SustainableDurableArchitecturalEcocem Green Cement
Learning OutcomesThe learning outcomes from the p           g                   presentation are: Understand what GGBS cem...
History of GGBS1862: Hydraulic potential ofGGBS discovered in GermanyEarly 1900’s - Portland BlastFurnace Cements had anes...
About Ecocem IrelandLong term agreementwith partner companiesforf supplying hi h         l i highquality GBSCan supply the...
GGBS Manufacture Steel Manufacture                    Water to make GBSGrind to make GGBS                          GBS    ...
GGBS ManufactureGGBS cement, and OPC
Ecocem Cement in UseNRA, OPW B d Gái ESB C ill RPA B d N MNRA OPW, Bord Gáis, ESB, Coillte, RPA, Bord Na Mona, Local Autho...
EnvironmentalAdvantages of using GGBS            f
GGBS and the EnvironmentCO2 emissions for Ecocem GGBS and cement production Typical CO2 Emissions for Portland Cement and ...
GGBS and the EnvironmentCO2 emissions for Ecocem GGBS and cement production Typical CO2 Emissions for Portland Cement and ...
GGBS and the EnvironmentCO2 emissions for Ecocem GGBS and cement production Typical CO2 Emissions for Portland Cement and ...
GGBS and the EnvironmentDepletion of naturalresources  For every tonne of Portland  cement produced, 1.6 tonnes  of limest...
GGBS and theEnvironmentE iEnvironmental            lsavings example  What is the impact of  replacing 50% of cement  with ...
Case Study:3-bedsemi detachedhouse
Reduction in Embodied CO2 through the use of GGBS                                      3 bed Semi Detached HouseOriginalEm...
GGBS and the EnvironmentLonger service life from GGBS concrete  Time to replacement extended  Specified by NRA on road bri...
Lighter colour - The Albedo BenefitSolar radiationis fl t d bi reflected by                      This heat cannotlighter c...
Lighter colour - The Heat Island Benefit   Reduce heat island effect   Reduces air conditioning requirement; cost and envi...
Lighter colour – Reflectance Benefit  Reduces outdoor lighting requirements by enhancing  night time visibility  Saving mo...
Properties &Advantages of using GGBS
GGBS Chemical Composition Same constituents as OPC Different proportions • Less CaO • More Si02 • More Al2O3
Mix design using GGBS cement GGBS cement replaces ordinary Portland cement on a one for one one-for-one basis No change in...
GGBS in Concrete Engineering benefits start at 30% Usage varies from 30 up to 85% Most often specified at 50% • Treated sa...
Working with GGBS Concrete Placing, compacting and pumping eas e easier: • lower relative density • smaller particle sizes...
Strength – cement prisms80.070.060.050.0         mm240.0       N/m30.020.020 010.0                                    Days...
Strength – early age development              on a 350mm
Strength – temperature effects1.1 metres in depth                      Foundation Slab: C40/50 @ 70% GGBS                 ...
Strength – long term development         95         85         75         65                               42.5 & 50%     ...
Strength – long term development                        C30/37 concrete, Greystones Marina                              50...
Durability of GGBS Concrete - Chlorides Chloride Penetration   Lower chloride ion diffusivity   L      hl id i diff i it  ...
Durability of GGBS Concrete - Chlorides  Effect of GGBS on chloride diffusion in concrete                                 ...
Durability of GGBS Concrete - Chlorides
Durability of GGBS Concrete - ChloridesBS 6349 – Maritime Structures – Table 22
Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates Sulphate Resistance   Sulphates react with C3A and Ca(OH)2 to form   ettringite   ...
Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates                         Aggressors:                         Sulphates             ...
Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates               0.5              0.45                             Masters           ...
Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates BRE Digest 1   Sulphate resistance
Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates
Durability of GGBS Concrete                         0% GGBS                         30% GGBS                         50% G...
Heat of Hydration GGBS lowers peak and overall heat Reduces thermal stressing Reduces micro-cracking (particularly useful ...
Heat of Hydration - wind farm basesImages courtesy of Wind Farm Civils
Heat of hydration - controlling thermal cracking           temperature differential – 1 metre deep slab summer           B...
Heat of hydration - controlling thermal cracking                          temperature differential – 2.5 metre deep slab  ...
Heat of hydration - controlling thermal cracking  Convention Centre, Dublin - basement
Resistance to Fire
Architectural Qualities and AppearanceGGBS cement, and OPC    GGBS is an off-white powder                        Lighter, ...
Architectural Qualities and AppearanceBridge pier andbridge deck,       deckEnfield bypass                  Bridge deck 10...
Architectural Qualities and Appearance  Cork Civic Offices - 50% GGBS
Architectural Qualities and Appearance                     Cathleen Falls Bridge – 50% GGBS                     2006 ICS, ...
Architectural Qualities and AppearanceSleeping Giant – 70% GGBS    2007 ICS, Design and     Construction Award     C   t t...
Architectural Qualities and AppearanceSean O’Casey Building Dublin – 50% GGBS                                           20...
Architectural Qualities and Appearance     Aviva   Stadium    Dublin40-70% GGBS
Architectural Qualities and AppearanceFather CollinsPark, Dublin70% GGBS
Architectural Qualities and AppearanceCharlestown Retail Centre – 45% GGBS
Architectural Qualities and Appearance                           2009 ICS Design and                                ICS,  ...
Architectural Qualities and Appearance                                                             Image courtesy of RPSMi...
Ecocem in Concrete = Low Carbon Concrete
Carbon Neutral ConcreteThe world’s first Carbon Neutral Building Materiallaunched in 2007 in partnership with the biggestn...
How to specify GGBSCOARSE & FINE AGGREGATES Coarse and fine aggregates shall comply with I.S. EN 12620.CHLORIDE CONTENT Th...
Multiple Benefits Best durability (longer life) •   Factor of safety •   Reduce lifetime maintenance cost Best sustainable...
Thank YouThank you for your attention      y       yShould you have any questions in the future:       y          yqDavid ...
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The Benefits Of Ggbs Cement In Concrete 2011 Engineers & Architects

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Outlining the environmental, technical and architectural benefits of specifying Ecocem cement in concrete

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The Benefits Of Ggbs Cement In Concrete 2011 Engineers & Architects

  1. 1. SustainableDurableArchitecturalEcocem Green Cement
  2. 2. Learning OutcomesThe learning outcomes from the p g presentation are: Understand what GGBS cement is Understand the environmental, technical and architectural reasons why environmentalyou would specify GGBS cement Know how to specify GGBS cement Know the % of GGBS cement to specify for different results/applications Understand the impact of specifying different % of GGBS cement
  3. 3. History of GGBS1862: Hydraulic potential ofGGBS discovered in GermanyEarly 1900’s - Portland BlastFurnace Cements had anestablished place in the concretemarket2004: More than 5,000,000tonnes of GGBS produced inGermany2006: Approximately2,000,000 tonnes of GGBSproduced in UK2008: Over 400,000 tonnesavailable in Ireland
  4. 4. About Ecocem IrelandLong term agreementwith partner companiesforf supplying hi h l i highquality GBSCan supply the Irish pp ymarket withover350,000 tonnesfrom DublinProvide technical backup to specifiers andconcrete manufactures
  5. 5. GGBS Manufacture Steel Manufacture Water to make GBSGrind to make GGBS GBS Store GGBS for distribution
  6. 6. GGBS ManufactureGGBS cement, and OPC
  7. 7. Ecocem Cement in UseNRA, OPW B d Gái ESB C ill RPA B d N MNRA OPW, Bord Gáis, ESB, Coillte, RPA, Bord Na Mona, Local Authorities L lA h ii Engineers, Architects, Developers, Precast, House builders, Farmers
  8. 8. EnvironmentalAdvantages of using GGBS f
  9. 9. GGBS and the EnvironmentCO2 emissions for Ecocem GGBS and cement production Typical CO2 Emissions for Portland Cement and Ecocem GGBS Production yp (Figures in kg per tonne of output) 1000 900 800 Other Energy Used 700 Fossil Fuel Use put 600 kg per Tonne of Outp Process Emissions 500 400 300 200 100 0 CEM I CEM II/A GGBS (without offsets) ( ith t ff t )
  10. 10. GGBS and the EnvironmentCO2 emissions for Ecocem GGBS and cement production Typical CO2 Emissions for Portland Cement and Ecocem GGBS Production yp (Figures in kg per tonne of output) 1000 900 800 Other Energy Used 700 Fossil Fuel Use put 600 kg per Tonne of Outp Process Emissions 500 400 300 200 100 0 CEM I CEM II/A Ecocem GGBS (without E ( ith t offsets)
  11. 11. GGBS and the EnvironmentCO2 emissions for Ecocem GGBS and cement production Typical CO2 Emissions for Portland Cement and Ecocem GGBS Production yp (Figures in kg per tonne of output) 1000 900 800 Other Energy Used 700 Fossil Fuel Use put 600 kg per Tonne of Outp Process Emissions 500 400 300 200 100 0 CEM I CEM II/A Ecocem GGBS (with E ( ith offsets)
  12. 12. GGBS and the EnvironmentDepletion of naturalresources For every tonne of Portland cement produced, 1.6 tonnes of limestone/shale are removed from the landscape GGBS production involves no quarrying of limestone or clay
  13. 13. GGBS and theEnvironmentE iEnvironmental lsavings example What is the impact of replacing 50% of cement with GGBS in an average size shopping centre, using 5,000m 5 000m3 of concrete? See calculator on: www.ecocem.ie
  14. 14. Case Study:3-bedsemi detachedhouse
  15. 15. Reduction in Embodied CO2 through the use of GGBS 3 bed Semi Detached HouseOriginalEmbodied CO2(38.7 tonnes) Reduced Embodied E b di d CO2 (28.4 tonnes)Larger embodied CO2 reductions are possible with increased replacementrates of GGBSref: “Embodied CO2 of housing construction in Ireland” - Architecture Ireland – Jan/Feb 2010
  16. 16. GGBS and the EnvironmentLonger service life from GGBS concrete Time to replacement extended Specified by NRA on road bridges and structural concrete - 120 year design life achieved Reduced demand on natural resources for new concreteExposure to chloride attack:
  17. 17. Lighter colour - The Albedo BenefitSolar radiationis fl t d bi reflected by This heat cannotlighter coloured pass out of thesurfaces earth’s atmosphere through the greenhouse gas layer Every 100m2 of Darker coloured GGBS concrete surfaces absorb pavement in solar radiationIreland will offset and re emit it as 6 tonnes of heat CO2/annum
  18. 18. Lighter colour - The Heat Island Benefit Reduce heat island effect Reduces air conditioning requirement; cost and environmental benefit – studies have shown reductions of more than 20% in building cooling costs whose albedo has been increased (in the US potential saving of $1 billion per year) Health benefit
  19. 19. Lighter colour – Reflectance Benefit Reduces outdoor lighting requirements by enhancing night time visibility Saving money, energy and carbon emissions Approx. 30% less lighting needed to achieve same visibility for concrete as it does for asphalt
  20. 20. Properties &Advantages of using GGBS
  21. 21. GGBS Chemical Composition Same constituents as OPC Different proportions • Less CaO • More Si02 • More Al2O3
  22. 22. Mix design using GGBS cement GGBS cement replaces ordinary Portland cement on a one for one one-for-one basis No change in any other element of the mix design: • sand • aggregates • w/c ratio (can be reduced) • Admixtures Concrete manufacture • Batch duration is the same • Time to transport - may be appropriate to extend it
  23. 23. GGBS in Concrete Engineering benefits start at 30% Usage varies from 30 up to 85% Most often specified at 50% • Treated same as Portland cement concrete No adjustment striking times Placing, compacting and powerfloating Concrete admixtures compatible.
  24. 24. Working with GGBS Concrete Placing, compacting and pumping eas e easier: • lower relative density • smaller particle sizes Powerfloating as normal Setting times longer by 0.5 – 2 hrs g g y Slower rate of bleeding Water demand 3% to 5% lower W t d d t l Compatible with admixtures
  25. 25. Strength – cement prisms80.070.060.050.0 mm240.0 N/m30.020.020 010.0 Days 0.0 00 7 28 90 100/0 Sept 100%OPC/0%GGBS 50/50 Sept 50%OPC/50%GGBS 30/70 Sept 30%OPC/70%GGBS
  26. 26. Strength – early age development on a 350mm
  27. 27. Strength – temperature effects1.1 metres in depth Foundation Slab: C40/50 @ 70% GGBS 50 45 40Strength N/mm2 35 30 25 h 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 Day Age Standard TMC
  28. 28. Strength – long term development 95 85 75 65 42.5 & 50% GGBS N/mm2 55 45 42.5 35 25 15 0 50 100 150 200 Days
  29. 29. Strength – long term development C30/37 concrete, Greystones Marina 50% GGBS: 50% CEM II 45 Core Strength vs time 40 ength Mpa 35Stre 30 25 1 month 6 Months 12 months 18 Months
  30. 30. Durability of GGBS Concrete - Chlorides Chloride Penetration Lower chloride ion diffusivity L hl id i diff i it Lower porosity/permeability Applications: roads and bridges, car parks, sea defences, marine structures.
  31. 31. Durability of GGBS Concrete - Chlorides Effect of GGBS on chloride diffusion in concrete 16 CEM II/A-L 320 kg/m3 14 CEM II/A-V 320 kg/m3 icient 10-12 m2/s / 12 CEM II/A-L 400 kg/m3 10 CEM II/A-V 400 kg/m3 8 iffusion coeffi 6 4 Di 2 0 0% GGBS 50% GGBS 70% GGBS
  32. 32. Durability of GGBS Concrete - Chlorides
  33. 33. Durability of GGBS Concrete - ChloridesBS 6349 – Maritime Structures – Table 22
  34. 34. Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates Sulphate Resistance Sulphates react with C3A and Ca(OH)2 to form ettringite Sulphate Resisting cement (SRPC) has reduced C3A, but no reduced Ca(OH)2, and no reduced porosity SRPC cannot be used in marine environments GGBS much lower price than SRPC Note: In BS8500 the only option recommended as suitable for the most severe sulphate exposure (Class DC- l h (Cl C 4m) is concrete containing at least 66% GGBS Use of Sulphate resistant cement is not permitted
  35. 35. Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates Aggressors: Sulphates S l h t Sodium Sulphate Na2SO4 Magnesium Sulphate MgSO4 Acids Sulphuric Acid H2SO4
  36. 36. Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates 0.5 0.45 Masters 0.4 Study in UCD, Dublin 0.35 sion 0.3% Expans CEM I 0.25 CEMII SRPC 0.2 CEM I + 70% GGBS CEM II + 50% GGBS 0.15 CEM II + 70% GGBS 0.1 01 0.05 0 Days Exposure
  37. 37. Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates BRE Digest 1 Sulphate resistance
  38. 38. Durability of GGBS Concrete - Sulphates
  39. 39. Durability of GGBS Concrete 0% GGBS 30% GGBS 50% GGBS
  40. 40. Heat of Hydration GGBS lowers peak and overall heat Reduces thermal stressing Reduces micro-cracking (particularly useful in water retaining structures, basements, podium slab, bridges, stadiums, secant pile walls etc ) etc.) Optimum substitution level 60 – 85%
  41. 41. Heat of Hydration - wind farm basesImages courtesy of Wind Farm Civils
  42. 42. Heat of hydration - controlling thermal cracking temperature differential – 1 metre deep slab summer Basement slab with 70% GGBS Min Max Difference50454035302520151050 08:15 13:00 17:30 08:15 13:00 17:30 08:15 13:00 17:30 08:15 13:00 17:30 08:15 13:00 17:30 08:15 13:00 17:30 08:15 13:00 17:30 08:15 13:00 17:30 06/09/2007 / / 07/09/2007 / / 08/09/2007 / / 09/09/2007 / / 10/09/2007 / / 11/09/2007 / / 12/09/2007 / / 13/09/2007 / /
  43. 43. Heat of hydration - controlling thermal cracking temperature differential – 2.5 metre deep slab Basement slab with 70% GGBS 70.0 Top Core Bottom 60.0 Differential Top to Core Differential B tt Diff ti l Bottom to Core t C 50.0 40.0 emperature (oC) 30.0Te 20.0 10.0 0.0 0 21 28 33 46 58 70 77 92 99 118 139 164 189 234 Time after placing (hours)
  44. 44. Heat of hydration - controlling thermal cracking Convention Centre, Dublin - basement
  45. 45. Resistance to Fire
  46. 46. Architectural Qualities and AppearanceGGBS cement, and OPC GGBS is an off-white powder Lighter, more even-coloured concrete Smoother, more defect-free , surface Suppresses/Eliminates efflorescence Lower pigment requirements – 20% saving GGBS can b used as partial be d ti l replacement for white cement, up to 70%
  47. 47. Architectural Qualities and AppearanceBridge pier andbridge deck, deckEnfield bypass Bridge deck 100% OPC Bridge pier 50% GGBS
  48. 48. Architectural Qualities and Appearance Cork Civic Offices - 50% GGBS
  49. 49. Architectural Qualities and Appearance Cathleen Falls Bridge – 50% GGBS 2006 ICS, Design and Construction Awards
  50. 50. Architectural Qualities and AppearanceSleeping Giant – 70% GGBS 2007 ICS, Design and Construction Award C t ti A d
  51. 51. Architectural Qualities and AppearanceSean O’Casey Building Dublin – 50% GGBS 2008 ICS ICS, Design and Construction Award
  52. 52. Architectural Qualities and Appearance Aviva Stadium Dublin40-70% GGBS
  53. 53. Architectural Qualities and AppearanceFather CollinsPark, Dublin70% GGBS
  54. 54. Architectural Qualities and AppearanceCharlestown Retail Centre – 45% GGBS
  55. 55. Architectural Qualities and Appearance 2009 ICS Design and ICS, Construction AwardsCable Stay Bridge, Waterford – 50% GGBS
  56. 56. Architectural Qualities and Appearance Image courtesy of RPSMizen Head Bridge – 50% GGBS- replacing first RC bridge constructed in Ireland in 1909
  57. 57. Ecocem in Concrete = Low Carbon Concrete
  58. 58. Carbon Neutral ConcreteThe world’s first Carbon Neutral Building Materiallaunched in 2007 in partnership with the biggestnames i the Irish Construction Industry: in th I i h C t ti I d t Treasury Holdings Pierse Durkan Group McNamara JJ RhatiganDetails on all prestigious projects can be found onwww.carbonneutralconcrete.iewww carbonneutralconcrete ie
  59. 59. How to specify GGBSCOARSE & FINE AGGREGATES Coarse and fine aggregates shall comply with I.S. EN 12620.CHLORIDE CONTENT The total chloride content of the concrete mix for reinforced concreteshall not exceed 0.4% expressed as a percentage of chloride ion by weight of cement.CEMENT Normal Portland cement (CEM I, CEM II/A) shall comply with the requirements of ISEN 197 1 The cement shall be delivered to site in standard bags or in bulk containers and shall 197-1.be stored under dry conditions.CEMENT ADDITIONS Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS) is permitted in I.S. EN206-1 to be used as a Type II addition to CEM I or CEM II/A cements in concrete. Where GGBSis added it replaces the CEM I or CEM II/A cement on a one-for-one basis; the totalcementitous material content of the concrete mix does not change, and the GGBS counts fullytowards the total cement content and water/cement ratio in concrete. GGBS shall comply I.S.EN 15167-1 and be ground to a blaine of > 4000 cm2/g.A cement combination comprising 50% GGBS and 50% CEM I orCEM II/A is to be used in all concrete throughout the Project,unless otherwise specified on the drawings or by the Engineer.
  60. 60. Multiple Benefits Best durability (longer life) • Factor of safety • Reduce lifetime maintenance cost Best sustainable material • Reduces CO2 emissions • Demonstrates commitment to a sustainable agenda • Positive P iti CSR Best Architectural • Whiter, Whiter brighter concrete Best value for money
  61. 61. Thank YouThank you for your attention y yShould you have any questions in the future: y yqDavid O’Flynn; 087 965 4891doflynn@ecocem.ied fl i

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