Heating_the_Earth

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Heating_the_Earth

  1. 1. Heating the Earth Energy From the Sun
  2. 2. Where We Get Our Energy <ul><ul><li>The Sun is a major source of energy for Earth. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Forms of Energy <ul><ul><li>Different forms of energy include heat, light, electrical, mechanical, sound, nuclear, and chemical. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Electromagnetic Energy <ul><ul><li>Different forms of electromagnetic energy have different wavelengths. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of electromagnetic energy are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>microwaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>infrared light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>visible light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ultraviolet light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-rays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gamma rays. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 8. Electromagnetic Spectrum <ul><ul><li>The entire range of radiant energy, including for example, X-ray, visible light, infrared radiation, radio waves, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The full set of waves that can travel through space; includes not only visible light but shorter waves, such as X -rays, and longer waves, such as radio waves </li></ul></ul>
  6. 10. Changing Energy <ul><ul><li>Energy is transformed in many ways. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 12. Changing Energy <ul><ul><li>Energy can change from one form into another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the process some energy is always converted to heat. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 14. Conservation of Energy <ul><ul><li>Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form into another. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 15. Heat Energy <ul><ul><li>The energy of a material due to the random motion of its particles (atoms 7 molecules). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called thermal energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Heat&quot; is used when energy is transferred from one substance to another. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 16. Heat Energy Explains Phases of Matter <ul><ul><li>The motion of particles (atoms & molecules) helps to explain: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the phase (states) of matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changes from one phase to another. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 18. Phases (states) of Matter <ul><ul><li>Gases have neither a determined shape nor a definite volume. Gases assume the shape and volume of a closed container.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquids have a definite volume, but take the shape of a container.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solids have a definite shape and volume. Particles resist a change in position. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 20. Heat Energy Causes Phase Changes <ul><ul><li>During a phase change, heat energy is absorbed or released. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is absorbed when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a solid changes to a liquid (melting) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a liquid changes to a gas (evaporation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a solid changes directly to a gas (sublimation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is released when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a gas changes to a liquid (condensation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a liquid changes to a solid (freezing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A gas changes directly to a solid, such a forming frost or snow flakes in clouds (crystallization). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 22. Heat Energy Moves <ul><ul><li>Heat can be transferred through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>matter by the collision of atoms and/or molecules ( conduction ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>through space ( radiation .) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a liquid or gas, currents will cause the transfer of heat ( convection .) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 24. Heat Energy Moves <ul><ul><li>Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones , until both reach the same temperature </li></ul></ul>
  15. 26. Heat Moves Through the Atmosphere <ul><ul><li>The transfer of energy within the atmosphere results in formation of regions of different densities . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These density differences result in motion. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 27. Heat & Density <ul><ul><li>In fluids (liquids and gases), less dense (cooler) substances can rise and more dense (warmer) substances can sink . </li></ul></ul>
  17. 29. Heat Movement & Density in the Atmosphere <ul><ul><li>The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere occurs as a result of radiation , convection , and conduction . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density differences are the basis for many Earth phenomena, including cloud formation and the formation of atmospheric storms. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 31. Heat Movement & Density in the Atmosphere <ul><ul><li>Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents . </li></ul></ul>
  19. 33. Uneven Heating <ul><ul><li>Insolation ( In coming sol ar radi ation ) heats Earth’s surface and atmosphere unequally due to variations in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intensity (caused by variations in angle of incidence which vary with time of day, latitude, and season ); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>characteristics of the surface materials absorbing the energy (such as color, texture, transparency, states of matter, and specific heat); and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>duration which varies with seasons and latitude. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 34. http://ithacasciencezone.com/earthzone/lessons/07meteor/insolation.htm
  21. 35. Weather & Seasons <ul><ul><li>Seasons and weather are NOT the same thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasons are caused by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s tilt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s revolution by around the Sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting in the Earth getting different intensities of energy from the Sun (heat & light) at different times of the year </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 36. Weather & Seasons <ul><ul><li>Seasonal changes in weather can be explained using concepts of density and heat energy. These changes include: the shifting of global temperature zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean current patterns, the occurrence of hurricanes, monsoons, rainy and dry seasons, flooding, severe weather, and ozone depletion. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 37. Big Science Idea: <ul><ul><li>The atmosphere is an ocean of air that extends hundreds of kilometers about the Earth's surface.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is divided according to temperature into four layers - the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lowest layer, the troposphere is where air masses form.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air masses have different characteristics because the areas over which they form receive different amounts of heat energy from the sun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The uneven heating of Earth’s surface is the cause of weather. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 39. Let’s Review: http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_lutgens_atmosphere_8/0,6585,263598-,00.html
  25. 40. References <ul><ul><li>http://www.earth2class.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://universityforholisticarts.org/files/QuickSiteImages/QS_sun_background.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/k_6/solar.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://genesismission.jpl.nasa.gov/science/mod3_SunlightSolarHeat/img1.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/fossil_fuels/support.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.stanford.edu/group/Urchin/GIFS/spectrum.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.projectgreenmachine.org/7F-all.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/images/content/114284main_EM_Spectrum500.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.swinburne.edu.au/corporate/hr/ohs/images/radiofrequency.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www12.mawebcenters.com/coltslaboratories/gloss.ivnu </li></ul></ul>
  26. 41. References <ul><ul><li>www.riverdeep.net/current/2002/01/010702_light_tg.jhtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.yorku.ca/eye/spectru.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://sol.sci.uop.edu/~jfalward/physics17/chapter3/energytransformation.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.tburg.k12.ny.us/mcdonald/chain.jpg.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.bchydro.com/images/rx_images/community/body2880.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.bioedonline.org/slides/slideimgs/talk007__s014_f.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/images/EnergyTransformations.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://user.gs.rmit.edu.au/caa/global/graphics/insolation.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.boscobel.k12.wi.us/~schnrich/uneven_heating.htm </li></ul></ul>
  27. 42. References <ul><ul><li>http://www.miramar.sdccd.cc.ca.us/faculty/fgarces/zCourse/Spring05/Ch100_OL/aMy_FileLec/04_LecNotes_Ch100/13_LiquidSolids/1301_LiquidSolid/1301_liquidSolids.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.physics.brocku.ca/courses/1p93/images/FG11_16.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/heat.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cloudappreciationsociety.org/3content/news/hollingshead/i000766big.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.anchorflagandflagpole.com/images/PHOTO_windsock_detail.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nmm.ac.uk/upload/img/currents.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.mhhe.com/earthsci/geology/mcconnell/earths_climate/gac.htm </li></ul></ul>

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