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Helping

Helping

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Helping

  1. 1. HelpingHelping
  2. 2.  Why do we help?Why do we help?  When will we help?When will we help?  Who will help?Who will help?  How can we increase helping?How can we increase helping? HelpingHelping
  3. 3. AltruismAltruism
  4. 4. A motive to increase another’s welfareA motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self-without conscious regard for one’s self- interests.interests. Altruism:Altruism:
  5. 5. EgoismEgoism
  6. 6. A motive to increase one’s own welfare.A motive to increase one’s own welfare. Egoism:Egoism:
  7. 7. 1.) Why do we help?1.) Why do we help?
  8. 8. Social-exchangeSocial-exchange Social NormsSocial Norms Evolutionary PsychologyEvolutionary Psychology Why do we help? (Why do we help? (TheoriesTheories))
  9. 9. Social ExchangeSocial Exchange
  10. 10. the theory that human interactions arethe theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one’stransactions that aim to maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s costs.rewards and minimize one’s costs. Social-exchange theory:Social-exchange theory:
  11. 11. RewardsRewards
  12. 12.  External rewardsExternal rewards  Internal rewardsInternal rewards Rewards:Rewards:
  13. 13.  ExternalExternal – “we give to get”.– “we give to get”.  InternalInternal – “our sense of self-worth”.– “our sense of self-worth”. Rewards:Rewards:
  14. 14.  GuiltGuilt  Feel bad-do goodFeel bad-do good  Feel good-do goodFeel good-do good Internal Rewards:Internal Rewards: ((emotional state/personal traitsemotional state/personal traits))
  15. 15. Social NormsSocial Norms
  16. 16.  are social expectations.are social expectations.  prescribes proper behavior.prescribes proper behavior. Social Norms:Social Norms:
  17. 17.  The Reciprocity NormThe Reciprocity Norm  The Social-Responsibility NormThe Social-Responsibility Norm Two Social Norms:Two Social Norms:
  18. 18.  The Reciprocity NormThe Reciprocity Norm – an expectation– an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those whothat people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.have helped them.  The Social-Responsibility NormThe Social-Responsibility Norm – an– an expectation that people will help thoseexpectation that people will help those needing help.needing help. Two Social Norms:Two Social Norms:
  19. 19. Gender and Receiving HelpGender and Receiving Help
  20. 20.  WomenWomen offered help equally to males andoffered help equally to males and females, whereasfemales, whereas MenMen offered more helpoffered more help when the persons in need were females.when the persons in need were females. Gender & Receiving Help:Gender & Receiving Help:
  21. 21. Evolutionary PsychologyEvolutionary Psychology
  22. 22.  the study of the evolution of cognitionthe study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using the principles ofand behavior using the principles of natural selection.natural selection.  the theory contends that the essence ofthe theory contends that the essence of life is survival.life is survival. Evolutionary Psychology:Evolutionary Psychology:
  23. 23.  Kin ProtectionKin Protection  kin selection-kin selection- the idea that evolution has selectedthe idea that evolution has selected altruism towards one’s close relatives to enhancealtruism towards one’s close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes.the survival of mutually shared genes.  ReciprocityReciprocity Two types of self-sacrificialTwo types of self-sacrificial helping (helping (Evolutionary Psychology TheoryEvolutionary Psychology Theory))
  24. 24. Comparison of TheoriesComparison of Theories Theory Level of Explanation Externally Helping Intrinsic Helping Social-Social- exchangeexchange PsychologicalPsychological External rewards for helping Inner rewards for helping Social NormsSocial Norms SociologicalSociological Reciprocity norm Social-responsibility norm EvolutionaryEvolutionary BiologicalBiological Reciprocity Kin selection
  25. 25. Genuine Altruism/EmpathyGenuine Altruism/Empathy
  26. 26. the vicarious experience of another’sthe vicarious experience of another’s feelings; putting oneself in another’s shoes.feelings; putting oneself in another’s shoes. Empathy:Empathy:
  27. 27. (2) When will we help?(2) When will we help?
  28. 28.  As the number of bystanders increases,As the number of bystanders increases, any given bystander is less likely toany given bystander is less likely to notice the incident, less likely to assumenotice the incident, less likely to assume responsibility for taking action.responsibility for taking action.  Lone bystanders were more likely to help.Lone bystanders were more likely to help. Number of Bystanders:Number of Bystanders:
  29. 29.  The finding that a person is less likely toThe finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are otherprovide help when there are other bystanders.bystanders. Bystander effect:Bystander effect:
  30. 30. Noticing/InterpretingNoticing/Interpreting Assuming ResponsibilityAssuming Responsibility
  31. 31.  Prosocial models do promote altruism.Prosocial models do promote altruism. ExampleExample: New Jersey shoppers were most: New Jersey shoppers were most likely to drop money in a Salvation Armylikely to drop money in a Salvation Army kettle if they had seen someone else dokettle if they had seen someone else do the same.the same. Helping when someone else does:Helping when someone else does:
  32. 32.  A person not in a hurry may stop andA person not in a hurry may stop and offer help to a person in distress. Aoffer help to a person in distress. A person in a hurry is likely to keep going.person in a hurry is likely to keep going. (Darley & Batson - Researchers)(Darley & Batson - Researchers) Time Pressures:Time Pressures:
  33. 33.  We tend to help those whom we perceiveWe tend to help those whom we perceive as being similar to us.as being similar to us. Similarity:Similarity:
  34. 34. (3) Who will help?(3) Who will help?
  35. 35.  Attitude and trait predict averageAttitude and trait predict average behavior across many situations morebehavior across many situations more accurately.accurately.  IndividualIndividual differencesdifferences – “some people are– “some people are reliably more helpful”.reliably more helpful”. Personality Traits:Personality Traits:
  36. 36.  NetworkNetwork traitstraits – “those high in positive– “those high in positive emotionality, empathy & self-efficacy areemotionality, empathy & self-efficacy are most likely concerned and helpful.”most likely concerned and helpful.”  Personality influences how particularPersonality influences how particular people react to particular situations.people react to particular situations. Personality Traits:Personality Traits:
  37. 37.  Predicts long-term altruism, as reflected IPredicts long-term altruism, as reflected I volunteerism & charitable contributions.volunteerism & charitable contributions. Religious Faith:Religious Faith:
  38. 38. (4) How can we increase helping?(4) How can we increase helping?
  39. 39.  ReduceReduce the ambiguity andthe ambiguity and increaseincrease responsibility.responsibility.  UseUse door-in-the-facedoor-in-the-face effecteffect technique totechnique to evoke guilt feelings or concern for self-evoke guilt feelings or concern for self- image.image.  TeachTeach altruismaltruism.. 3 ways to increase helping:3 ways to increase helping:
  40. 40.  Door-in-the-faceDoor-in-the-face effecteffect – A strategy for– A strategy for gaining a concession.gaining a concession.  Overjustification effectOverjustification effect – the result of– the result of bribing people to do what they alreadybribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see theirlike doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled ratheractions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.than intrinsically appealing.

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  • DeepaNagpal1

    Dec. 9, 2016
  • XeeSain

    Jan. 4, 2017
  • SyedHanan1

    Sep. 22, 2020
  • JagadeeshEshu

    Feb. 24, 2021

Helping

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