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Coral genera of the Western Indian Ocean (2015)

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This slideshow illustrates principal hard coral genera (scleractinia) found in Western Indian Ocean reefs. It is continually updated, and is a work in progress, so excuse some blank pages!

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Coral genera of the Western Indian Ocean (2015)

  1. 1. Reef coral genera of the Western Indian Ocean David Obura With thanks to: Rose Machuku Terney Kumara Laurence DeFrise This guide to the genera of the Western Indian Ocean gives ID photos for typical species and growth forms found in the region. Corals are arranged by family then genus, alphabetically. This guide is continuously updated – apologies for any incomplete genera in the current version! Produced by: CORDIO East Africa, P.O.BOX 10135-80101, Mombasa, Kenya) www.cordioea.net; dobura@cordioea.net September 2015
  2. 2. Families Click on the family name to jump directly to it Family Genus Family Genus Family Genus Family Genus Acroporidae Acropora Faviidae Barabattoia Agariciidae Coeloseris Coscinaraeidae Anomastrea Alveopora Caulastrea Gardineroseris Coscinaraea Anacropora Cyphastrea Leptoseris Craterastera Astreopora Diploastrea Pachyseris Horastrea Isopora Echinopora Pavona Montipora Favia Siderastreidae Psammocora Favites Merulinidae Hydnophora Pseudosiderastrea Pocilloporidae Madracis Goniastrea Merulina Siderastrea Pocillopora Leptastrea Seriatopora Leptoria Poritidae Goniopora Euphyllidae Ctenella Stylophora Montastrea Porites Euphyllia Moseleya Poritipora Gyrosmilia Astrocoeniidae Stylocoeniella Oulophyllia Stylaraea Physogyra Parasimplastrea Plerogyra Fungiidae Cantharellus Platygyra Oculinidae Galaxea Ctenactis Plesiastrea Trachyphylliidae Trachyphyllia Cycloseris Pectiniidae Echinophyllia Diaseris Mussidae Acanthastrea Mycedium Caryophylliidae Heterocyathus Fungia Blastomussa Oxypora Halomitra Cynarina Pectinia Dendrophylliidae Heteropsammia Heliofungia Lobophyllia Tubastrea Herpolitha Micromussa Turbinaria Podabacia Scolymia Polyphillia Symphyllia Hydrozoa Heliopora Sandalolitha Millepora
  3. 3. Fam: Acroporidae
  4. 4. Acropora Colony type Usually branching, bushy or plate like, encrusting, sub massive Corallite type rounded raised, protruding above the coenostium 1-3 mm in diameter. Two types: axial corallites at the tips of branches/growing edges & radial corallites around the branches/main body. Description Distinctive branching growth forms, mostly brown but many other colours but with white/pale growing tips. Septa-costae Septa in two cycles Other remarks Tentacles are extended usually at night, corallite wall and the coenostium are porous, axial corallites are larger 1) humilis; 2)retusa; 3) secale, 4) gemmifera; 5) clathrata; 6) muricata; 7) cytherea 1 2 3 4 5 7 Family Acroporidae; flower, staghorn coral 6
  5. 5. Astreopora Colony type Massive, plating, encrusting Corallite type Mostly conical but can be immersed Description Coenostium has granular appearance, from teeth on septo-costae. Depending on their size it appears smooth, spinous or flaky Septa-costae Short numerous neatly spaced septa Other remarks Columella is conspicuous and compact Similar species Turbinaria - coenostium plain, no elaborations 1) myriophthalma; 2) listeri; 3) randalli, 4) expansa; 5) ocellata; 6) suggesta 1 2 3 4 5 6 Family Acroporidae; star flower coral
  6. 6. Montipora Colony type Submassive, laminar, encrusting or branching Corallite type Corallites are small, less than 1mm, pore like, sometimes not visible underwater General Columella absent, corallite walls & coenostium are porous & may be highly elaborate with projections (papillae, tuberculae, ridges), or depressions in which the corallites sit. One species may have multiple growth forms. Septa-costae Septa in 2 cycles with inward projecting teeth Other remarks Calice is pore-like immersed; tentacles are usually extended at night Similar species Porites - corallite filled with internal structures, coenostium without elaborated structures 1) aequituberculata; 2) floweri?; 3) tuberculosa, 4) foveolata; 5) nodosa; 6) spongodes 1 2 3 4 5 6 Family Acroporidae; pore, velvet coral
  7. 7. Fam: Pocilloporidae
  8. 8. 1 Pocillopora Colony type Branching, becoming submassive in high energy environments Corallite type small, flush, immersed, pore like Description Branches fine to robust and flattened, covered with distinctive verrucae, immersed corallites, coenostium covered with granules Septa-costae Two unequal cycles of septa Colour Cream, brown, pink & purple Other remarks Tentacles are extended during the day and night 1) damicornis; 2) elegans; 3) meandrina, 4) verrucosa; 5) eydouxi; 6) indiania; 7) ligulata; 8) verrucosa in high energy environment; 9) Pocillopora- dominated habitat 2 3 4 5 6 Family Pocilloporidae; cauliflower coral 9 8 7
  9. 9. 1 Seriatopora Colony type Compact bushes Corallite type Arranged in neat rows along the branches Description Bushy, thin and tapering branches with pointed or rounded tips, corallites-neat rows along the branches, a rim of tall spines around the calice Septa-costae 1-2 cycles of septa (six) fused to the columella Colour Light yellow, tan or green Other remarks Coenostium-covered with fine spines. Easily confused with fine Stylophora 1) hystrix; 2) guttatus; 3) dendritica, 4) caliendrum; 5) galls, made by symbiotic crab 2 3 4 5 Family Pocilloporidae; bush/bird’s nest coral
  10. 10. 1 Stylophora Colony type Branching or encursting Corallite type Vary in structure according to the position, with a prominent hood Description Branches thin except for pistillata, with rounded or blunt tips, corallites-hooded on distal part of branches Septa-costae 1st cycle meet the collumela Colour pale colours - yellow, green or tan Other remarks Tentacles usually extended at night 1) pistillata; 2) corallite hoods; 3) pistillata, alternate forms, 4) subseriata; 5) madagaskariensis; 6) mamilata; 7) wellsi; 8) kuehlmani 2 3 4 5 6 Family Pocilloporidae; hood/finger coral 8 7
  11. 11. Fam: Faviidae
  12. 12. Cyphastrea Colony type Massive or encrusting Corallite type Plocoid Description Rounded calices, less than 3mm diameter in diameter, small cone shaped corallites, coenostium granulated, small space between corallites Septa-costae Costae, restricted to corallite wall Colour Tan, brown with white highlights Other remarks Tentacles are extended at night 1) serailia, 2) chalcidium, 3) microphthalma Family Faviidae 1 2 3
  13. 13. Diploastrea Colony type Dome shaped, can be very large Corallite type Plocoid/conical ,10-20mm diameter Description Dense colony & corallites, large cones with small opening, strongly lined costae, tentacles are extended at night Septa-costae Septa-equal, costae-very prominent, walls pores Colour Brown Similar species Monospecific Monospecific - D. heliopora Family Faviidae; double star coral
  14. 14. Echinopora Colony type Encrusting, sub massive or plating Corallite type Plocoid, up to 10mm and elevated, though differs among species Description Coenosteum with short spines, corallites uniform shape, height and scattering Septa-costae Irregular, costae restricted to the corallite wall, with spines Colour Brown, with white growing edges Other remarks Usually prominent columella, tentacles extend at night, Similar species Echinophyllia - corallites larger with spines in rows on coenosteum. 1) hirsutissima; 2) lamellosa; 3) gemmifera, 4) robusta; 5) forskaliana; 6) tiranensis 1 2 4 5 3 6 Family Faviidae
  15. 15. Favia Colony type Massive, flat or dome shaped Corallite type Plocoid corallites, mostly monocentric, inratentacular budding Description Corallites approximately equal in size, and vary from highly plocoid to almost-cerioid and from circular to irregular Septa-costae Extend to the coenosteum Colour Variable, multicoloured openings with different stomodium Other remarks Tentacles are extended at night and have pigmented tips, Similar species Montastrea – extratentacular budding, corallites are squeezed into irregular shapes 1) favus/danai; 2 speciosa, 3) lizardensis; 4) ) helianthoides; 5) vietnamensis; 6) mathai; 7) stelligera 1 2 4 5 3 6 Family Faviidae; knob/moonstone coral 7
  16. 16. Favites Colony type Massive, submassive, flat, dome shaped and some with pillars/columns Corallite type Cerioid, monocentric; calices oblong or polygonal Description Paliform lobes absent, septa straight or rounded into center forming funnel shape; corallites in different sizes Colour Variable Other remarks Tentacles are extended at night, paliform lobes absent or seldom developed Similar species Goniastrea - with exsert paliform lobes and regular pattern of calices and septa with fine teeth, neat appearance Platygyra - more ragged septa, meandroid 1) pentagona; 2) flexuosa; 3) abdita, 4) complanata; 5) rus; 6) acuticolis; 7) stylifera; 8) halicora; 9) vasta; 10) paraflexuosa 1 2 4 5 3 6 Family Faviidae 10 98 7
  17. 17. Goniastrea Colony type Massive, sub-massive, plates, encrusting Corallite type Cerioid, monocentric to short meandroid (one species is fully meandroid), mouths very distinct Description Paliform lobes prominent, angular and regular tightly packed corallites, calices are 4-8 mm diameter Septa-costae Septa smooth and very regularly/neatly arranged, drop abruptly into the calice Colour Variable Other remarks Tentacles extended at night, columella is spongy, well developed and form clear centres in meandroid colonies Similar species Platygyra - weakly developed paliform lobes, columella centres are seldom distinguishable, septa less regular Favites - almost never meandroid, septa less regular 1) retiformis; 2) peresi; 3) pectinata; 4) ) favulus; 5) edwardsi; 6) deformis 1 2 4 5 3 6 Family Faviidae; lesser star coral
  18. 18. 1 Leptastrea Colony type Massive, flat or dome shaped Corallite type Ceroid to subplocoid or clustered plocoid Description Corallites raised unevenly from the coenostium, shallow grove between corallites and septa do not extend across the grove, extratentacular budding, tentacles are extended at night Septa-costae Costae - poorly developed or absent septa-do not cross the grove and have inward projecting teeth Colour Variable, blue or tan, often green stomodeums Similar species Cyphastrea - plocoid, spread corallites, granulated coenostium 1) purpurea; 2) pruinosa; 3) bottae; 4) transversa 2 3 4 Family Faviidae; crust coral
  19. 19. Platygyra Colony type Massive, dome shaped or flat Corallite type Meandroid or cerioid, calices 3-6mm in diameter Description Spongy, poorly defined & meandroid columella, paliform lobes are not developed, valleys can be straight, angular or contorted,, Colour Brown or variable, often green mouths Other remarks Tentacles are extended at night, Similar species Goniastrea - well-developed paliform lobes and columella centers Favites - always monocentric, corallites angular Leptoria - much finer, neater, more meandroid, wall/valleys more uniform/y spaced septa 1) daedelea; 2) ryukyusensis; 3) lamellina; 4) sinensis; 5) acuta; 6) pini; 7) verweyi 1 2 4 5 3 6 Family Faviidae; brain coral 7
  20. 20. Plesiastrea Colony type Massive rounded or flattened Corallite type Plocoid (small rounded), crowded but evenly rounded Description Neat, small regular packed rounded corallites, well developed even septa and paliform lobes Septa-costae Costae prominent, non continuous Colour Tan or green in colour Other remarks Calices less than 3mm, tentacles extended day and night in different species Similar species most like Montastrea which are larger. Cyphastrea - plocoid, spreaded corallites, granulated coenostium, 1) devantieri; 2) versipora 1 2 Family Faviidae; small knob coral
  21. 21. Fam: Agariciidae
  22. 22. Gardineroseris Colony type Massive,sometimes encrusting with laminar margins Corallite type Corallites immersed with indistinct walls in deep excavations with very acute ridges Description Corallites or group of corallites immersed with indistinct walls in deep excavations with very acute ridges Septa-costae Very fine and even Other remarks Extratentacular budding in calice corners, columella present, tentacles are extended at night. G. planulata; monospecific genus 1 2 5 4 Family Agariciidae; elephant skin coral
  23. 23. Leptoseris Colony type Laminar or encrusting sheets and unifacial, delicate, contorted and subdivided fronds, Corallite type Small (6mm) shallow depressions, poorly defined walls Description Often with whitish edges, frequently have central corallite, septo-costae thin, curved and longer than 1cm Septa-costae Thin, in clear alternating series, granulated/rougher than Pavona Columella Central, usually separated by ridges, interconnected by septo-costae Other remarks Circum-oral budding followed by marginal budding, tentacles estended at night. Most common on deeper slopes 1) hawaiiensis; 2) exaplanata; 3) mycetoseroides, 4) incrustans; 5) foliosa; 6) solida; 7) scabra; 8) yabei 1 2 3 4 65 Family Agariciidae; porcelain, lettuce coral 7 8
  24. 24. Pavona Colony type Massive, columnar, fronds, laminar or encrusting. May be contorted. Corallite type Walls poorly developed or absent, centers in small shallow depression, small (<3mm) Septa-costae Corallites connectd by uninterrupted septo-costae giving distinct star-patternin absence of walls. Other remarks Weak central columella, tentacles extended only at night except for P. explanulata Similar species Leptoseris has finer septo-costae in two distinct cycles, more laminar, colonies are unifacial 1) cactus; 2) decussata; 3) frondifera, 4) danai; 5) clavus; 6) duerdeni; 7) explanulata; 8) varians; 9) venosa; 10) minuta; 11) maldivensis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family Agariciidae; leaf, cactus coral 11 10 9 8
  25. 25. Pachyseris Colony type Laminar & unifacial to branched & bifacial, and encrusting Corallite type Centres are not discernible, <1mm, aligned in valleys, Description Surface is a concentric ridges parallel to the margins, from highly ordered/parallel to contorted. Septa-costae Fine, even and tightly compacted Other remarks Very distinctive, most abundant in deeper, turbid sheltered locations. Similar species Pavona - septo-costae are thicker, shorter and straighter 1/2) speciosa; 3/4) rugosa; 5) turbid habitat 1 2 5 3 4 Family Agariciidae; elephant skin coral
  26. 26. Fam: Merulinidae
  27. 27. Hydnophora Colony type Massive, encrusting or branching Corallite type Wall absent Description Monticules or hydnophores present, between the corallites, with short tentacles around the base of each monticule Other remarks Tentacles extended during the day and night 1) exesa; 2) microconos; 3) pilosa, 4) rigida 1 2 3 4 Family Merulinidae; Exclamation coral
  28. 28. Merulina Colony type Laminar, with short vertical projections Corallite type Corallites are in a row, down valleys Description Valleys are short and straight spreading in a fan and then dividing, valleys are pink/pale; walls are pale yellow or vice-versa, bifacial fronds Other remarks Columella is trabecular, fused into a continuous mass. Similar species Scapophyllia - parallel valleys, not extending M. ampliata Family Merulinidae; cabbage, crust coral
  29. 29. Fungiidae
  30. 30. Fungia 1) concinna; 2) granulosa; 3) fungites, 4) repanda; 5) fungites (detail); 6) danai (detail); 7) seychellensis; 8) paumotensis; 9) habitat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family Fungiidae; mushroom coral 9 8 Colony type Free living, discoid or elongate Corallite type Solitary, (free living except for juveniles) Description Large-sized adults Septa-costae Septa-teeth, not lobed, costae-rows of spines Colour Tan, brown, with purple or green highlights Other remarks Tentacles are extended during the day, short, tapering & spaced tentacles Similar species Cycloseris - aboral side smooth, smaller Heliofungia - septa with lobed teeth, longer tentacles
  31. 31. 3 Cycloseris Colony type Colonial, elongate, free living Description Elongate, often bent, prominent axial furrow. Mouths occur inside the furrow. In limax, secondary mouthsparallel to the axis, Septa-costae Septa-lack prominent teeth, radiate from axial furrow, large Colour Tan Other remarks Tentacles are extended during the night Similar species Ctenactis - single individual sometimes with several mouths, prominent teeth 1) xx; 2) xx; 3) explanulata; 4) wellsi 1 2 Family Fungiidae; mushroom corals 4
  32. 32. Herpolitha Colony type Colonial, elongate, free living Description Elongate, often bent, prominent axial furrow. Mouths occur inside the furrow. In limax, secondary mouthsparallel to the axis, Septa-costae Septa-lack prominent teeth, radiate from axial furrow, large Colour Tan Other remarks Tentacles are extended during the night Similar species Ctenactis - single individual sometimes with several mouths, prominent teeth 1) limax; 2) weberi 2 Family Fungiidae; mushroom corals 1
  33. 33. Fam: Coscinaraeidae
  34. 34. Anomastrea Colony type submassive in small golf-balls, to encrusting Corallite type Submeandroid to cerioid Description Walls are thin and septa have irregularly fused margins. Septa are widely spaced and uniform, giving the colony surface a neat appearance. Tentacles are usually at least partly extended during the day Septa-costae Widely spaced and uniform, Colour cream to brown, may be bluish-grey. Habitat shallow reef flats Similar species Coeloseris mayeri Monospecific - Anomastrea irregularis Family Coscinaraeidae; false pillow coral Distribution: Western Indian Ocean endemic. Known only from East African mainland and Madagascar
  35. 35. 3 5 Coscinaraea Colony type Massive, columnar, encrusting or laminar, Corallite type Cerioid to meandroid, corallites in short valleys or irregularly scattered, Septa-costae Septo-costae fused in a distinctive manner, finely serrated to heavily granulated margins Other remarks Group of pinnules, intratentacular, septa perforated and granulated, mostly fusing towards the papillose columella 1) monile; 2) exesa; 3) crassa, 4) sp. nov.; 5) columna 1 2 4 Family Coscinaraeidae; wrinkle coral
  36. 36. Craterastrea Colony type Corallite type Septa-costae Colour Similar species Monospecific – Craterastrea levis Family Coscinaraeidae Distribution: Western Indian Ocean endemic. Known only from East African mainland and Madagascar
  37. 37. Horastrea Colony type Massive/hemispherical Corallite type Large and plocoid to meandroid with several centres Septa-costae Septa in three orders, costae well developed Colour Pale brown with blue-grey oral discs Habitat high-sediment environments, often in sand/rubble at base of reefs Similar species General appearance is Favia like but too messy, skeletal structures are closest to Siderastrea Monospecific - Horastrea indica Family Coscinaraeidae Distribution: Western Indian Ocean endemic. Known only from East African mainland and Madagascar
  38. 38. Fam: Siderastreidae
  39. 39. Psammocora 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family Siderastreidae; Exclamation coral Colony type Mostly encrusting; also submassive, columnar, laminar Corallite type Corallites small, shallow, sometimes forming short valleys Septa-costae Complex granulated septo-costae - primary septo-costae embedded in secondary ones, forming intricate patterns. Colour Light brown Other remarks Columella consists of a group of pinnules, intra-tentacular marginal budding, tentacles are extended during the day and night Similar genera Coscinaraea –large corallites with large calices 1) haimeana; 2) profundacella; 3) obtusangula, 4); 5) stellulata; 6) nierstrazi (detail); 7) niestrazi
  40. 40. Pseudosiderastr ea Colony type Encrusting to dome shaped, up to 160mm Corallite type Cerioid, polygonal, 3-6mm, walls variable from thick to fine Septa-costae Septa evenly spaced & fused towards the center, in fanlike groups, fine saw like teeth Columella 1-4 pinnules Calice 3-6mm across Monospecific - Pseudosiderastrea tayami 1 2 3 4 Family Siderastreidae; false pillow coral
  41. 41. Siderastrea Colony type Mostly encrusting; also submassive, columnar, laminar Corallite type Corallites small, shallow, sometimes forming short valleys Septa-costae Complex granulated septo-costae - primary septo-costae embedded in secondary ones, forming intricate patterns. Colour Light brown Other remarks Columella consists of a group of pinnules, intra-tentacular marginal budding, tentacles are extended during the day and night Similar genera Coscinaraea –large corallites with large calices 1) haimeana; 2) profundacella; 3) obtusangula, 4) explanulata; 5) stellulata; 6) nierstrazi (detail); 7) niestrazi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Family ; common name
  42. 42. Fam: Mussidae
  43. 43. Acanthastrea Colony type Massive encrusting or usually flat Corallite type Cerioid to subplocoid, monocentric Description Massive, encrusting, usually flat, cerioid or subplocoid, tall teeth, monocentric, thicky fleshy blistery tissue over the skeleton Septa-costae Septa thickened at the corallite wall, tall teeth Other remarks Tentacles extended at night 1) echinata; 2) hemprichii; 3) brevis, 4) ishigakiensis; 5) faviaformis; 6) regularis; 7) rotundata; 8) subechinata 2 3 4 5 6 Family Mussidae; starry cup coral 8 7 1
  44. 44. 1 Lobophyllia Colony type Flat topped or dome shaped Corallite type Phaceloid to flabello meandroid Description Phaceloid to flabello meandroid, fleshy meandering ridges make lobes, calices 3-5 cm wide, septa large with long teeth & thickened near the wall, corallites bumpy appearance large and deep Septa-costae Septa thickened near the wall, large with long septa Other Tentacles may beextended during the night and usually have white tips Similar species Symphyllia - coarse skeletal structure, meandroid appearance 1) corymbosa; 2) hataii; 3) hemprichii; 4) robusta 2 3 4 Family Mussidae; hood/finger coral
  45. 45. Fam: Oculinidae
  46. 46. 1 Galaxea Colony type Massive, encrusting, cushion shaped or irregular Corallite type Plocoid, highly exsert and cylindrical, Description Plocoid, walls have pointed septa, corallites are highly exsert and cylindrical, linked together by smooth solid blistery coenostium Septa-costae Septa exsert, tall sharp points to 1cm above wall Colour Green or brown Other remarks Tentacles are extended during the day, 1) astreata; 2) fascicularis 2 Family Oculinidae; octopus/galaxy coral
  47. 47. Fam: Pectiniidae
  48. 48. 1 Oxypora Colony type Thin lamellae, always has free foliose margins Corallite type Round or oval, irregular, shallow not strongly inclined on the colony surface Description Thin lamellae, always have free foliaceous margins, calices oval, round, immersed, not strongly inclined, septo- costae run from the calice centres to the perimeter and are almost paralled, coenostium is pitted, surface warty appearance, tentacles are extended at night, calices are 3-8mm in diameter, columella is poorly developed Septa-costae Septo-costae run from the calice centers to the perimeter and are almost parallel Similar species Echinophyllia - has thickened septal structures, fleshier tissue; Echinopora - corallites are compacted/plocoid, septa exert; Mycedium - coenostium without pits, nose shaped corallites 1) lacera; 2) glabra 2 Family Pectiniidae; porous lettuce coral
  49. 49. Echinophyllia Colony type Encrusting or laminar, slightly submassive Corallite type Round or oval, immersed or protuberant, not strongly inclined on the colony surface Description Encrusting or laminar, calices irregular, not strongly inclined on the colony surface, densely packed with spines, coenostium is pitted, some corallites in lines, well developed columella Septa-costae Numerous, with teeth Other remarks Coenostium is pitted at the commencement of septo-costae Similar species Oxypora and Mycedium 1) aspera, 2) patula, 3) orpheensis, 4) echinoporoides, 5) echinata 2 3 Family Pectiniidae; 1 4 5
  50. 50. Fam: Euphyllidae
  51. 51. Ctenella Colony type Flabello-meandroid, phaceloid or flabellate Corallite type With large vesicles Description Flabello meandroid, phaceloid or flabellate, septa large, solid, smooth edged, very exsert, widely spaced Septa-costae Septa large, solid, smooth edged, very exsert, widely spaced, costae-poorly developed Calice Solid walls Other remarks Septal series united laterally by cellular light coenostium; Physogyra is meandroid, small vesicles which readily retract. 1) chagius 1 Family Euphyllidae;
  52. 52. Gyrosmilia Colony type Flabello-meandroid, phaceloid or flabellate Corallite type With large vesicles Description Flabello meandroid, phaceloid or flabellate, septa large, solid, smooth edged, very exsert, widely spaced Septa-costae Septa large, solid, smooth edged, very exsert, widely spaced, costae-poorly developed Calice Solid walls Other remarks Septal series united laterally by cellular light coenostium; Physogyra is meandroid, small vesicles which readily retract. 1) interrupta 1 Family Euphyllidae;
  53. 53. Plerogyra Colony type Flabello-meandroid, phaceloid or flabellate Corallite type With large vesicles Description Flabello meandroid, phaceloid or flabellate, septa large, solid, smooth edged, very exsert, widely spaced Septa-costae Septa large, solid, smooth edged, very exsert, widely spaced, costae-poorly developed Calice Solid walls Other remarks Septal series united laterally by cellular light coenostium; Physogyra is meandroid, small vesicles which readily retract. 1) sinuosa 2 3 Family Euphyllidae; bubble coral
  54. 54. Fam: Poritidae
  55. 55. Porites Colony type Massive, spherical or hemisphere when small, helmet or dome shaped when large Corallite type Cerioid Description Flat, laminar, encrusting, massive or branching, small corallites filled with septa, 4-12 small pillars form paliform lobes, appear as small eyes in live coral, smooth appearance Septa-costae Colour Other remarks Calices are smaller than 2 mm, tentacles are extended at night Similar species Montipora - different in growth forms, in completed smaller corallites, elaborated papillae & tubercles on surface, lack of radiating septa. Various species. Massive/encrusting and branching growth forms Family Poritidae; hump coral
  56. 56. Fam: Dendrophylliidae
  57. 57. 1 Turbinaria Colony type laminae, frequently contorted, submassive/columnar Corallite type Plocoid with extensive coenosteum Description Submassive, columnar or usually laminar, laminae frequently contorted, corallites round, immersed to tubular; corallites have pores walls with the same structure as the surrounding coenostium, septa short and neat, regular Septa-costae Septa short and neat, regular Other remarks Broad compact and spongy columella, tentacles are extended during the night (except for T. peltata) 1) reniformis; 2) stellulata; 3) frondens; 4) mesenterina; 5) peltata; 6) irregularis 2 3 4 5 6 Family Dendrophyllidae; disk/cup coral

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