(b) muxlSi moxseniebuli termini gadawyvetileba. Saubaria erovnuli gamoZiebis Sedegad miRebul gadawyvetilebaze sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnaze uaris Tqmis Sesaxeb. amgvari terminis arseboba metyvelebs imaze, rom amnistiis miniWeba ar unda iyos gamoZiebis erTaderTi logikuri dasasruli, aramed gamoZieba wrmarTuli unda iyos ise, rom misi dasrulebisas arsebobdes rogorc sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebis, ise masze uaris Tqmis ori SesaZlo perspeqtiva, mxolod amis Semdeg SeiZleba ewodos gamoZiebis Sedegs gadawyvetileba.99 Sesabamisad, romis statutis me-17(1) nawilis konkretul mniSvnelovan terminTa interpretaciiT SesaZloa davaskvnaT, rom arsebuli gamoZieba unda iyos mimarTuli ara 92 ICC, ICC-01-04-01-06-8, Prosecutor v. Lubanga, Decision on prosecutors applicatio for warrant of arrest, para.40 (2006). 93 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Romis statutis me-17(1) muxli (2002). 94 Ibid. 95 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Romis statutis me-20 muxli (2002). 96 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, me-14(7) muxli (1966). 97 D. Robinson, Serving the Interests of Justice: Amnesties, Truth Commissions and the International Criminal Court, European Journal of International Law (2003). გვ.500. 98 Robin Murphy, Establishing a Precedent in Uganda: The Legitimacy of National Amnesties under the ICC, Eyes on the ICC, Volume 3:33(2006) gv.44. 99 Darryl Robinson, Serving the Interests of Justice: Amnesties, Truth Commissions and the International Criminal Court' (2003) European Journal of International Law, Volume 13:481(2003) გვ.501-502; Carsten Stahn, Complementarity, Amnesties and Alternative Forms of Justice: Some Interpretive Guidelines for the International Criminal Court', Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 3:695(2005) gv.712.
  21. 21. mxolod danaSaulebrivi faqtebis dadgenisaken, aramed unda moicavdes damnaSavis identifikaciis mizansac. 1.2.2 romis statutis me-17(2) muxli, komplementarobis testis meore nawili romis statutis me-17(1) muxlSi gansazRvrul terminTa srulfasovani interpretacia SeuZlebelia amave muxlis me-2 nawili gareSe, romelic ganmartavs kriteriumebs, romlebsac gamoZieba an sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis dawyebaze uaris Tqmis gadawyvetileba. kerZod, erovnuli sagamoZiebo procesi da mis Sedegad miRebuli gadawyvetileba ar unda momdinareobdes saxelmwifos mxridan amgvari gamoZiebis an sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebis nebis an SesaZleblobis ar arsebobidan. am konkretuli pirobis Sefasebis kriteriumebi Camoyalibebulia statutis me-17(2) muxSi, kerZod, saxelmwifos nebis arsebobs fasdeba sami kriteriumiT: 1. emsaxureba Tu ara erovnuli procedurebi romis statutis me-5 muxlSi gansazRvruli danaSaulebis Camdeni piris pasuximgeblobisagan dacvis mizans. gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, amgvari miznis arsebobis demonstracia SesaZloa iyos iseTi SemTxvevebi rogoricaa, saxelmwifosa da eWvmitanils Soris saerTo interesis arsebobs, erovnuli procesis wamowyeba sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos prokuroris mier konkretul danaSaulebTan mimarTebaSi yuradRebis gamovlenis Sedegad, sasamarTlo procedurebi, romlebic ar pasuxobs saerTaSorisod aRiarebul standartebs da mimarTulia eWvmitanilisadi sargeblis miniWebisken, sasamarTlo da sagamoZiebo proceseSi politikuri intervencia, romelic ramenairad zRudavs gamoZiebis an sasamarTlo procesis warmarTvis Tavisuflebas, magaliTisaTvis zRudavs sasmarTlos iurisdiqcias konkretuli danaSaulebiT, araadekvaturi erovnuli kanonmdebloba, gamoZiebis an sasmarTlo procesis araadekvaturi Sedegi, kerZod Cadenili danaSaulis simzimis gaTvaliswinebiT aSkarad araproporciuli sasjeli da ase Semdeg.100 Mmeore kriteriums warmoadgens imis dadgena SeiniSneba Tu ara procedurebis dagvianeba, romelic konkretuli garemoebebidan gamomdinare Seusabamoa piris marTlmsajulebisadmi daqvemdebarebis.101 Dda bolos, saxelmwifos nebis dadgenisas adreTve gasaTvaliswinebelia aris Tu ara erovnuli procedurebi moklebuli damoukieblobasa da miukerZoeblobas, an warmarTuli ise, rom ar Seesabameba pirovnebis marTlmsajulebisadmi daqvemdebarebis mizans.102 Ddamoukideblobis kriteriumi gansazRvrulia rogorc, ara mxolod abstraqtuli damoukidebloba, aramed institucionaluric, rac gulisxmobs, rom nebismieri erovnuli procesi, romelic mimarTulia martlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisaken damoukidebeli unda iyos aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebisagan.103 zemoarniSnuli kriteriumebis Sefaseba garkveulwilad naTels hfens zemoad, nisnuli terminebis ganmartebas magaliTisaTvis, me-17(2)(c) muxli naTlad adasturebs, rom saxelmwifos qmedebebi ar unda iyos Seusabamo mis nebasTan dauqvemdebaros konkretuli piris marTlmsajulebas. am konteqstSi agreTve mniSvnelovania termin marTlmsajulebis 100 Jo Stigen, The Relationship Between the International Criminal Court and National Jurisdictions the principle of Complementarity (Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2008) gv.263-288. 101 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Romis statutis me-17(2)(b) muxli (2002). 102 Ibid. me-17(2)(c) muxli 103 Supreme Court of Canada, Valiente v. Queen gv.2 (1985).
  22. 22. interpretacia.104 Tumca Tu vimsjelebT statutis preambulis meoTxe paragrafidan am terminis interpretacia ise, rom moicvas ara sisxlissamarTlebrivi marTlmsajuleba TiTqmis warmoudgenelia.105 Llogikuria, rom saxelmwifos qmedebebi am SemTxvevaSi gamoZiebis procesi unda avlendes saxelmwifos mxridan am Sedegis miRwevis mizans. Sesabamisad romis statutis me-17 muxlis mixedviT sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis ganxilvisas relevanturia mxolod im tipis gamoZieba, romelic mimarTulia damnaSavis dasjisaken an sul mcire avlens amis perspeqtivas.106 aqedan gamomdinare, komplementarobis testis SefasebiT, sasamarTloSi saqme dasaSvebia im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gamoZiebis mizans ar warmoadgens marTlmsajulebis mirWeva konkretuli individis pasuxismgeblobis dadgomiT, aramed mxolod simarTlis gamovlena.107 Sesabamisad sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis damabrkolebel garemoebad SesaZloa miviCnioT iseTi SemTxveva, rodesac saxelmwifom ganaxorciela srulfasovani gamoZieba da gadawyvita ar daiwyos sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, Tumca aRnisnuli gamoZieba unda iyos catarebuli damnaSavis dasjis mizniT, anu gamoZiebis stadiaze da misi warmarTvis procesSi unda arsebobdes damnaSavis dasjis mizani da perspeqtiva. Tu movargebT aseT situacios simarTlis komisiis mier ganxorcielebul gamoZiebas, Tundac iseT srulfasovan gamoZiebas, romelsac atarebda samxreT afrikis simarTlis komisias, simarTlis komisiebis bunebidan gamomdinare, misi proceduris mizans ar warmoadgens pirovnebis dasja aramed upirveles yovlisa simarTlis, anu faqtebis gamorkveva da meore pirovnebisaTvis amnistiis miniWeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu man daakmayofile amisaTvis gansazRvruli moTxovnebi. sesabamisad simarTlis komisiis mier ganxorcielebuli procesis pirobebSi damnaSavis dasjis rogorc mizani, ise perspeqtiva vlindeba mxolod maSin, rodesac pirs uari eTqva amnistiis miniWebaze.108 zogierTi avtoris azriT, miuxedavad zemoaRniSnuli interpretaciisa, me–17 muxlis b nawilis arseboba adasturebs, rom sasamarTlo ragac formiT mainc miiCnevs alternatiuli marTlmsajulebis meqanizmebs misaRebad.109 Tumca, gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom statutSi aRniSnuli muxlis arseboba TavisTavad ar gulisxmobs, rom statutis Semqmnelebma masSi gaiTvaliswines simarTlis komisiis mier ganxorcielebuli gamoZiebisa da erovnuli amnistiebis kombinaciiT miRebuli gardamavali marTlmsajulebis meqanizmi, zogierTi avtoris azriT arsebobs mravali mizezi, ramac esaZloa legitimuri gamoZiebis Semdeg prokurorma miiRos gadawyvetileba ar daiwyos sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna.110 Aam 104 Carsten Stahn, Complementarity, Amnesties and Alternative Forms of Justice: Some Interpretive Guidelines for the International Criminal Court', Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 3:695(2005) gv.716. 105 Robert Cryer, Hakan Friman, Darryl Robinson, Elizabeth Wilmshurst, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007). გვ.132. 106 Carsten Stahn, Complementarity, Amnesties and Alternative Forms of Justice: Some Interpretive Guidelines for the International Criminal Court', Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 3:695(2005) gv.711-712. Jo Stigen, The Relationship Between the International Criminal Court and National Jurisdictions the principle of Complementarity (Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2008) gv.203. 107 Diba Majzub, Peace of Justice? Amnesties and the International Criminal Court, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Volime 3:247(2002) gv.268. 108 Jennifer J. Llewellyn, A Comment on the Complementary Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court: Adding Insult to Injury in Transitional Contexts?, Dalhousie Law Joural, Volume 24:192(2001) გვ.203. 109 Robin Murphy, Establishing a Precedent in Uganda: The Legitimacy of National Amnesties under the ICC, Eyes on the ICC, Volume 3:33(2006) gv.42. 110 Jo Stigen, The Relationship Between the International Criminal Court and National Jurisdictions the principle of Complementarity (Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2008) gv.309-314.
  23. 23. SemTxvevebSi aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba miRebulia srulfasovani gamoZiebis Catarebis Semdeg, razec metyvelebs is faqti, rom sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ar dawyebis gadawyvetilebis miReba gamowveuli iqneba gamoZiebis Sedegad dadgenili pirobebiTa da garemoebebiT da ara gamoZiebis dawyebamde, sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos ar aqvs mizezi imisa, rom erovnuli gamoZieba ar miiCnios romis statutis me- 17 muxlSi gansazRvrul gamoZiebad, romelic mteli procesis ganmavlobaSi moicavs damnaSavis dasjis mizans. 1.3 samxreT afrikis simarTlis komisia imdenad ramdenadac aRniSnuli Tavi eZRvneba simarTlis komisiebisa da amnistiebis erToblivad gamoyenebisas SemuSavebuli modelis ganxilvas, naSromis am nawilis dasasruls minda vimsjelo erT-erT modelze, romelic mogeyebul iqna samxreT afrikis xelisuflebis mier aparteidis reJimis dasasruleblad da mravali avtoris azriT warmoadgens simarTlis komisiebis erT-erT yvelaze warmatebul models.111 samxreT afrikis simarTlis komisia, iseve rogorc amnistiis kanonmdebloba warmoadgenda politikur kompromiss, romelic miRweul iqna samxreT afrikis axal xelisuflebasa da aparteidis reJimis liderTa Soris molaparakebebis Sedegad, romelic dasrulda erovnuli erTianobisa da Serigebis aqtiT.112 aRnisnuli aqti dafuZnebuli iyo samxreT afrikis konstituciis preambulaze.113 samxreT afrikis konfliqtis konteqstSi, simarTlis komisiis SeqmnasTan erTad, amnistiis kanonis miReba gamoWveuli iyo aparteidis reJimis warmomadgenelTa daJinebuli moTxovniT. AzemoaRniSnuli aqtis Sesabamisad, samxreT afrikis simarTlis komisiis miznebs warmoadgenda aparteidis reJimis dros momxdari movlenebis gamoZieba, damnaSaveTa identificireba da amnistiis miniWeba maTTvis, vinc daakmayofilebda aqtiT gansazRvrul konkretul kriteriumebs.114 Kkomisiis mandati moicavda oTx ZiriTad saqmianobas kerZod, 1960 wlis 1 martsa da 1994 wlis 10 maiss Soris momxdari movlenebis bunebisa da farglebis kvlevas, adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebis gamoZiebasa da pasuxismgebel pirTa da organizaciaTa identificirebas da amnistiis miniwebas im pirTaTvis, romlebmac srulad ganacxades aRniSnul movlenebTan dakavSirebuli maTTvis cnobili relevanturi faqtebi.115 Aam mandatis gansaxorcieleblad, simarTlis komisiis bazaze Seiqmna sami organo 1.adamianis uflebaTa komiteti, romelic pasuxismgebeli iyo gamoziebis warmoebaze, 2.amnistiis komiteti, romelic Sedgeboda damoukidebeli mosamarTleebisagan da individualurad TiToeuli identificirebuli damnaSavis mimarT axorcielebda amnistiis miniWebis sakiTxis ganxilvas, 3.reperaciis komiteti, romelic SeimuSavebda 111 Tama Koss, South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission: A Model for the Future, Florida Journal of International Law, Volume 14:517(2002) gv.519. 112 National Unity and Reconciliation Act, No. 34 (1995) xelmisawvdomia http://www.fas.org/irp/world/rsa/act95_034.htm (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 113 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act No. 200 (1993) xelmisawvdomia https://peaceaccords.nd.edu/site_media/media/accords/Constitution_of_South_Africa_Act_200_of_1993.pdf 114 National Unity and Reconciliation Act, No. 34, muxli3(1) (1995) xelmisawvdomia http://www.fas.org/irp/world/rsa/act95_034.htm (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 115 The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission Final Report, Volume 1, Chaptcr 4, para.32.
  24. 24. rekomendaciebs saxelmwifos xelisuflebisaTvis konfliqtis Semdgomi reparaciis politikis swori warmarTvisaTvis daxmarebis gawevis mizniT. Aamnistiis miRebaze komisiisadmi mimarTva SeeZlo nebismier pirs, aqtis gamowveynebidan 12 Tvis ganmavobaSi da amnistiis miniWeba damokidebuli iyo Semdgom pirobebze: 1.aplikants unda Seesrulebina aqtis moTxovnebi, 2.danaSaulebrivi qmedeba an umoqmedoba, romlis mimarTac iyo amnistiis miniWebis moTxovna dakavSirebuli unda yofiliyo politikur motivebTan, 3. Aplikants sakuTari danasaulis aRiarebasTan erTad, srulad unda gamoevlina nebismieri misTvis cnobili relevanturi faqtobrivi garemoeba.116 swored zemoarnisnuli kriteriumebi, kerZod amnistiis miniWebis sakiTxis individualuri ganxilva da konkretuli pirobebis arsebobisadmi misi daqvemdebareba, warmoadgens im umTavres maxasiaTeblebs, rac ganasxvavebs samxreT afrikis komisias sxva simarTlis komisiebisagan.117 Ggarda amisa, komisia uflebamosili iyo ewarmoebina gamozieba da Seegrovebina mtkicebulebebi. aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom pirTa mimarT amnistiis miniWebis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, komisias unda gaeTvaliswinebina konkretuli piris mier danaSaulTan dakavSirebuli faqtebis sruli gamovlena, rac garda imisa, rom emsaxureboda simarTlis dadgenis mizans, agreTve uzrunvelyofda detaluri da xarisxiani gamoZiebis Catarebis aucileblobis arsebobas, ramdenadac winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi SeuZlebeli iqneboda imis dadgena, Tu ramdenad asrulebs aplikanti amnistiis miniWebis am konkretul winapirobas. nebismieri piri, romelic ar wardgeboda komisiis winaSe, am romelsac komisiis gadawyvetilebiT ar mieniWeboda amnistia, rCeboda sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis obieqtad, rac warmoadgenda kidev aRniSnuli komisiis aseTi warmatebis safuZvels.118 Aranakleb mniSvnelovania is faqtic, rom samxreT afrikis simarTlis komisia Seqmnili iyo demokratiulad arCeuli xelisuflbis mier da moqmedebda misgan damoukideblad, Sesabamisad misi gadawyvetilebiT Sedegad miniWebuli amnistia ar warmoadgenda iseti tipis amnistias, romelsac adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRveveSi damnaSave reJimebi qmnian sakuTari Tavisa da maTi momxreebisaTvis dausjelobis uzrunvelsayofad.119 rogorc ukve aRiniSna samxret afrikis simarTlis komisia mravali avtoris mier miCneulia rogorc gardamavali marTlmsajulebis erT-erTi yvelze warmatebuli modeli, ramdenadac igi warmoadgenda miukerZoebeli da srulfasovani gamoZiebisa da amnistiis kanonmebobis Serwymas. samxreT afrikis xelisuflebam nacvlad imisa, rom mieniWebina blanketuri amnistiebi konkretuli damnaSaveebisaTvis, rac Tavis mxriv seriozul dabrkolebas Seuqmnida komisias simarTlis Ziebis procesSi, airCia pirobiTi amnistiis politika, sadac amnistiis miReba damokidebuli iyo simarTlis komisiasTan Sesabamis TanamSromlobaze. marTlac miuxedavad imisa, rom samxreT afrikis simarTlis komisiis mier warmoebuli gamoZieba warmoadgenda amomwuravsa da miukerZoebels, igi orientirebuli iyo danaSaulis faqtebis gamovlenaze da ara damnaSaveTa dasjaze, aRniSnuli prioritetze metyvelebs komisiis muSaobis umTavresi principi, amnistiis miniWeba pirTaTvis, vinc smarTlis gamovleniT is “daimsaxura”. Sesabamisad naTelia, rom komisiis mizans 116 National Unity and Reconciliation Act, No. 34, muxli20 (1995) xelmisawvdomia http://www.fas.org/irp/world/rsa/act95_034.htm (nanaxia 2013/07/07). 117 Eric Blumenson, Issue 1: ICC Prosecution and Alternative Pesponses to the most grievous Crimes , Eyes on the ICC, Volume 2:1(2005) gv.8. 118 Eric Blumenson, Issue 1: ICC Prosecution and Alternative Pesponses to the most grievous Crimes , Eyes on the ICC, Volume 2:1(2005) gv.10. 119 Gwen K. Young, All the Truth and as Much Justice as Possible, U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy, Volume 9:209(2003) gv.217.
  25. 25. warmoadgenda ara im pirTa dasja, vinc ar gamoavlina misTvis nacnobi faqtobrivi garemoebebi, aramed pasuxismgeblobis acileba maTTvis, vinc daakmayofila es konkretuli kriteriumi. Sesabamisad sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis damabrkolebel garemoebad Sesazloa miviCnioT iseTi SemTxveva, rodesac saxelmwifom ganaxorciela srulfasovani gamoZieba da gadawyvita ar daiwyos sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, Tumca aRnisnuli gamoZieba unda iyos catarebuli damnaSavis dasjis mizniT, anu gamoZiebis stadiaze da misi warmarTvis procesSi unda arsebobdes damnaSavis dasjis mizani da perspeqtiva. Tu movargebT aseT situacios simarTlis komisiis mier ganxorcielebul gamoZiebas, Tundac iseT srulfasovan gamoZiebas, romelsac atarebda samxreT afrikis simarTlis komisias, simarTlis komisiebis bunebidan gamomdinare, misi proceduris mizans ar warmoadgens pirovnebis dasja aramed upirveles yovlisa simarTlis, anu faqtebis gamorkveva da meore pirovnebisaTvis amnistiis miniWeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu man daakmayofile amisaTvis gansazRvruli moTxovnebi. sesabamisad simarTlis komisiis mier ganxorcielebuli procesis pirobebSi damnaSavis dasjis rogorc mizani, ise perspeqtiva vlindeba mxolod maSin, rodesac pirs uari eTqva amnistiis miniWebaze.120 4. Eerovnuli amnistiebis “nebadamrTvel” normaTa ganxilva wიnamdebare Tavsi ganxiluli iqneba romis statutis is nawili, romelic TiTqosda pativs iTvaliswinebs erovnuli amnistiebisa da simarTlis komisiebis mSerwymiT miRebuli meqanizmis aRiarebas da Sesbamisad iZleva im varaudis safuZvels, rom Sesazloa sasamarTlom dauSveblad cnos saqme aseTi erovnuli procesebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi. Aam kuTxiT mniSvnelovania ganxiluli iqnes romis statutis 53-e muxli, romelic exeba prokuroris diskrecias gamoZiebis dawyebisas, da romis statutis me-16 muxls, romelic gaeros uSiSroebis sawos aniWebs uflebamosilebas gaeros wesdebis me-7 Tavis safuZvelze miRebuli rezoluciiT mosTxovos sasamarTlos warmoebis SeCereba.121 2.1 prokuroris diskrecia romis statutis 53-e muxlisa da proceduruli wesebis 104-e muxlis Sesabamisad, sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos prokurorma gamoziebis dawyebis Sesaxeb gadayvetilebis miRebisas unda gaiTvaliswinos Semdgomi kriteriumebi: 1.arsebobs Tu ara gonivruli safuZveli imis varaudisaTvis, rom moxda sasamarTlos iurisdiqcias daqvemdebarebuli danaSauli 2.iqneba Tu ara dasaSvebi konkretuli saqme romis statutis 120 Jennifer J. Llewellyn, A Comment on the Complementary Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court: Adding Insult to Injury in Transitional Contexts?, Dalhousie Law Joural, Volume 24:192(2001) გვ.203. 121 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, me-16 muxli (2002).
  26. 26. me-17 mulis Sesabamisad 3.emsaxureba Tu ara gamoZiebis dawyeba marTlmsajulebis interess.122 konkretuli terminologiis interpretaciaze gadasvlamde, mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom zemoaRniSnuli garemoebebi ar warmoadgens kriteriumebs, rac gulisxmobs imas, rom maTi dakmayofileba avtomaturad ar iwvevs gamoZiebis dawyebas, ramdenadac am gadawyvetilebis miReba rCeba prokuroris diskreciaSi. Ggarda amisa, aRsaniSnavia, rom garemoebebi ar unda iqnes ganxiluli rogorc kumulatiuri pirobebi da gamoZiebis dawyebis sawinaaRmdego gadawyvetileba SesaZloa efuZnebodes mxolod erT maTgans.123 Sesabamisad savsebiT logikuria miviRoT situacia, rodesac saqme dasaSvebia statutis me- 17 muxlis Sesabamisad, Tumca ar xdeba gamoziebis warmarTva, radgan prokuroris azriT, igi ar emsaxureba marTlmsajulebis interess. aRniSnuli cnebis orazrovnebidan da bundovanebidan gamomdinare, arsebobs mosazreba, rom statuti aZlevs prokurors SesaZleblobas gaiTvaliswinos alternatiuli samarTlebrivi meqanizmebi da ar warmarTos gamoZieba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi Seaferxebs an eWvqveS daayenebs saxelmwifosSi mSvidobis damyarebis procesebs.124 imis gansazRvrisaTvis Tu ramdenad marTebulia aRniSnuli midgoma, aucilebelia moxdes terminis swori interpretacia romis statutis Sesabamis konteqstSi, ramdenac swored amazea damokidebuli prokuroris diskreciis farglebi.125 marTlmsajulebis interesis interpretaciis sakiTxi dadga statutis ZalaSi Sesvlis pirvelive wlebSi. rogorc saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis norma, aRnisnuli termini ganmartbuli unda iqnes saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebaTa Sesaxeb venis konvenciis 31-e da 32-e muxlebis Sesabamisad. aRniSnuli konvenciis 31-e muxli acxadebs, rom xelSekrulebis terminologia interpretirebuli unda iqnes misi Cveulebrivi mniSvnelobiT xelSekrulebis miznis gaTvaliswinebiT. …..m termin marTlmsajulebis kvlevisas gamoiyena rogorc statutis preambula, romlic acxadebs rom sasamarTlos mTavar mizans warmoadgens mis iurisdiqcias daqvemdebarebul pirTa dasjis uzrunvelyofa da dausjelobisaTivis wertilis dasma, agreTve statutis sxva muxlebi, romlebic moixseniebs termins marTlmsajuleba da daadgina, rom aRniSnuli termini ar SeiZleba moicavdes amnistias,126 ramdenadac erT-erTi avtoris gancxadebiT amnistia ar warmoadgens marTlmsajulebas aramed misgan gamonakliss.127 miuxedavad statutis preambuliT aSkarad da TvalsaCinod gansazRvruli miznisa, zogierTi avtoris azriT 53-e muxlSi gansazRvruli kriteriumebi, rogoricaa magaliTad danaSaulis simZime da msxverplTa interesebi, adasturebs, rom arniSnul muxlSi moxseniebuli termini scdeba mxolod sisxlissamarTlebrivi marTlmsajulebis farglebs.128 122 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, me-53 muxli; Rules of Procedure and Evidence(ICC), 104-e muxli. 123 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, me-53(1) muxli. 124 Cameron, Jurisdiction and Admissibility Issues Under the ICC Statute in McGoldrick et al (eds), The Permanent International Criminal Court: Legal and Policy Issues (USA: Hart Publishing 2004) gv.91. 125 Jessiva Gavron, Amnesties in the Light of Developments in International Law and the Establishment of the International Criminal Court, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Volume 51:91(2002) gv.110. 126 Michael Kourabas, “Vienna Convention Interpretation of the “interest of Justive” Provision of the Rome Statute, the legality of domestic amnesty agreements and the situation in Northern Uganda: "a Great qualitative step forward” or a normative retreat?” Davis Journal of International Law and Policy, Volume 14:59(2007) gv.69-74. 127 Andreas O’Shea, Pinochet and Beyond: the International Implications of Amnesty, African Journal of Human Rights, Volume 16:637(2000) gv.661. 128 Human Rights Watch, Polity Paper: The Meaning of the "Interests of Justice" iii Article 53 of the Rome Statute, (2005) xelmisawvdomia http://www.hrw.org/news/2005/06/01/meaning-interests-justice-article-53-rome-statute (nanaxia 2013/07/07)
  27. 27. Tumca zemoarniSnuli kriteriumebi gansakuTrebiT ki msxverplTa interesi SesaZloa sawinaaRmdegodac iqnes interpretirebuli. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT zeviT ganxilul sasamarTloTa gadawyvetilebebs, romlebic erovnuli amnistiis ukanonobas xSirad danaSaulis msxverplTa uflebebis dacvis saWiroebiT asabuTeben, logikuri iqneba is varaudi, rom am SemTxvevaSic sasamarTlom upiratesoba mianiWos danaSaulis msxverplTa am konkretul uflebebs. romis statutis 53-e muxlSi naTlad Cans, rom prokuroris diskrecia marTlmsajuelbis interesis Sesabamisad gamoZiebis dawyebis gadwyvetilebis miRebisas Cveulebrivze metad aris SezRuduli. kerZod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac prokuroris gadawyvetileba ar awaarmoos gamoZieba efuZneba mxolod marTlmsajulebis interesis kriteriums, wina sasmarTlos palatis mier misi gadawyvetilebis gadasinjvisaTvis ar aris aucilebeli saxelmwifos an uSiSroebis sabWos moTxovna, aramed aRniSnuli palata uflebamosilia sakuTari iniciativiT gadaxedos prokuroris gadawyvetilebas. proceduruli wesebis 109-e muxlis Sesabamisad, wina sasamarTlo palatas aqvs 180 dRe imis gadasawyvetad gadasinjavs Tu ara prokuroris am gadawyvetilebas. garda amisa, prokuroris mier gamoZiebis Sewyvetis gadawyvetilebis SemTxvevaSi, romelic efuZneba sxvadasxva statutiT gaTvaliswinebul mizezebs, wina sasamarTlo palatas SeuZlia mxolod mosTxovos prokurors misi gadawyvetilebis gadasinjva, xolo im SemTxvevasi Tu amgvari gadawyvetileba efuZneba marTlmsajulebis interesis ar arsebobas, prokuroris gadawyvetilebis samarTlebrivi Zala damokidebulia wina sasamarTlo palatis Tanxmobaze. Sesabamisad, imisaTvis rom mxolod am safuZvliT moxdes sasamarTloSi gamoZiebis SeCereba marTlmsajulebis interesis ar arsebobaSi unda darwmundes ara mxolod prokurori, aramed wina sasamarTlo palatac. aRniSnuli gulisxmobs imas, rom unda arsebobdes amgvari gadawyvetilebis sasargeblo mniSvnelovani argumentacia, romelsac statutis peambulis gaTvaliswinebiT naklebad savaraudoa warmoadgendes ervnuli amnistia an Tundac saxelmwifoSi mimdinare gardamavali procesebi. 2.2 uSiSroebis sabWos roli romis statutis me-16 muxli romis statutis me-16 muxlis Sesabamisad, uSiSroebis sabWos aqvs uflebamosileba gaeros wesdebis me-7 TaviT miRebuli rezoluciiT, SeaCeros gamoZieba sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSorso sasamarTloSi 12 Tvis vadiT, im SemTxvevaSi igi daadgens, rom sasamarTlos Carevas SeuZlia safrTxe Seuqmnas saerTaSoriso mSvidobasa da usafrTxoebas.129 aRniSnuli norma miCneulia erT-erT mtkicebulebad imisa, rom sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlo eWvqveS ar unda daayenos erovnuli procesebi, romlebic emsaxureba mSvidobisa damyarebis mizans. kerZod, samSvidobo molaparakebebis SemTxvevaSi, erovnuli amnistia SesaZloa saxelmwifos xelisuflebisaTvis warmoadgendes molaparakebebis warmoebis erTaderT berkets, xolo maSin rodesac sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSorisos sasamarTlo axorcielebs sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas iseTi piris winaaRmdeg, romelsac gadamwyveti roli ekisteba samSvidobo moalaprakebebis warmoebisas, sasamarTlos mier gansjis perspeqtivam SesaZloa daafrTxos damnaSave da Seaeferxos 129 Morten Bergsmo, The Jurisdictional Regime of the International Criminal Court (Part II, Articles 11-19), European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Volume 6:345(1998) gv.358.
  28. 28. SeTanxmebis miRweva,130 rac Tavis mxriv gamoiwvevs konfliqtis gaxangrZlivebas da zog SemTxvevaSi adamianis uflebaTa mZime darRvevebis Cadenis gaaqtiurebas.131 naTelia, rom am SemTxvevaSi, saubaria sasamarTlos muSaobis ara samarTlebriv aramed politikur aspeqtze. rogorc wesi, saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos mxridan sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebis perspeqtivam konkretuli konfliqturi situaciaze SesaZloa moaxdinos rogorc dadebiTi, ise uaryofiTi gavlena.132 zogierTi avtori Tvlis, rom zog SemTxvevaSi erovnuli amnistia warmoadgens erTaderT saSualebas konfliqturi situaciis CasaxSobad da adamianis uflebaTa darRvevebis Sesasusteblad.133 sxvebi gardamavali martlmsajulebis konteqstSi amnistiebis aRiarebas ufro globalurad uyureben da acxadeben, rom rom mZime danaSaulkebisaTvis amnistii miniWeba ubiZgebs momaval Taobebs aseTi danaSaulis Cadenisaken da eWvqveS daayenebs saerTaSoriso mSvidobas.134 garda amisa gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom damnaSavis dasja mizanSewonilia swored konfliqturi saxelmwifoebisaTvis gardamavali martlmsajulebis konteqstSi, ramdenadac kanonis uzenaesoba warmoadgens demokratiuli sazogadoebis umTavres maxasiaTebels, Sesabamisad damnaSaveTa dasja xels Seuwyobs Zlieri demokratiuli saxelmwifos Camoyalibebas.135 Sesabamisad savsebiT naTelia da marTebulia is pozicia, rom sasamarTlos gamoZieba did gavlenas axdens saelmwifos SigniT mimdinare ara mxolod samarTlebriv, aramed politikur aspeqtebzec da statutis me-16 muxli warmoadgens imis naTel dadasturebas, am dokumentis Semqmnelebma gaiTvaliswines viTareba sadac saxelmwifos SigniT arsebuli mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlos mier saqmis warmoebis dawyeba SesaZloa ar iyos mizanSewonili, Tumca meore mxriv logikas moklebuli ar unda iyos is varaudic, rom aseTi saWiroebis aRiareba aranair zegavlenas ar unda axdendes sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis normebze da Tavad me-16 muxlis arseboba qmnis am varaudis upirveles safuZvels, ramdenadac gamoTqmuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, prokurorisa da sasamarTlos movaleobas warmoadgens sisxlissamarTlebrivi marTlmsajulebis ganxorcieleba, xolo saerTaSoriso mSvidobaze zrunva uSiSroebis sabWos prerogativaa. Ddaskvna 130 Wilmshurst, The International Criminal Court: The Role of the Security Council, in Mauro Politi and Giuseppe Nesi (eds.), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - A challenge to impunity, (Aldershot, 2001) gv.40. 131 Paul van Zyl, Justice without Punishment: Guaranteeing Human Rights in Transitional Societies, in Charles Villa-Vicencio and Wilhelm Verwoerd (eds), Looking Back, Reaching Forward: Reflections on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa (Zed Books, 2000) gv.42-43. 132 Richard J. Goldstonet, Peace Versus Justice, Nevada Law Journal: Volume 6:421(2005-2006) gv.421. 133 Kenneth Roth, It's worth bringing tyrants to justice, The International Herald Tribune, 2005. xelmisawvdomia http://www.hrw.org/news/2005/08/10/its-worth-bringing-tyrants-justice (nanaxia 2013/07/01). 134 Diane F. Orentlichert, Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime, Yale Law Journal, Volume 100:2537(1991) gv.2542. 135 Luc Huyse, 'To Punish or Pardon: A Devil's Choice' in Christopher Joyner and M Cherif Bassiouni (eds), Reining in Impunity for International Crimes and Serious Violations of Fundamental Human Rights (Ramonville St. Agne: Érès 1998) gv.79-80.
  29. 29. Cems mier SesavalSi dasmuli miznidan gamomdinare, naSromSi Sejamebuli iyo is zogadi faqtorebi, romlebmac SesaZloa zegavlena moaxdinos sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi saqmis dasaSvebobis konteqstSi erovnuli amnistiebis sakiTxis gadawyvetaze. rogorc ukve aRiniSna, romis statutma ar airCia erTiani midgoma erovnuli amnistiebis sakiTxis mimarT da datova egret wodebuli “kreatiuli orazrovneba”,136 romelic mravalgvari interpretaciis wyaro gaxda da Seqmna is realoba, rom sasamarTlom yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi, maT Soris erovnuli amnistiebis pirobebSic Tavad unda gadawyvitos saqmis dasaSvebobis sakiTxi. zemoaRniSnuli msjelobidan SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom simarTlis komisiisa da erovnuli amnistiebis SerwymiT miRebuli gardamavali marTlmsajulebis, bolo dro metad aqtualuri da xSirad gamoyenebadi, modeli ver akmayofilebss statutis me-17 muxlSi gansazRvrul erovnuli gamoZiebis kriteriumebs ramdenadac amnistiis, rogorc dausjelobis raqtika ewinaaRmdegeba sasamarTlos arsebobis upirveles mizans. naSromSi ukve xazi gaesva im faqts, rom Audaod didia is sargebeli romelic aRniSnulma marTlmsajulebis alternatiulma modelebma SeiZleba moitanos saxelmwifoSi mimdinare konfliqtis pirobebSi. rac Seexeba sisxlis samarTlis saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos, mis iurisdiqcias daqvemdebarebuli danaSaulebis xasiaTidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlos mier gamoZiebis warmoeba nebismier SemTxvevaSi moaxdens gavlenas konkretuli politikuri procesebis warmarTvaze da Sesabamisad politikuri Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebis saWiroeba sasamarTlos funqcionirebis ganuyofeli nawilia. magaliTisaTvis, sasamarTlos mier sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebis perspeqtivam SesaZloa biZgi misces konfliqtis mxareTa Soris “Serigebis” procesis dawyebas, Tumca ramdenadac dadebiTia saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi gansjis perspeqtivis gavlena konfliqtis mxareTa Soris molaparakebebis dawyebis survilze, imdenad uaryofiTia misi efeqti Tavad Serigebis procesze, radgan sasamarTloSi mimdinare gamoZiebam SesaZloa saxelmwifos xelisuflebas waarTvas molaparakebis warmoebis erTaderTi realuri berketi. Aqedan gamomdinare SedarebiT axlad Seqmnili sasamarTlosaTvis ar iqneba marTebuli iseTi praqtikis danergva, sadac misi funqciebi mxolod saxelmwifoTa mier molaparakebebis sasurveli kursis warmarTvis saSualebad gamoyenebiT Semoifargleba, ramdenadac sasamarTlos funqciuonirebis mTavar mizans warmoadgens damnaSaveTa dasja da ara mSvidobis damyareba. 136 Carsten Stahn, Complementarity, Amnesties and Alternative Forms of Justice: Some Interpretive Guidelines for the International Criminal Court', Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 3:695(2005) gv.708.
  30. 30. gamoyenebuli literatura saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court 2002 Statute of the International Court of Justice 1945 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 Convention for the Supression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation 1971 Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field 1949 Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea 1949 Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War 1949
  31. 31. Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War 1949 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1951 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 1984 American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man 1949 American Convention on Human Rights 1978 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 wignebi 1. Priscilla B. Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocities (London: Routledge 2002). 2. Andreas O'Shea, Amnesy for Crimes in International Law and Practice (New York: Kluwer Law International 2002). 3. Bryan A. Garner, BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY (United States of America: West Group, 7 th edition 1999). 4. Mark Freeman, Necessary Evils: Amnesties and the Search for Justice (United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2010). 5. Antonio Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford University Press, 2003). 6. Theodor Meron, Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law (USA:Oxford University Press, 1991). 7. Robert Cryer, Hakan Friman, Darryl Robinson, Elizabeth Wilmshurst, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007). 8. Dinah Shelton, International Crimes, Peace and Human Rights: The Role Of the
  32. 32. International Criminal Court (Transnational Publishers, 2000). 9. McGoldrick et al (eds), The Permanent International Criminal Court: Legal and Policy Issues (USA: Hart Publishing 2004). 10. Mauro Politi and Giuseppe Nesi (eds.), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - A challenge to impunity, (Aldershot, 2001). 11. Charles Villa-Vicencio and Wilhelm Verwoerd (eds), Looking Back, Reaching Forward: Reflections on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa (Zed Books, 2000). 12. Christopher Joyner and M Cherif Bassiouni (eds), Reining in Impunity for International Crimes and Serious Violations of Fundamental Human Rights (Ramonville St. Agne: Érès 1998). 13. Antonio Cassese (ed), The Oxford Companion to Interalanal Criminal justice (Oxford University Press 2009). 14. Jo Stigen, The Relationship Between the International Criminal Court and National Jurisdictions the principle of Complementarity (Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2008). statiebi 1. Dwight G. Newman, “The Rome Statute, Some Reservations Concerning Amnesties, and a Distributive Problem”, American University International Law Review, Volume 20:293(2005). 2. Thomas Hethe. Clark, “The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Amnesties, and the "Interests of Justice": Striking a Delicate Balance”, Washington University Global Studies Law Review, Volume 4:389(2005). 3. Robin Perry, “The Nature, Status and Future of Amnesties under International Criminal Law“, Australian International Law Journal, Volume 18:77(2011). 4. John Dugard, “Dealing with Crimes of a Past Regime: Is Amnesty Still an Option?” Leiden Journal of International Law, Volume 12:1001(1999). 5. Charles Villa-Vicencio, "Why Perpetrators Should Not Always Be Prosecuted: Where the International Criminal Court and Truth Commissions Meet", Emory Law Journal, Volume 49:205(2000) 6. Michael Scharf, “The Amnesty Exception to the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court” Cornell International LauwJournal, Volume 32:507(1999) 7. Priscilla B. Hayner, “Fifteen truth commissions-1974-1994 comparative study”, Human right Quarterly, Volume16:597(1994)
  33. 33. 8. Ben Chigara, Amnesty in International Law: The Legality under International Law of National Amnesty Laws (London: Longman, 2002) 9. Robert Parker, “Fighting the Siren’s Song: The Problem of Amnesty in Historical and Contemporary Perspective”, Acta Juridica Hungaria, Volume 42:96(2001) 10. Faustin Z. Ntouband, Amnesty for Crimes Against Humanity Under International Law (The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV 2007) 11. Meintjes G. Méndez J.E., Reconciling Amnesties with Universal Jurisdiction International Law Forum du droit international, Volume 2:75(2000) 12. Kristin Henrard, The Viability of National Amnesties in View of the Increasing Recognition of Individual Criminal Responsibility at Iternlationlal Law, Michigan State University Jurnal of International Law, Volume 8:598(1999) 13. Gwen K. Young, All the Truth and as Much Justice as Possible, U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy, Volume 9:209(2003) 14. Kent Greenawalt, Amnesty's Justice, Robert I. Rotberg, Dennis Thompson(eds.), Truth v. Justice: The Moralty of Truth Commissions (United Kingdon: Princeton University Press 2000). 15. Orlaith Minogue, Peace vs. Justice: The Utility of Amnesties, Criminal Justice Ethics, Volume 29:306(2010). 16. Mahnoush H. Arsanjani, The International Criminal Court and National Amnesty Laws, The American Society of International Law, Volume 93:65(1999). 17. Helmut Gropengieber and Jorg Meibner, Amnesties and rome Statute of international criminal court, International Criminal Law Review, Volume 5:267(2005). 18. Robert O.Weiner, Trying to Make Ends Meet: Reconciling the Law and Practice of Human Rights Amnesties, St.Mary's Law Journal, Volume 26:857(1995). 19. Ronald C. Slye, The Legitimacy of Amnesties Under International Law and General Principles of Anglo-American Law: Is a Legitimate Amnesty Possible? Virginia Journal of International Law Association, Volume43:173(2002). 20. Neil J. Kritz, Coming to Terms with Atrocities: A Review of Accountability Mechanisms for Mass Violations of Human Right, Law and Contemporary Problems, Volume 59:127(1996). 21. Diba Majzub, Peace of Justice? Amnesties and the International Criminal Court, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Volime 3:247(2002). 22. Michael P. Scharf, The Functions of Justice and Anti-Justice in the Peace-Building Process, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Volume 35:161(2003). 23. Roman Boed, The Effect of a Domestic Amnesty on the Ability of Foreign States to Prosecute Alleged Perpetrators of Serious Human Rights Violations, Cornell International Law Journal, Volume 33:297(2000). 24. Anja Seibert-Fohr, The Relevance of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court for Amnesties and Truth Commissions, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, Volume 7:553(2003). 25. Gerhard Hafner et al, A Response to the American View as Presented by Ruth Wedgwood, European Journal of International Law, Volume 10:109(1999). 26. Carsten Stahn, Complementarity, amnesties and Alternative forms of justice: some Interpretative guidelines for International Criminal Court, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Volume 3:659(2005).

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