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Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi         Società e comunicazioni di massa                 Davide Bennato  ...
Società e comunicazioni di massa•   La società di massa      La società alla prova dell’industrializzazione: atomizzazion...
•   I postulati della società di massa (Bauer 1964)        La scomparsa dei gruppi primari        Gli individui sono iso...
La città (George Grosz, 1915/16)   Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi                   Davide Bennato
Metropolis (Fritz Lang, Germania, 1927)       Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi                       David...
The Wall (Alan Parker, USA, 1982)    Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi                    Davide Bennato
•   La teoria ipodermica (bullet theory)      Lo strano destino di una teoria che “never was” (Lang 1981)           Medi...
Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi                Davide Bennato
Il modello matematico-informazionale (Shannon e Weaver 1949)                  Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunica...
•   Il modello di Lasswell      Superamento della teoria ipodermica o suo perfezionamento?           Passività del desti...
Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi                Davide Bennato
Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativihttp://www.tecnoetica.it/2013/03/11/luso-dei-social-media-da-parte-delle-s...
•   I Payne Fund Studies      Quali gli effetti dei medium cinematografico?           Payne Fund Studies (1929-1932): ef...
Il falcone maltese           Ombre rosse                                            Il mago di Oz(Roy del Ruth, USA, 1931)...
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Società e comunicazioni di massa

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Società e comunicazioni di massa

  1. 1. Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Società e comunicazioni di massa Davide Bennato Università di Catania dbennato@unict.it
  2. 2. Società e comunicazioni di massa• La società di massa  La società alla prova dell’industrializzazione: atomizzazione e incomunicabilità  Claude-Henri Saint Simon: società organica e fisiologia sociale  Auguste Comte: la divisione sociale e la specializzazione  Ferdinand Toennies: Gemeinschaft e Gesellschaft  Emile Durkheim: solidarietà meccanica e solidarietà organica  Conseguenze della nuova organizzazione sociale  Gli individui vivono in una condizione di isolamento  Gli individui esperiscono relazioni basate sull’impersonalità (burocrazia, per esempio)  Gli individui sono liberi da pressioni sociali vincolanti• La teoria della società di massa  Quali gli strumenti per comprendere la massa? Clima culturale del periodo  Gustave Le Bon: le masse come manipolabili e sottomesse  Gli elitisti (Mosca, Pareto, Michels): minoranza organizzata contro maggioranza disorganizzata  Ortega y Gasset: l’uomo massa è irrazionale  George Simmel: la massa è dominata da una sola idea che cerca di perseguire nel modo più semplice possibile  Herbert Blumer: aggregato di individui anonimi privi di interazione fra loro Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  3. 3. • I postulati della società di massa (Bauer 1964)  La scomparsa dei gruppi primari  Gli individui sono isolati  Gli individui annullano i tratti personali per dare spazio a quelli impersonali  Il pubblico delle comunicazioni di massa è un pubblico atomizzato  I mezzi di comunicazione di massa sono onnipotenti Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  4. 4. La città (George Grosz, 1915/16) Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  5. 5. Metropolis (Fritz Lang, Germania, 1927) Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  6. 6. The Wall (Alan Parker, USA, 1982) Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  7. 7. • La teoria ipodermica (bullet theory)  Lo strano destino di una teoria che “never was” (Lang 1981)  Media manipolatori e propaganda  I Payne Fund Studies: il consumo cinematografico dei giovani (1929-32)  L’orizzonte macrosociale dell’ipotesi behavioristica  Il rapporto stimolo-risposta  Postulati della teoria ipodermica  Il pubblico è una massa indifferenziata in cui gli individui sono in una condizione di isolamento fisico, sociale, culturale  I messaggi veicolati dai media sono potenti fattori di persuasione  Gli individui sono indifesi di fronte al potere dei mezzi di comunicazione di massa  I messaggi veicolati sono ricevuti nello stesso modo  La teoria matematica della comunicazione (Shannon e Weaver 1949)  Calcolare le caratteristiche del processo di trasferimento delle informazioni  Il modello informazionalista non considera assolutamente l’aspetto semantico Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  8. 8. Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  9. 9. Il modello matematico-informazionale (Shannon e Weaver 1949) Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  10. 10. • Il modello di Lasswell  Superamento della teoria ipodermica o suo perfezionamento?  Passività del destinatario  Tentativo di sistematizzazione della communication research  Il modello (Lasswell 1948)  Chi: studio degli emittenti della comunicazione (giornalisti, televisioni)  dice cosa: studio del messaggio dei media (analisi del contenuto)  A chi: ricerca sul pubblico (sui pubblici) dei media  (Attraverso quale canale)  Con quale effetto: lo studio degli effetti (classico della communication research)  Critiche al modello (Wolf 1985)  Asimmetria emittente/destinatario  Indipendenza emittente/destinatario  Intenzionalità dei messaggi comunicati Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  11. 11. Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  12. 12. Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativihttp://www.tecnoetica.it/2013/03/11/luso-dei-social-media-da-parte-delle-startup-un-aiuto-dagli-anni-40/ Davide Bennato
  13. 13. • I Payne Fund Studies  Quali gli effetti dei medium cinematografico?  Payne Fund Studies (1929-1932): effetti del cinema sulle giovani generazioni  Lo sviluppo di metodologie quantitative per lo studio dei media (Bogardus, Thurstone)  Il cinema: il mezzo più influente dell’epoca (Dale 1935)  40 milioni di biglietti venduti ogni settimana  40 milioni di giovani spettatori cinematografici  Alcuni risultati su 1.500 film  Generi: crimine, amore, sesso, mistero, guerra, infanzia, storia, avventura, commedia, questioni sociali  I generi più rappresentati: crimine, sesso, amore (75%)  Protagonisti consumatori di tabacco e alcool• La ricerca sugli effetti  Effetti del cinema sull’atteggiamento (Peterson e Thurstone 1933)  Somministrazione ex ante/ex post: presenza di un cambio di atteggiamento  Effetti del cinema sul comportamento quotidiano (Blumer 1933)  Bambini: soggetti in cui identificarsi, adolescenti/adulti: modelli di comportamento Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato
  14. 14. Il falcone maltese Ombre rosse Il mago di Oz(Roy del Ruth, USA, 1931) (John Ford, USA, 1939) (Victor Fleming, USA, 1931) Sociologia dei Processi Culturali e Comunicativi Davide Bennato

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