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Indisputable laws of leadership: A Courageous Conversation

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A Courageous Conversation- The Effects of Leadership and School Environment on Student Achievement. Research on leadership and school performance. 10 things top tier schools do. The role of the principal as leader in achievement.

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Indisputable laws of leadership: A Courageous Conversation

  1. 1. A COURAGEOUS CONVERSATION THE EFFECTS OF LEADERSHIP AND SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Keystone Oaks School District July 28, 2011 David O. Saenz, PhD, EdM, LLC Clinical and Consulting Psychologist (412) 853-2000 dosaenz@psych-consulting.com www.psych-consulting.com
  2. 2. How education has changed…..
  3. 3. Participants will learn: 1) What 35 years of research shows about leadership and student achievement 2) 10 things Top Tier Schools do 3) What Redefining failure means 4) Re-Defining the role of Principal as Leader– what top tier principals do
  4. 4. Life’s 10/90 rules • Health Rule: 90% of your health is based on 10% of your lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, positive emotionality) • Selling Rule: 80-90% of all sales are completed by 10- 20% of the salespeople. • Carp Rule: People carp 90% of the time over things that happen 10% of the time • Money Rule: <10% of the people own 90% of the world’s wealth
  5. 5. Factors Accounting for Variance in Student Achievement 7% 13% 80% Student factors School Teacher (Sanders and Horn,1994; Marzano, 2003; Miller, 2003; Waters, Marzano, McNulty, 2002)
  6. 6. Most vs. Least Effective School & Teacher Outcomes • A student scoring @ 50th percentile will score @ 50th percentile after 2 years in an average school with an average teacher. (Marzano et al, 2003).
  7. 7. Factors Accounting for Variance in Student Achievement 7% 13% 80% Student factors School Teacher (Sanders and Horn,1994; Marzano, 2003; Miller, 2003; Waters, Marzano, McNulty, 2002)
  8. 8. 2 years in a “least effective” school with a “least effective” teacher, that student’s achievement level plunges to the 30th percentile (Marzano et al, 2003). Most vs. Least Effective School & Correlations with Student Outcomes
  9. 9. Student factors School Teacher Factors Accounting for Variance in Student Achievement: Ineffective School and Ineffective Teacher
  10. 10. 2 years in a “most effective” school with a “most effective” teacher, the student jumps to the 96th achievement percentile. (Marzano et al, 2003). Most vs. Least Effective School & Teacher Outcomes
  11. 11. Student factors School Teacher Factors Accounting for Variance in Student Achievement: Highly Effective School and Effective Teacher
  12. 12. The principal’s effectiveness is bilateral– it can affect student achievement in both directions.
  13. 13. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Start of year Ineffective School & Teacher Average School & Teacher Effective School & Teacher Ineffective vs. Average vs. HighlyEffective School and Teacher End of Year Outcomes bySchool Type
  14. 14. Glass ½ Full Leadership Things we should know before jumping in the pool
  15. 15. Good is the enemy of great "We don't have great schools, principally because we have good schools. We don't have great government, principally because we have good government. Few people attain great lives, precisely because it is easy to settle for a good life. The vast majority of companies never become great precisely because they become quite good. - and that is their main problem." (Collins, 1994, 2009)
  16. 16. New definition of failure (Seth Godin, HBR, 2010) • If the women’s line is 50 people long at Heinz Field, it’s a failure- it’s a failure of design, of gender relations, and of resources. Because it’s not currently treated as a failure, it doesn’t get addressed. We’re fine with the status quo and no one speaks up. (Seth Godin, HBR, 2010) • If your new laptop arrives 7 days later than promised, it’s a failure. • If the potholes in Pittsburgh don’t get fixed for 10 weeks, it’s failure.
  17. 17. Types of Failure (1-5 ratings) • Failure of design. – If your performance review system doesn’t lead to good to great performance from everyone, is this a design failure in hiring, coaching, training, and/or firing? – If one of the teachers is not performing up to standard 8 months after the start of the year, is this a failure? –If several at risk students struggle in one school and worsen throughout the school year, is this a failure?
  18. 18. • Failure of opportunity. If your assets are poorly deployed, ignored, or decaying-- would this be a failure? – Staff are the #1 asset, if several negative staff in 2 schools, flourish… would this be a failure? –If staff training does not lead to substantive, concrete changes in teaching, is this a failure? –If the district does not get exceptional leadership from it’s principals and superintendent, is this a failure? –List 3-5 failures in assets per school Types of Failure (1-5 ratings)
  19. 19. • Failure of priorities. If we choose to focus on work that doesn’t create real value, is this a failure? – % of time used on nonessential leadership tasks – % of time focused on poor performers (soccer team) • Failure of will. If we prematurely abandon important work or programs because of internal resistance, loss of interest, loss of focus, or lack of backbone and long term thinking, have we failed? – Flavor of the month programs, such as discipline programs/systems and goals List 3-5 school related items in your building connected to failure of priorities and will. Types of Failure (1-5 ratings)
  20. 20. • Failure to quit. If we stick with a mediocre idea, goal, teacher, or committee too long because of lack, vision, initiative or guts, is this a failure? • The most self-referential form of failure is the failure to see when we’re failing due to misplaced determination to continue on, denial, fear of humiliation/shame or habituated lack of interest or focus on the issues. Never waste a good failure! List 3-5 school related items in your building connected to each idea above Types of Failure (1-5 ratings)
  21. 21. The challenge…. • Of the issues that face the district as a whole, which 5 manageable ones interfere most with improving student achievement (e.g., staff morale, looming district decisions, leadership behaviors) • Of the many unused possibilities that stand before KOSD, which 3-5 manageable ones afford the greatest opportunity for improving student achievement across the board? • Of the many successes at KOSD, which 10 are you most proud of? • How are successes celebrated at KOSD?
  22. 22. Excellent leadership is like kissing In the pursuit of a relationship, we don’t stop at the first kiss……………. Excellent leadership is a consistent, sustained effort over several years.
  23. 23. #1. 1-2 key stakeholder meetings per week. Brief problem solving agenda that uses data and PLC strategies (Pareto Analysis, Cause- Effect diagram, Root Cause Analysis, accountability note system) 10 Interrelated Actions of Top Tier Schools
  24. 24. #2. Leadership is focused on student achievement and isn’t sidetracked by noise (clique behavior, favoritism, gossip, own agenda, routine decisions) . Leader isolates KRA’s from noise with ease. #3. There is sustained follow through on decisions– a strong commitment to sustained reform. #4. Leadership is distributed and decen- tralized. Principal akin to jazz conductor. 10 Interrelated Actions of Top Tier Schools
  25. 25. #5. Excellent quality and quantity PD. #6. Critical information is quickly, easily, and openly shared. Information ≠ power. #7. High demand of teachers matched by high support. 1/1 levels. 10 Interrelated Actions of Top Tier Schools
  26. 26. #8. High expectations of staff and students. Expectations are clearly laid out and unequivocally stressed at every meeting. Data collection and conversations return to such expectations. #9. A collaborative relationship with staff. Decisions that affect staff are typically made with genuine staff involvement and buy-in. #10. A single minded focus on both academics and an orderly, safe, and studious school environment. High Structure and routine in classrooms & common areas. A clear articulation, daily, hourly, of this focus. 10 Interrelated Actions of Top Tier Schools
  27. 27. 13 things I hated as a CEO (the underbelly of leading) When Noah heard the weather forecast, he said “Quick, build an ark!" That's Leadership. When he got on the ark, he said "Don't let the elephants see what the rabbits are doing!" That's Management!
  28. 28. 13 things I hated as an Administrator 1) Managing – Painting a picture and leading is 10X more interesting than executing. Stressing over the details is much tougher than actually making things work. 2) Correcting – I’d rather be liked and popular than to correct and redirect staff. I’d rather attend after work parties/ make friends, be a part of the psychic friends network, than have to confront poor performance. 3) Waiting – Patience was always in short supply. I was the leader and therefore what I wanted should occur on the spot. But I learned that immediate info and commitment was generally unreliable. 4) Submitting – I was the boss, and therefore knew more - so things should be done my way. 5) Failing – I thrived on success and abhorred a challenged idea and not being able to sell it.
  29. 29. 6) Feedback: Getting honest, real time feedback on my shortcomings and failures. 7) Having blinders: Failing to know or recognize when my time was up (or staying long after the passion was gone). Some leaders are only there for a season: Some leaders get things started… Some leaders guide the organization through transition… Some leaders only handle the tough times… Some leaders help organizations start again… Some leaders close things out graciously…. 13 things I hated as a CEO (the underbelly of leading)
  30. 30. 8) Having to set a high bar- staff will seldom ever outperform the bar the leader sets (work ethic, character, vision, accomplishing goals and objectives…) 9) Looking for fresh ideas or cultivating a spirit of change and growth. I’d much rather maintain and cruise than retool my vision and goals. 10) Look at my own performance, alone, in the dark. 13 things I hated as a CEO (the underbelly of leading)
  31. 31. 11) Take Responsibility - Leadership meant I couldn’t duck out when things didn’t pan out. The essence of leadership is the willingness to make the tough decisions. Being lonely was a way of life, and I had to accept that (this is why presidents have dogs). 12) Deal in realities. Deal in truth. Save yourself the agony of conjecture and half truths. Live the serenity prayer. 13) Taking risks- A preference for living within my comfort zone and waiting quietly to getting on the wire and balancing the need for continued improvements and still stay on a plateau. Doing nothing b/c I wanted to wait until what I did was so well done that no one could find fault with it. 13 things I hated as a CEO (the underbelly of leading)
  32. 32. • What are the top 5 relevant things you dodge b/c it’s uncomfortable? 13 things I hated as a CEO (the underbelly of leading)
  33. 33. THE FUTURE… Is not ahead of us, it’s already happened! Unfortunately it’s unequally distributed…
  34. 34. Outcomes at Iredell-Statesville Schools (K-12, NC; 21,000 students) • Cohort graduation rates (the percentage of ninth-grade students who graduate from high school four years later) increased steadily from 64 percent in 2002-2003 to 80.7 percent in 2007-2008. • At 96.03 % attendance rate (ranking third out of 115 comparison school districts in 2006- 2007). • Teacher turnover rate below the state average
  35. 35. • Achieved 94 percent of its Adequate Yearly Progress goals • The End-of-Grade (EOG) Reading Composite improved from 75 percent of students proficient in 2000-2001to 90.6 percent proficiency in 2006-2007. • Also, I-SS closed the EOG reading proficiency gap between African-American children and all students from 23 percent to 12.3 percent. Outcomes at Iredell-Statesville
  36. 36. • The lowest dropout rate (3.5 percent) for students in grades 9-12 in its history • Class size in core subject areas decreased from 21.8 students in 2001-2002 to 18.6 in 2007-2008 • SAT scores rose from 991 (2002-2003) to 1056 (2007-2008) with the state rank rising from 57th (out of 115 school districts) in 2003 to 7th in 2008. Outcomes at Iredell-Statesville Schools
  37. 37. • I-SS uses its Model to Raise Achievement and Close Gaps (RACG). In the classroom, five key learning questions form the basis for action by focusing discussion and analysis on what students should know and be able to do: –(1) What does this student need to know? –(2) How will he/she learn it? –(3) How will we know he/she has learned it? –(4) What will we do if he/she has not learned it? –(5) What will we do if he/she already knows it? Some things Iredell-Statesville did
  38. 38. The challenge… • What would a truly high performing school environment look like, sound like, feel like? • What would a truly high performing classroom look like, sound like, feel like?
  39. 39. • So, what would it take to make this happen? – What 4-6 decisions could be made today to take KOSD in that direction? – What would the outcomes be for each step? – Who would spearhead each effort? The challenge…
  40. 40. A meta-analysis of 30 years of research on the relationship between school leadership and student achievement (Waters, Marzano & McNulty, 2003) 10 (out of 21) factors that most affect the relationship: – Culture- fosters a shared belief and sense of community and cooperation – Order- sets standard operating procedures and routines (strong school structure, clear and unequivocal expectations, consistent pos/neg feedback) – Teacher input- involves teachers in the design and implementation of critical decisions and policies – Affirmation– recognizes and celebrates school accomplishments and acknowledges failures/setbacks/ problems – Outreach- is a strong and supportive spokesperson and advocate for the school to all stakeholders
  41. 41. The research on the relationship between school leadership and student achievement • Change agent- is willing to challenge the status quo and acts on this willingness • Ideals & beliefs (values)- clearly communicates and operates from a strong set of beliefs, ideals and values about education • Monitors, assesses and evaluates- closely monitors the effectiveness of daily teaching and leadership/management practices, and their impact on student learning • Straightforward- is open, honest, forthright. Manages both sides of the spectrum- confronts and challenges and rewards acknowledges. • Intellectual stimulation- ensures that faculty and staff are aware of their current theories and practices and makes these a regular aspect of the school’s culture
  42. 42. Why do women live longer than men?
  43. 43. What No One Will Ever Tell You…. But I Will Sooo… why do women live longer than men?....
  44. 44. At the heart of all great leaders is Effective Communication • The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place. George Bernard Shaw • People buy into the leader before they buy into the vision. - John C Maxwell • The art of communication is the language of leadership. James Hume • People only hear about half of what others say to them, understand only half of what they hear, believe only half of what they understand, and remember only half of what they believe. (Univ of Maine)
  45. 45. How communication is received and delivered Body language Tone Words 55% 7% 38%
  46. 46. Research based factors associated with effective leadership • In your heart (not your brain) think of 1-3 people who have most positively influenced your life. – List them and beside each one, note 1-2 things that they did/who they were that resulted in their being a source of power/influence in your life. • Usually it’s a mom, dad, preacher, coach, neighbor… rarely is it your boss
  47. 47. #1 reason you picked this person(s) is because they genuinely care about you. If you don’t love people, you’ll never lead them. #2 reason you picked them is because they believed in you #3 reason is because they’re fair… no double standard, no duplicity, no favorites, no glossing over concerns, no holding back on those who don’t perform. Who carries the baton in a relay? #4 reason- they expected excellence and accepted nothing less Research based factors associated with effective leadership
  48. 48. • Established Professional Learning Communities What Iredell-Statesville did
  49. 49. Teacher Perceptions of Effective Principals • According to research on effective leaders (Canales et al, 2008; Blanchard & Johnson, 2001; teachers viewed the following greater effectiveness on their part (and thus better student achievement): – Representation- the leader’s ability to speak and act as the representative of the group. – Demand Reconciliation- the leader’s ability to reconcile conflicting demands and reduce disorder to a system of order, structure and routine. – Tolerance of Uncertainty- the leader’s ability to tolerate un- expected uncertainty and postponement without anxiety or upset
  50. 50. Montgomery
  51. 51. Why is change hard? The elephant and the rider… Brief lessons on change…
  52. 52. The rational mind [rider] is Analytical, reason bound and slow to act
  53. 53. Emotional Mind [elephant] is impulsive and very susceptible to habit
  54. 54. Perched atop the Elephant and holding the reins. The analytical Rider appears to be in control, but the emotional Elephant is powerful and enormous in size relative to the Rider. The analytical Rider's ability to strategize for long- term goals can easily be thwarted by the emotional Elephant's desire for instant gratification
  55. 55. Why is Change so Hard? The Elephant isn't always the bad guy He has strengths as well as weaknesses, as does the Rider. In his capacity for emotion, the Elephant can supply the energy and determination needed to reach a goal. The Rider, on the other hand, despite his analytical ability, can actually slow down progress if he is unable to stop analyzing, reasoning, and examining every detail to reach final decisions.
  56. 56. You have to make dual appeals in order to effect change: "The Rider provides the planning and direction, and the Elephant provides the energy“. 3 underlying principles: 1) What looks like resistance to change is often a lack of clarity 2) Self-control is an exhaustible resource 3) To change behavior, you have to change the situation
  57. 57. Why is Change so Hard? 3-point pattern for change 1) Direct the Rider: Indecision Slows Progress 2) Motivate the Elephant: Let Him Dream Your Dream 3) Shape the Path: Tweak the Environment Define your goals--not just your ultimate goal, but each step--script your critical moves. “Find the feeling" and “Shrink the change“. You can't move the Elephant with facts; you have to generate enthusiasm for the destination. Give the Elephant a series of small goals leading to small successes, and larger goals will seem to shrink. If you are in a setting that is not conducive to your success, your goal becomes that much more elusive
  58. 58. Why is Change so Hard? Because people do not move from inactionableto-dos and projects to well defined, do-able, next actions. Put their power of analysis to work on figuring out how to get to a motivating destination or goal, rather than using analysis to resist the change. SEE-FEEL - CHANGE, but rather ANALYZE-THINK-CHANGE “Attribute people’s behavior to the situation they are in, but rather to the way they are.”
  59. 59. Strategic Change Leadership > Direct the Rider > Motivate the Elephant >Shape the Path Shape the Path, motivate the Elephant, and direct the Rider at the same time, and you are on your way
  60. 60. Correlations between leadership and student achievement • 2 variables that determine whether or not leadership will have a positive or negative effect on student achievement: – Leadership’s ability to correctly identify and focus on those factors that actually improve school-wide and classroom practices for their building/district (and thereby increasing student achievement). I.e.,, Knowing the right thing to do, when to do it, how to do it and why it’s being done… and holding each other accountable. – Does the leader understand the magnitude and “order’ of the types of improvements/changes they want to make? Can they adjust their leadership practices according to the needs of the change process?
  61. 61. Methods for increasing teacher effectiveness; thereby increasing student performance • Implement a coherent, meaningful PD and ensure that teachers are given adequate time, feedback, and supports to put what they have learned into practice. –Ensure that PD is not only relevant/ meaningful, but also presented in a manner that is engaging, inviting and challenging. –Reflects best available research and practice in teaching, learning, and leadership
  62. 62. • Focus on consistency across domains – Consistent feedback
  63. 63. Leadership 900 Course • Good questions expose reality, and they allow teachers to find their own solutions rather than having them rely on the Leader/Manager • Why Leaders don’t ask questions: – The need to appear infallible, competent or omniscient – False view that the leader’s role is to trouble-shoot or solution find – Fear of getting the answer they don’t want to hear Lead by asking questions and not only giving instructions
  64. 64. Leadership 900 Course • Getting hung up on too many targets and measures: In being an administrator in your school, what 3 measures would you base your success on? The success of the school as a whole? • How much time is actively and deliberately devoted to pursuing these measures.
  65. 65. Leadership 900 Course • Lincoln was once asked how much time it took him to write the Gettysburg Address, his response was: “All my life!” • The leader’s job is to create more leaders by fostering acts of leadership throughout the system rather than assuming leadership exists only at the top. • The Leader isn’t always the one at the helm… it‘s the one with influence (being at the helm is positional leadership only, having influence is genuine leadership). • Listening precedes arm-waving and directing.
  66. 66. • T/F: Leaders do strategy and managers do the details? • Convincing the higher ups of the need for change is best done by doing it. Find a common cause/problem/solution, identify fellow freaks who see what you see and work to make the changes you can, then show the higher ups after you’ve seen some success. • Allow only for new mistakes… make it known you only accept new mistakes. Leadership 900 Course
  67. 67. • Great leaders sense what’s emerging, they’re tapping into and being a part of the zeitgeist. They’re a part of things and not external change agents acting upon things. Great leaders ride the waves • McKinsey & Co. asks: What makes for a fantastic work environment? 3 top answers: – It’s open and honest- I trust my boss – I’m stretched and valued- If I’m not there, I know I’ll be missed – Permission is given to take risks by allowing for some decisionmaking Leadership 900 Course
  68. 68. • The school principal "is expected simultaneously to be a servant-leader, an organizational and social architect, an educator, a moral agent, a childadvocate and social worker, a community activist, and a crisis-negotiator-= all while raising students' standardized- test performance" (Blackman and Fenwick 2000).
  69. 69. World Class Principal-ship 1) Take some risks with your teachers: the chef who ate with his customers 2) Practice servant-leadership- mentor a teacher 3) MBWA- “Every minute in your office is a minute lost” (Jack Welch)
  70. 70. 1)The spirit of the Squirrel 2)The way of the beaver 3)The way of the Goose (Blanchard and Sheldon) World Class Principal-ship
  71. 71. What No One Will Ever Tell You…. But I Will So… why do women live longer than men?
  72. 72. Why do women live longer than men?
  73. 73. What No One Will Ever Tell You…. But I Will Sooo… why do women live longer than men?....
  74. 74. Image can change in a second……
  75. 75. All behavior communicates
  76. 76. Discipline Problems in Context It’s too easy to blame the school when the student: – Arrives to school hungry almost every day – Comes from a home where there is domestic violence (Craig in chest for 7 years at Gainesville) – Lives in a home where drugs/alcohol dominate (parent who gives daughter beer from fridge) – Has a father or mother who is incarcerated – Is the victim/survivor of severe emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse (father dips daughter in oil: Child on Cadillac wheelchairs, Nick preferred corrections to home at Gainesville) – Comes from a home where parents show little to no concern or interest in the student or their schooling (parent tells us not to call back again, your problem)
  77. 77. Discipline Problems in Context – Has a an undiagnosed learning disability or severe emotional/ behavioral disorder (ADHD combined, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Mood Disorder, etc.) – Sleeps on the floor (tents in the San Juaquin) – is homeless, sleeps in the back of a car (tents) – lives in foster care (Tyrique and Pythons in the garage) – has been removed from their home and family by CYF/the courts, etc. – The student has lost a parent or family member – Student has learned to wear down the adults in their life
  78. 78. Factors Accounting for Variance in Student Achievement • School-level and teacher-level factors account for approximately 20 percent of the variance in student achievement. – 39 percentage-point difference in student achievement between students with “most effective” and “least effective” teachers. In classrooms headed by teachers characterized as “most effective,” students posted achievement gains of 53 percentage points over the course of one academic year, whereas in classrooms led by “least effective” teachers, student achievement gains averaged 14 percentage points . (Sanders and Horn,1994; Marzano, 2003) • Student characteristics-- home environment, learned intelligence/background knowledge, and motivation — account for 80 percent of the variance in student achievement. (Marzano, 2003; Miller, 2003; Waters, Marzano, McNulty, 2002)
  79. 79. Correlations between leadership and student achievement • r=.50 correlation between leadership and student achievement found in some studies. This translates into 1 Standard Deviation in demonstrated difference and an associated 19% point increase in academic achievement. • Correlations work both ways– 1 SD below can translate into similar declines in student achievement.
  80. 80. Correlations between leadership and student achievement • 2 variables that determine whether or not leadership will have a positive or negative effect on student achievement: – Leadership’s ability to correctly identify and focus on those factors that actually improve school-wide and classroom practices for their building/district (and thereby increasing student achievement). I.e.,, Knowing the right thing to do, when to do it, how to do it and why it’s being done… and holding each other accountable. – Leader understands the magnitude and “order’ of the types of improvements/changes they want to make, and then adjust their leadership practices according to the needs of the change process • Race-ethnicity account for 1-2% of the variance in test scores (ACT). (Noble, 2001; Chambers, 1988; Noble et al., 1992; Noble et al., 1999; Noble and McNabb, 1989)
  81. 81. • Put another way, a student scoring at the 50th percentile who spends two years in an average school, with an average teacher, is likely to continue scoring at the 50th achievement percentile. That same student, having spent two years in a “most effective” school with a “most effective” teacher, rockets to the 96th achievement percentile. The converse also holds: If this same student spends two years in a “least effective” school with a “least effective” teacher, that student’s achievement level plunges to the third percentile (Marzano, 2003).
  82. 82. School Factors and Student Achievement • Alienated teachers vs. effective teachers • More training vs. relevant, meaningful training • Inflexible vs. flexible curriculum • Limited support vs. mentoring, tutoring, social support
  83. 83. Barriers to Communicating • EXPECTATIONS • RISKING • FIXING: • PROJECTS • SCAPEGOATING • AVOIDANCE • SPEAKING IN CODE • PROBING
  84. 84. •Derailing • Name calling or belittling • Being the Reactor • Absolute Statements •Need to be right Barriers to Communicating
  85. 85. Barriers to active listening… • PLACATING • CONFLICT AVOIDANCE (CHAOS) • SILENCE • EXCLUSION • BOUNDARY OR • BARRIER • CONTROL • BLAMING
  86. 86. Barriers to Listening Effectively • Selective Listening • Being a fixer • Using "You" or "We" statements instead of "I" statements • Daydreaming • Automatic Talking
  87. 87. Barriers to Listening Effectively Listening exercise… Principal & LES strategies for working & communicating effectively (planning segment of 5-10 minutes, following discussion of LES roles)
  88. 88. Leadership is like beauty, it’s hard to define….. But we know it when we see it. (Bennis)
  89. 89. The Level 5 leader “The good-to-great executives were all cut from the same cloth. It didn't matter whether the company was consumer or industrial, in crisis or steady state, offered services or products. They: – are self-confident enough to set up their successors for success – are humble and modest – have "unwavering resolve. – display a "workmanlike diligence - more plow horse than show horse – give credit to others for their success and take full responsibility for poor results. They "attribute much of their success to 'good luck' rather than personal greatness.“ (Jim Collins, 2003)

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