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Nettles EDU652 Week 1 - Design Concepts for eLearning

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Nettles, D. E. (2014). Design concepts for eLearning. (See attached PowerPoint Slideshow).







This PowerPoint slide show explores the Dynamic Instructional Design model as well as Teaching Sequencing, the Hierarchy of Objectives, and selecting Absorb, Do and Connect activities.

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Nettles EDU652 Week 1 - Design Concepts for eLearning

  1. 1. Design Concepts for Learning Presented by David E. Nettles
  2. 2. 2 OBJECTIVES  Define e-learning and examine varieties  Explain e-learning and instructional design  Discuss design perspectives and influences  Align learning goals and objectives  Examine various teaching sequences  Analyze learning activities
  3. 3. DEFINITION What is E-Learning? There are several definitions for this term, but in a general sense e-learning is… “The use of electronic technologies to create a learning experience.” - William Horton, 2012, p. 1 3Horton, W. (2012). E-learning by design (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons
  4. 4. VARIETIES There are multiple forms of E-Learning. For example: 4 Standalone • Classes taken by an individual learner • Self-paced • No interpersonal interaction Games / Simulations • Perform simulated activities • Learning occurs through exploration / discovery • May incorporate real world or hypothetical situations to build skill Mobile Learning • Learning on-the-go • Aided by mobile devices (smartphones, electronic notepads, etc.) • Classroom environment may be conventional or standalone Social Learning • Learning through interaction • Thought sharing and collaboration using online discussion, blogs, wikis, etc. Virtual-classroom • Online courses using formal structure • Employs traditional learning activities (e.g. reading, presentations) • Format utilizes virtual classroom software (e.g. WebEx) • Standalone course • Games / Simulations • Mobile learning • Social learning • Virtual classroom
  5. 5. Design Development The decision making process (based on both large and small questions) Determines what the material should help the learner to accomplish Governs how decisions will be carried out Selecting, organizing, and specifying learning experiences Construction of the course materials and learning resources CREATING AN EFFECTIVE E-LEARNING PROJECT HAS TWO ELEMENTS 5
  6. 6. “Unless you get instructional design right, technology can only increase the speed and certainty of failure.” - William Horton, 2011 There are many instructional design models such as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL), or the Dynamic Instructional Design (DID) model shown here. DESIGN DYNAMIC INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 1. Know the Learners 2. State Your Objectives 3. Establish the Learning Environment 4. Identify Strategies 5. Select Technologies 6. Make a Summative Evaluation SIX STEP PROCESS: DID Model Graphic from Lever-Duffy, 2011, p. 52
  7. 7. “Good design makes all the difference. Designing e-learning requires more than traditional instructional design.” - William Horton, 2011, p. 66 DESIGN Design must be applied to all units of E-learning… Image from Horton, W. (2011). E-learning by design (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons Understanding these units is critical as each level influences the design technique (e.g. selection of activities, media, etc.).
  8. 8. The things that may have an influence on e-learning design come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Consider these influential variables:  Adult learning principles  Complexity of objectives  Budgetary constraints  The audience  Time DESIGN INFLUENCES 8 For example, when selecting the type of media to best satisfy the overall goal of the lesson, the decision is directly influenced by both the power and complexity of the format. Image from Horton, W. (2011). E-learning by design (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons
  9. 9. 9 Training is most effective when aligned with specific goals. For example, if the company is suffering from low customer satisfaction scores, the goal may be to improve those ratings by X% over a defined period of time. Training efforts aligned with this need help the company perform better, while enhancing necessary employee skill sets (e.g. communication, problem solving, conflict resolution, etc.).
  10. 10. 10 Design begins with a goal in mind. Consider: Employee turnover affects efficiency and profitability. Your organization wants to retain high performing employees as a means to increase productivity.
  11. 11. 11 Design begins with a goal in mind. Consider: Employee turnover affects efficiency and profitability. Your organization wants to retain high performing employees as a means to increase productivity. The company goal is to increase employee retention by 20% by encouraging managers to cross train staff to increase skill and enhance career interest. The problem is the managers do not know how to delegate tasks effectively.
  12. 12. Designing a Delegation Workshop for the management staff that will empower them to develop their team, demonstrates goal alignment. Course objectives act as milestones (e.g. learning to determine what to delegate and to whom), and are intentionally designed to incrementally enhance the manager’s skill to meet the overall goal. 12 IDENTIFY TASKS DETERMINE POTENTIAL TEAM MEMBER TEACH COACH DELEGATE
  13. 13. TEACHING SEQUENCES Hierarchy of Objectives Once the lesson objectives have been identified, the designer must determine the order in which they are to be accomplished. This order establishes the Hierarchy of Objectives. The teaching sequence of these objectives can be established in one of three ways depending on the needs of the learner(s).
  14. 14. TEACHING SEQUENCES Sideways sequencing allows the learners to explore the material independently, and to satisfy any prerequisite information as it is discovered. Horton, W. (2011). E-learning by design (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons Top Down sequencing assumes the learner has the basic concepts, allowing them to review essential information as needed. Bottom Up sequencing allows the learner to obtain fundamental knowledge/skills in order to understand advanced concepts. Hierarchy of Objectives
  15. 15. SELECTING LEARNING ACTIVITIES 15 “Activities are necessary to provoke learning experiences.” - William Horton, 2011, p. 66 To accomplish the established learning objectives, learners typically require three kinds of activities: Learners absorb knowledge by reading, observing, or listening Physical activities that build skill and reinforce the learning objectives Learners connect the learning with real world performance
  16. 16. SELECTING LEARNING ACTIVITIES 16 Learning activities also enhance the learning event by incorporating multiple learning intelligences. Using activities related to interpersonal skills, math and logic, music, language, spatial relations, self-reflection, the natural world, or physical activity substantially increases positive learning outcomes. Well designed activities enhance comprehension, retention, and the ability to build skill.
  17. 17. STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 Reference Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Lever-Duffy, J., & McDonald, J. B. (2011). Dynamic Instructional Design Model Graphic retrieved from Teaching and learning with technology (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education, Inc. Lever-Duffy, J., & McDonald, J. B. (2011). Teaching and learning with technology (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education, Inc. Horton, W. (2011). E-learning by design (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons/Jossey- Bass.

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